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“E-”: The “e” stands for “electronic”. When combined with other words referring to a specific something or somebody, it is used to allude to the electronic version, or way of operating, of such something or somebody.

3D: Three-dimensional

4G: Fourth generation wireless technology for digital cellular networks.

5G: Fifth generation wireless technology for digital cellular networks capable of download speeds up to 100 times that of 4G.


Accessibility: In computing accessibility refers to the accessibility of web pages to all users. People with impaired sight, hearing, manual dexterity or cognitive function encounter barriers when they attempt to use the internet.

Accountability: The requirement that officials answer to stakeholders on the disposal of their powers and duties, act on criticisms or requirements made of them and accept responsibility for failure, incompetence or deceit.

Application Programming Interface (API): A medium for different computer programs to interact with each other allowing for the creation of applications that can request and access data and perform functions.

Application Programming Interfaces (API): A language and message format used by an application program to communicate with the operating system or some other control program such as a database management system or communications protocol.

Artificial Intelligence (AI): Is the ability of a computer or a computer-enabled robotic system to process information and produce outcomes in a manner similar to the thought process of human beings in learning, decision-making and problem-solving.

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): A political and economic union of 10 Southeast Asian member states promoting intergovernmental cooperation and facilitating economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration between its members and countries in the Asia-Pacific.

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Bandwidth: A term meaning both the width of a transmission channel in terms of Hertz and the maximum transmission speed in bits per second that it will support the size of a network “pipe” or channel for communications in wired networks. In wireless, it refers to the range of available frequencies that can carry a signal.

Blockchain: A means of recording transactions or data across a decentralised network of computers in a way that makes such data possible to be recorded and distributed but not edited retroactively or removed. It is the technology that supports cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin but has also numerous other applications.

Bluetooth: A low-cost, short-range radio link between laptops, mobile phones, network access points and other devices. Bluetooth can replace cables and can be used to create ad hoc networks and provide a standard way to connect devices anywhere in the world.

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD): The practice of allowing the employees of an organization to use their own computers, smartphones, or other devices for work purposes.

Broadband Digital Network: Broadband Digital Network is a type of data transmission in which a single medium (wire) can carry several channels at once. Cable TV, for example, uses broadband transmission.

Business Continuity: The activity performed by an organization to ensure that critical business functions will be available to customers, suppliers, regulators, and other entities that must have access to those functions. These activities include many daily chores such as project management, system backups, change control, and help desk. Business Continuity is not something implemented at the time of a disaster; Business Continuity refers to those activities performed daily to maintain service, consistency, and recoverability.

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Cable Internet: It is a broadband method that uses the local cable TV line to receive (broadband) Internet content, currently at about 1.5 Mbps. This data rate far exceeds that of the prevalent 28.8 and 56 Kbps telephone modems (suitable for standard PSTN) and the up to 128 Kbps of Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and is about the data rate currently available to subscribers of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) telephone service.

Capacity Building/Development: The process of development that focuses on understanding the obstacles that inhibit individuals, organizations, institutions, and societies from realizing their developmental goals while enhancing the abilities that will allow them to achieve measurable and sustainable results.

Change Management: The process, tools and techniques to manage changes to achieve the required outcome. It incorporates the organizational tools that can be utilized to help individuals make successful personal transitions resulting in the adoption and realization of change.

Chief Data Officer (CDO): Typically a member of the executive management team. CDO’s manage their companies’ enterprise-wide data administration and data mining functions.

Chief Digital (and) Technology Officer (CDTO): Typically a member of the executive management team. CDTO’s oversee the information technology aspects of an organization and manage the development and implementation of new IT tools.

Chief Information Officer (CIO): A job title commonly given to the senior executive responsible for the information technology and computer systems that support the government’s goals. As e-Government becomes more influential within the public sector, this role has evolved from being a technologist to a corporate partner in managing government business. Thus, the position is now in charge of providing vision and leadership for developing and implementing information technology initiatives that align with the mission of e-Government.

Civil Society: A vital component of governance and decentralization, that is supposed to vigilantly hold those in power accountable and to promote democracy.

