UN E-Government Survey in the News

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Glossary

Application Programming Interfaces (API) is a language and message format used by an application program to communicate with the operating system or some other control program such as a database management system or communications protocol.

 

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) is the practice of allowing the employees of an organization to use their own computers, smartphones, or other devices for work purposes.

 

The Chief Data Officer (CDO) is typically a member of the executive management team. CDO’s manage their companies’ enterprise-wide data administration and data mining functions.

 

Chief Information Officer (CIO) is a job title commonly given to the senior executive responsible for the information technology and computer systems that support the government’s goals. As e-Government becomes more influential within the public sector, this role has evolved from being a technologist to a corporate partner in managing government business. Thus, the position is now in charge of providing vision and leadership for developing and implementing information technology initiatives that align with the mission of e-Government. 

 

The Data Protection Act (DPA) controls how your personal information is used by organisations, businesses or the government. Everyone who is responsible for using data has to follow strict rules called ‘data protection principles’. 

 

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and reduce the causal factors of disasters.

 

Freedom of Information (FOI) refers to a citizen's right to access information that is held by the state. In many countries, this freedom is supported as a constitutional right called Freedom of Information Act.

 

Government-to-Government (G2G) refers to sharing data and conducting electronic exchanges between governmental actors. This involves both intra- and inter-agency exchanges at the national level, as well as exchanges between the national, provincial, and local levels.


Government-to-Business (G2B) refers to business-specific transactions (e.g. payments, sale and purchase of goods and services) as well as online provision of business-focused services.


Government-to-Consumer / Citizen (G2C) refers to initiatives designed to facilitate people’s interaction with government as consumers of public services and as citizens. This includes interactions related to the delivery of public services and information, as well as to participation in decision-making processes.


Human Development Index (HDI) is a tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries' levels of social and economic development based on four criteria: Life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita. The HDI makes it possible to track changes in development levels over time and to compare development levels in different countries.

 

Information and Communications Technology (ICT) refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums.

 

Information Technology (IT) is the development, implementation and maintenance of computer and software systems to organize and communicate information electronically.

 

The Least Developed Countries (LDC) represents the poorest and weakest segment of the international community. The identification of LDCs is currently based on three criteria: per capita gross national income (GNI), human assets and economic vulnerability to external shocks. 

A landlocked country is one that is entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastline lies on a closed sea. There are 48 landlocked countries in the world, 31 of which are Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDC).

 

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) form a blueprint agreed to by all the world’s countries and the world’s leading development institutions to achieve eight development targets. This goals range from halving extreme poverty rates to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, all by the target date of 2015.

 

Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level. NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions organized around specific issues.

 

Open Government Data (OGD) can be defined as government information proactively disclosed and made available online for everyone’s access, reuse and redistribution without restriction.

 

Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is a business relationship between a private-sector company and a government agency for the purpose of completing a project that will serve the public. Public-private partnerships can be used to finance, build and/or operate projects.

 

Really Simple Syndication (RSS) is a method by which web content can be easily and quickly distributed when from a web site or web log. This feed automatically sends out a list of headlines, update notices, and sometimes content to a wide number of people.

 

Small Island Developing States (SIDS) is a distinct group of developing countries facing specific social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities. They were initially defined at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (3-14 June 1992). This recognition was made specifically in the context of Agenda 21 (Chapter 17 G).

 

Short Message Service (SMS) is a text messaging service component of phone, Web, or mobile communication systems. It uses standardized communications protocols to allow fixed line or mobile phone devices to exchange short text messages

 

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a secure specification that allows users to access information instantly via handheld wireless devices such as mobile phones, pagers, two-way radios, smartphones and communicators.

 

Whole of Government (WOG) denotes public service agencies working across portfolio boundaries to achieve a shared goal and an integrated government response to particular issues. WoG processes may be broadly and comprehensively applied, or may be highly specific, or targeted.