Cloud Computing: Cloud computing is a style of computing paradigm in which typically real-time scalable resources such as files, data, software, hardware, and third party services can be accessible from a Web browser via the Internet to users.

Commercial Internet Access Point: A Commercial Internet Point is paid access to the Internet either through a physical or wireless via an ISP (internet service provider).

Complex Network Analysis: A branch of Applied Physics that investigates complex systems, consisting of a large number of constituents, by representing the patterns of their mutual interactions through graphs, known as complex networks. A complex network is a collection of objects (nodes), whose mutual relations are modeled as links; the strength of these relations is quantified by assigning a weight to each link.

Computer Virus: A computer program that can load itself and infect a computer without knowledge or permission of the user. Viruses can also replicate themselves. All computer viruses are manmade. A simple virus that can repeatedly copy itself is relatively easy to produce. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because it may quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt. An even more dangerous type of virus is one capable of transmitting itself across networks and bypassing security systems.

Content Management Systems (CMS): In computing, a content management system (CMS) is a system used to organize and facilitate collaborative creation of documents and other content. A CMS is frequently a web application used for managing websites and web content, though in many cases, content management systems require special client software for editing and constructing articles. The market for content management systems remains fragmented, with many open-source and proprietary solutions available.

Cryptography: A specialized mathematical area which deals with methods of protecting information.

Cyber-Crime: Cyber-Crime encompasses any criminal act dealing with computers and networks (e.g., hacking). Additionally, cyber-crime also includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. For example: hate crimes, telemarketing and Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit card account thefts are considered to be cyber-crimes when the illegal activities are committed through the use of a computer and the Internet.

Cybersecurity: The protection of information technology from data theft, corruption, damage, or interruption to the services they provide.

Cyberspace: A virtual or notional environment of electronic communications. The online environment facilitated by the internet is the most popular type of cyberspace.

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Data Protection Act (DPA): Legislation which controls how your personal information is used by organisations, businesses or the government. Everyone who is responsible for using data has to follow strict rules called ‘data protection principles’.

Decentralization: A process through which powers, functions, responsibilities and resources are transferred from central to local governments and/or to other decentralized entities, striking a balance between the claims of the periphery and the demands of the centre.

Digital Divide: Inequality between groups, broadly construed, in terms of access to, use of, or knowledge of information and communication technologies (ICT).

Digital Identity: A digital representation of your unique identity (ID) for use with e-services.

Digital Preservation Standards: The management of digital information over time. Digital Preservation Standards are established requirements for the creation, storage, and destruction practices for records that are born digital.

Digital Signature: A digital signature is a type of asymmetric cryptography used to simulate the security properties of a handwritten signature on paper. Digital signature schemes consist of a key generation algorithm, a signature algorithm, and a verification algorithm. A signature provides authentication of a "message". Messages may be anything, from electronic mail to a contract, or even a message sent in a more complicated cryptographic protocol.

(Hybrid) Digital Society: The integration of digital technology in all levels of society across a wide range of industries and services, including government services. It serves the purpose of improving the lives of its citizens. A hybrid model of the digital society ensures that analog options remain accessible for the purpose of leaving no one behind (LNOB).

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): A family of technologies that provide a digital connection over the copper wires of the local telephone network.

Digital Transformation: The integration of digital technology into all aspects of a government or organisation for the purpose of improving efficiency and providing a better service to the end user.

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR): The concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and reduce the causal factors of disasters.

Domain Name: A name given to a collection of network devices that belong to a domain which is managed according to some common property of the members or within a common administrative boundary. Domain names are used in a variety of contexts for identification, reference, and access to Internet resources. They can appear as components of websites' Uniform Resource Locators (URL, 'web-address'), electronic mail (e-mail) addresses after the customary '@' separator from the user's name, or as any other part of a syntax that describes an access method to a device or service in an IP network.

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E-Commerce: E-Commerce refers to online electronic transactions involving the sale and purchase of physical goods or digital goods (e.g., software, digital films and music, value added information in electronic format).

E-Governance: The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between Government-to-Citizens (G2C), Government-to-Business (G2B),Government-to-Government (G2G) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government frame work.

E-Government: E-government can be referred to as the use and application of information technologies in public administration to streamline and integrate workflows and processes, to effectively manage data and information, enhance public service delivery, as well as expand communication channels for engagement and empowerment of people. No substantial distinction between Digital Government and E-Government can be found.

E-Government: It is the application of ICT within the public administration to optimize its internal and external functions. Also known as e-gov, digital government, online government or in a certain context transformational government, it refers to the use of Internet technology as a platform for exchanging information, providing services and transacting with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. E-Government may be applied by the legislature, judiciary, or administration, in order to improve internal efficiency, the delivery of public services, or processes of democratic governance. The primary delivery models are Government-to-Citizen or Government-to-Customer (G2C), Government-to-Business (G2B), Government-to-Government (G2G) and Government-to- Employees (G2E).

E-Government Champion: A leader that strategically manages an organization’s or a public entity’s e-government programme.

E-Government Policy: A plan of action to guide the implementation of e-government services and solutions.

E-Government Standards and Protocols: A set of guidelines, or established norms or requirements on e-government.

E-Government Strategy: A long term plan of action designed to achieve the implementation of e- government services and solutions.

E-participation: The process of engaging people through ICTs [Information and Communication Technologies] in policy and decision-making in order to make public administration participatory, inclusive, collaborative and deliberative for intrinsic and instrumental ends

E-Participation Index: Assessment on the quality and usefulness of information and services provided by a country for the purpose of engaging its citizens in public policy making through the use of e-government programs.

E-Service: The provision of any services via the Internet. This means that the citizens are offered an additional channel for the access of a service.

Effectiveness: The capacity to realise organisational or individual objectives. Effectiveness requires competence; sensitivity and responsiveness to specific, concrete, human concerns; and the ability to articulate these concerns, formulate goals to address them and develop and implement strategies to realise these goals.

Electronic Records Management Policy: Policy related to the practice of identifying, classifying, archiving, preserving, and destroying electronic records.

Empowerment: A social action process that promotes participation of people, organizations, and communities towards the goals of increase individual and community control, political efficacy, improved quality of community life and social justice.

Encryption: The process of converting information or data into a code, especially to prevent unauthorized access and to protect confidentiality.

Enterprise architecture: An entity-wide framework for incorporating business processes, information flows, applications, and infrastructure to support the entities goals.

Ethernet: The most widely installed local area network technology, allowing several computers to transfer data over a communications cable. The most commonly installed Ethernet systems are called 10BASE-T, providing transmission speeds up to 10 Mbps. Fast Ethernet LANs, 100BASE-T, provide transmission speeds up to 100 Mbps.

Extranet: An intranet that is accessible to computers that are not physically part of a company’s own private network, but that is not accessible to the general public. Precisely, it is a private network that uses the Internet protocol and the public telecommunication system to securely share part of a business's information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other businesses.

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Feature phone: A cellular phone that contains a fixed set of functions beyond voice calling and text messaging, but is not as extensive as a smartphone.

Firewall: A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or through a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially Intranets. All messages entering or leaving the Intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria.

Forward compatibility: Also known as upward compatibility, forward compatibility is a hardware device or software program designed to ensure compatibility with future related product.

Freedom of Information (FOI): FOI refers to a citizen's right to access information that is held by the state. In many countries, this freedom is supported as a constitutional right called Freedom of Information Act.

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GDPR: The General Data Protection Regulation is a regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy in the European Union and the European Economic Area. It is described as the standard for new data protection legislation even outside the European Union.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The gross value of all goods and services produced in a given economy over a period of time.

Gross National Income (GNI): The sum total of all money earned by people and businesses in an economy, including income earned from sources abroad.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS): A computer system that allows one to map, model, query, and analyse large quantities of data within a single and structured database according to location.

Governance: The exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country's affairs at all levels, comprising the mechanisms, processes, and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their differences.

Government 3.0: A Semantic Web-based government that personalizes all government services according to the conditions and preferences of each individual.

Government-to-Business (G2B): G2B refers to business-specific transactions (e.g., payments, sale and purchase of goods and services) as well as online provision of business-focused services.

Government-to-Consumer / Citizen (G2C): G2C refers to initiatives designed to facilitate people’s interaction with government as consumers of public services and as citizens. This includes interactions related to the delivery of public services and information, as well as to participation in decision-making processes.

Government-to-Government (G2G): G2G refers to sharing data and conducting electronic exchanges between governmental actors. This involves both intra- and inter-agency exchanges at the national level, as well as exchanges between the national, provincial, and local levels.

Green Economy: Growth that is efficient in its use of natural resources, clean in that it minimizes pollution and environmental impacts, and resilient in that it accounts for natural hazards and the role of environmental management and natural capital in preventing physical disasters.

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Horizontal Integration: Horizontal Integration involves data, information and knowledge from the same level of government (i.e. at the ministerial level).

Human Capital Index (HCI): Human Capital Index (HCI) consists of four components: (i) adult literacy rate; (ii) the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio; (iii) expected years of schooling; and (iv) average years of schooling.

Human Development Index (HDI): A tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries' levels of social and economic development based on four criteria: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita. The HDI makes it possible to track changes in development levels over time and to compare development levels in different countries.

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ICT Standards: A document that establishes uniform technical specifications, criteria, methods, processes, or practices. Some standards are mandatory while others are voluntary.

Information and Communications Technology (ICT): ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums.

Information Management: The information management system is a planned system of collecting, processing, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, (e.g., Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems).

Information Network Village (INVIL): Self-sustainable village communities that are capable of continued growth by creating information network environments and improving the income of residents through e-commerce in agricultural, fishing, and mountain regions usually excluded from information networks.

Information security policy: A special type of documented business rule for protecting information and the systems which store and process the information. Information security policies are usually documented in one or more information security policy documents. Within an organization, these written policy documents provide a high-level description of the various controls the organization will use to protect information.

Information Technology (IT): The development, implementation and maintenance of computer and software systems to organize and communicate information electronically.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): A type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital (as opposed to analog) transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds, than available with analog systems.

Integration: The bringing together of the component subsystems into one system and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system. In information technology, systems integration is the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications physically or functionally.

Intellectual property (IP): A legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical, literary, and artistic works; inventions; and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce, including copyrights, trademarks, patents, and related rights. Under intellectual property law, the holder of one of these abstract properties has certain exclusive rights to the creative work, commercial symbol, or invention by which it is covered.

Internet: Global computer network (“network of networks”) based on the TCP/IP transmission standard. The internet operates independently of platform and operating system. It includes the World Wide Web (WWW) and the e-mail.

Internet Governance Forum (IGF): The IGF meets annually to bring people together from various stakeholder groups as equals, in discussions on public policy issues relating to the Internet. It facilitates a common understanding of how to maximize Internet opportunities and address risks and challenges that arise.

Internet Protocol (IP): A protocol, or set of rules, for routing and addressing packets of data so that they can travel across computer networks and arrive at the correct destination.

Internet Backbone: A network that carries Internet traffic over nation-wide high-capacity long- haul transmission facilities and that is interconnected with other such networks via private peering relationships.

Internet of Things (IoT): Use of interconnected sensors and controls that help gather and analyse data about the environment, the objects that exist within it and the people that act within it, to improve understanding and automate previously manual processes.

Internet Service Provider: A company or business that provides access to the Internet and related services.

Interoperability: A property referring to the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate). The term is often used in a technical systems engineering sense, or alternatively in a broad sense, taking into account social, political, and organizational factors that impact system to system performance.

Intranet: A private network of various computers within an organization. An Intranet is used to share company information and computing resources among employees. An Intranet uses regular Internet protocols and in general looks like a private version of the Internet.

IT Security Technologies: IT Security Technologies refer to the PKI - public key infrastructure, which is a system of digital certificates, Certificate Authorities, and other registration authorities that verify and authenticate the validity of each party involved in an Internet transaction. It should be noted that PKIs are currently evolving and there is no single PKI or even a single agreed-upon standard for setting up a PKI.

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Knowledge Management Strategy: A long-term plan to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge throughout an organization.

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Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDC): A landlocked country is one that is entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastline lies on a closed sea. There are 48 landlocked countries in the world, 31 of which are Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDC).

Last mile: Is the final leg of delivering communications connectivity to a resident or customer. Usually referred to by the telecommunications and cable industries, it is typically seen as an expensive challenge because "fanning out" wires and cables is a considerable physical undertaking. Outside of the USA, the phrase "last kilometer" is sometimes used.

Least Developed Countries (LDC): The identification of LDCs is currently based on three criteria: per capita gross national income (GNI), human assets and economic and environmental vulnerability. Countries that have low levels of income and face severe structural impediments to sustainable development.

Leave No One Behind (LNOB): The central, transformative promise of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It represents the unequivocal commitment of all UN Member States to eradicate poverty in all its forms, end discrimination and exclusion, and reduce the inequalities and vulnerabilities that leave people behind and undermine the potential of individuals and of humanity as a whole.

Local Area Network (LAN): A computer network covering a relatively small local area, like a home, office or small group of buildings such as a college.

Local e-government: Local e-government refers to the application of ICT - such as the Internet and mobile computing - by local governments - with the purpose of providing people with online services, increasing local government work efficiency, promoting transparency, and enhancing citizen participation.

Local Government Questionnaire (LGQ): A questionnaire that UN DESA sends out to local governments/municipalities in preparation for the United Nations E-Government Surveys.

Local Online Services Index (LOSI): A multi-criteria index that captures e-government development at the local level, by assessing information and services provided by municipalities to citizens through their official websites.

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Machine Learning: Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) focused on building applications that learn from data and improve their accuracy over time without being programmed to do so.

Machine to machine (M2M): Machine-to-Machine (M2M) means no human intervention whilst devices are communicating end-to-end.

Management Framework for Security and Control: A document that outlines the rules, laws and practices for computer network access. This document regulates how an organization will manage, protect and distribute its sensitive information (both corporate and client information) and lays the framework for the computer-network-oriented security of the organization.

Member State Questionnaire (MSQ): Member State Questionnaire is used to gather detailed information about the countries’ institutional, legal and strategy frameworks and the efforts of public institutions in the realm of e-government development.

Mobile Financial Services (MFS): Online accessible forms of financial services including payments, savings, loans and any other services a financial institution may provide to its customers.

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Natural Language Processing (NLP): A branch of computer science focused on the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze text and spoken language to extract its meaning.

New Public Management: A new paradigm for public management describing public sector reforms which emphasizes output controls, the disaggregation of traditional bureaucratic organizations and the decentralization of management authority, the introduction of market and quasi-market mechanisms, and customer-oriented services.

Non-Governmental Organization (NGO): Any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level. NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions organized around specific issues.

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One Stop Shop: The idea that an individual citizen or business will be able to conduct all their business with government from one access point.

Online Identity Authentication: A process closely related to identification. Authentication is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) as authentic, that is that claims made by or about the thing are true. This might involve confirming the identity of a person, or that a computer program is a trusted one. In online environments, for instance, the username identifies the user, while the password authenticates the user.

Online Interaction Tools / Collaborative Applications: A collaborative software (also referred to as groupware or workgroup support systems) designed to help people involved in a common task to achieve their goals. Collaborative software is the basis for computer supported cooperative work. Software systems such as email, calendaring, text chat, wiki belong in this category. It has been suggested that Metcalfe's Law — the more people who use something, the more valuable it becomes — applies to software of this type.

Online Service Index (OSI): A composite normalized score derived on the basis on an Online Service Questionnaire (OSQ).

Online Service Questionnaire (OSQ): Conducted by UN DESA, assesses the national online presence of all 193 United Nations Member States and used to derive the Online Service Index (OSI).

Open Government: The governing doctrine which holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight.

Open Government Data (OGD): Open Government Data can be defined as government information proactively disclosed and made available online for everyone’s access, reuse and redistribution without restriction.

Open Government Development Index (OGDI): The Open Government Development Index (OGDI) is derived as a supplementary index to the Online Service Index (OSI). It extends the dimension of the Survey by focusing on the use of open government data (OGD).

Open, Useful and Re-usable data index: Index benchmarks the design and implementation of open data policies at the central level, and stresses the sustained political and policy relevance of this area of work for OECD member and partner countries and beyond.

Optical fiber: A transparent thin fiber usually made of glass or plastic, for transmitting light. The optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. Although fibers can be made out of either transparent plastic (POF = plastic optical fibers) or glass, the fibers used in long-distance telecommunications applications are always glass, because of the lower optical absorption. Optical fiber networks are nowadays among the fastest and most reliable networks, although very expensive and rarely available.

Optical Fiber Network: A medium for telecommunication and networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters. Additionally, the light signals propagating in the fiber can be modulated at rates as high as 40 Gb/s, and each fiber can carry many independent channels, each by a different wavelength of light (wavelength-division multiplexing). Over short distances, such as networking within a building, fiber saves space in cable ducts because a single fiber can carry much more data than a single electrical cable. Fiber is also immune to electrical interference, which prevents cross-talk between signals in different cables and pickup of environmental noise.

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Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P): P3P enables websites to express their privacy practices in a standard format that can be retrieved automatically and interpreted easily by user agents (web browsers). P3P user agents will allow users to be informed of site practices (in both machine- and human-readable formats) and to automate decision-making based on these practices when appropriate. Thus users do not need to read the privacy policies at every site they visit, they can define a specific profile for they privacy settings on the web browser and let P3P and the browser do the rest. Although P3P provides a technical mechanism for ensuring that users can be informed about privacy policies before they release personal information, it does not provide a technical mechanism for making sure sites act according to their policies.

Principle of Subsidiarity: The idea that a central authority should have a subsidiary function, performing only those tasks which cannot be performed effectively at a more immediate or local level.

Privacy: The ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively.

Privacy Statement: A web document found on a company or organization's website that details the type of personally identifiable information the company collects about its site visitors, how the information is used — including who it may be shared with — and how users can control the information that is gathered.

Proxy: A proxy is a computer in a network which temporarily stores data downloaded from the internet. Proxies are used for performance reasons or in order to improve IT security.

Public Internet Access Point: A connection to the Internet either through physical means such as copper wires, or wireless means such as WIFI, in public facilities such as the library or post office. This allows data to relay between wired and wireless devices (such as computers or printers) on the network.

Public Private Partnership (PPP): A contractual agreement between a public agency and a private sector entity. Through this agreement, the skills and assets of each sector (public and private) are shared in delivering a service or facility for the use of the general public. In addition to the sharing of resources, each party shares in the risks and rewards potential in the delivery of the service and/or facility.

Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN): The concatenation of the world's public circuit- switched telephone networks.

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Really Simple Syndication (RSS): A method by which web content can be easily and quickly distributed when from a web site or web log. This feed automatically sends out a list of headlines, update notices, and sometimes content to a wide number of people.

Red-tape: The collection or sequence of forms and procedures required to gain bureaucratic approval for something, especially when oppressively complex and time-consuming (“red-tape” procedures).

Regional Cooperation Framework: An agreement between countries in the same region to work together to tackle specific issues or solve common problems.

Remote Access: The ability to log onto a network from a distant location.

Replacement Policy: A set of guidelines that indicates the life-cycle of hardware and software such as: PCs, laptops, printers, scanners, servers, operating system, etc.

Resource Description Framework (RDF): A standard model for data interchange on the Web.

Robotics: Technology dealing with the design, construction, and operation of robots in automation.

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Satellite Internet: Satellite Internet services are used in locations where terrestrial Internet access is not available and in locations which move frequently. Internet access via satellite is available worldwide, including vessels at sea and mobile land vehicles.

Semantic Web: A next generation, artificial intelligence web technology that enables computers to define, understand and logically deduct the meaning of information, further to help better search of requested information.

Server: Computer or program which interacts with and provides services to multiple, distributed clients.

Service provider: Provider of telecommunications and media services. The commercial nature of the offered services is not a prerequisite for this designation.

Short Message Service (SMS): A text messaging service component of phone, Web, or mobile communication systems. It uses standardized communications protocols to allow fixed line or mobile phone devices to exchange short text messages.

Single Sign-on: An authentication process in a client/server relationship where the user, or client, can enter one name and password and have access to more than one application, or access to a number of resources, within an enterprise. Single sign-on takes away the need for the user to enter further authentications when switching from one application to another.

Small Island Developing States (SIDS): A distinct group of developing countries facing specific social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities. They were initially defined at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (3-14 June 1992). This recognition was made specifically in the context of Agenda 21 (Chapter 17 G).

Smart city: The term generally refers to the management of urban environments through ICT.

Smart phone: A cellular phone that is able to perform many of the functions of a computer, typically having a relatively large touchscreen and an operating system capable of running general-purpose computer applications.

Social Integration: A dynamic and principled process in which societies engage in order to further human development. It represents the attempt not to make people adjust to society, but rather to ensure that society is accepting of all people.

Software Applications: A set of operating instructions for specific task-based applications, (i.e. instructions for a computer to employ its capabilities directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform). Typical examples of software applications are word processors, spreadsheets, and media players.

Software Solution: A software solution may include more than one software applications in order to solve a specific problem or achieve a certain objective.

Standardization: The process of developing and agreeing upon technical standards. A standard is a document that establishes uniform technical specifications, criteria, methods, processes, or practices. Some standards are mandatory while others are voluntary. Whenever approved by a recognized standards organization, standards are accepted as de facto. Standards exist for programming languages, operating systems, data formats, communications protocols and electrical interfaces.

Standards: An established norm or requirement. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices.

STI Forum: The Multi-stakeholder Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs (STI Forum), co-chaired by two member states, meet once a year to discuss science, technology and innovation cooperation around thematic areas for the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Sustainable Development: Development that does not exhaust resources for the future generations; the capacity of people and institutions is permanently enhanced; and responsibilities and benefits are broadly shared.

Sustainable Development Goals: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.

System integration: The bringing together of the component subsystems into one system and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system. In information technology, systems integration is the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications physically or functionally.

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Technical standard: An established norm or requirement. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices.

Technology Code of Practice: Set of criteria establishes criteria to help the Government design, build and buy technology.

Telecommunications Infrastructure Index (TII): An arithmetic average composite of four indicators:
(I) estimated internet users per 100 inhabitants;
(II) number of mobile subscribers per 100 inhabitants;
(III) active mobile-broadband subscription; and
(IV) number of fixed broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants.

Transaction Use: The ability to fully complete secure financial transactions online.

Transactional: An agreement, communication, or movement carried out between separate entities or objects, often involving the exchange of items of value, such as information, goods, services and money.

Transparency: A principle that allows those affected by administrative decisions, business transactions or charitable work to know not only the basic facts and figures but also the mechanisms and processes.

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UN Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD): The UNCRD strives to promote sustainable regional development in developing countries with a focus on development planning and management in the context of globalization and decentralization trends, and the growing concern towards global environmental issues and their impacts.

UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA): UN DESA bring the global community together to work towards common solutions to the world’s most pressing problems, help countries translate their global commitments into national action in the economic, social and environmental spheres.

UN Development Program (UNDP): UNDP works in 170 countries and territories to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality, helping countries to develop policies, leadership skills, partnering abilities, and institutional capabilities to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

UN E-Government Development Index (EGDI): A composite indicator measuring the willingness and capacity of public administration to use ICT to deliver public services.

UN E-Government Survey: A systematic assessment of the use of ICT to transform and reform the public sector by enhancing efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, accountability, access to public services and citizen participation in 193 countries.

UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): UNESCO seeks to build peace through international cooperation in education, sciences and culture.

UN-Habitat: Also known as the UN Human Settlement Program, UN-Habitat works in over 90 countries to promote transformative change in cities and human settlements through knowledge, policy advice, technical assistance and collaborative action.

UN Public Service Awards: The most prestigious international recognition of excellence in public service. It rewards the creative achievements and contributions of public service institutions that lead to a more effective and responsive public administration in countries worldwide. Through an annual competition, the UN Public Service Awards promotes the role, professionalism and visibility of public service.

UN University Operating Unit on Policy-Driven E-Governance (UNU-EGOV): A policy-oriented think tank dedicated to Electronic Governance; a core centre of research, advisory services and training; a bridge between research and public policies; an innovation enhancer; a solid partner within the UN system and its Member States with a particular focus on sustainable development, social inclusion, and active citizenship.

Unauthorized Access: Gaining access into any computer, network, storage medium, system, program, file, user area, or other private repository, without the express permission of the owner.

User Experience Platform (UXP): The collective set of Web-based tools and technologies that interact with and are consumed by an end user.

Vertical Integration: Vertical Integration involves data, information and/or knowledge flow from different levels of governments such as national, regional, and local.

Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT): An earthbound station used in satellite communications of data, voice and video signals, excluding broadcast television. A VSAT consists of two parts, a transceiver that is placed outdoors in direct line of sight to the satellite and a device that is placed indoors to interface the transceiver with the end user's communications device, such as a PC. The transceiver receives or sends a signal to a satellite transponder in the sky. The satellite sends and receives signals from a ground station computer that acts as a hub for the system. Each end user is interconnected with the hub station via the satellite, forming a star topology. The hub controls the entire operation of the network. For one end user to communicate with another, each transmission has to first go to the hub station that then retransmits it via the satellite to the other end user's VSAT.

Virtual Private Network (VPN): Virtual private network is the extension of a private network that encompasses links across shared or public networks like the Internet. A VPN enables you to send data between two computers across a shared or public internet work in a manner that emulates the properties of a point-to-point private link. The act of configuring and creating a virtual private network is known as virtual private networking. VPN results in fact as a private data network that uses a shared telecommunications infrastructure, maintaining privacy through the use of tunneling protocols and security procedures.

W3C: the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a forum for information, commerce, communication, and collective understanding. W3C develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web to its full potential. Those developed by W3C are “open standards”.

Web browser: An application software for accessing the World Wide Web or a local website. When a user requests a web page from a particular website, the web browser retrieves its files from a web server and then graphically renders the page on the user's screen.

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG): "Web Content Accessibility Guidelines are developed through the W3C process in cooperation with individuals and organizations around the world, with a goal of providing a single shared standard for web content accessibility that meets the needs of individuals, organizations, and governments internationally."

Web Portal: A multifunctional website that forms a gateway to a range of services that usually includes web directories, search capabilities, and links to other web resources. Intranet portals are also known as "enterprise information portals" (EIP).

Website: A collection of files that are linked to a central Web page, made available via the World Wide Web, owned and managed by an individual, company or organization, or an interest group. It is part of the Internet and contains hypertext documents. Also abbreviated WWW.

Whole of Government (WOG): Whole of Government denotes public service agencies working across portfolio boundaries to achieve a shared goal and an integrated government response to particular issues. WoG processes may be broadly and comprehensively applied, or may be highly specific, or targeted.

Wide Area Network (WAN): A computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together, so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations, crossing metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries.

Wireless: The term used to describe any computer network where there is no physical wired connection between sender and receiver, but rather the network is connected by radio waves and/or microwaves to maintain communications. Wireless networking utilizes specific equipment such as NICs, APs and routers in place of wires (copper or optical fiber) for connectivity.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP): A secure specification that allows users to access information instantly via handheld wireless devices such as mobile phones, pagers, two-way radios, smartphones and communicators.

Wireless local area network (WLAN): Radio-based systems that allow transmission of information without a physical connection, opposed to transmission systems, which require a physical connection, such as copper wire or optical fiber. Wireless local-area network use radio waves instead of a cable to connect a user device, such as a laptop computer, to a LAN. They provide Ethernet connections over the air.

World Development Indicators (WDI): The World Bank's premier compilation of cross-country comparable data on development.

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