Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme
Prison Department

The Problem

Before the initiative was introduced the inmates self confidence were low, the initiative made it possible for the inmates to reintegrate into the society, and at the same time familiarize with the outside environment (beyond prison walls).

The society was also spectacle about the inmates, the acceptance was low, family members commitment was low. The inmates thought that there was no second chance for them before this initiative was introduced.

The was this silo mentality among the agencies whereby everyone works within their boundaries, however this initiative gave the opportunity for agencies to work across boundaries and collaboration between agencies were formed.

Solution and Key Benefits

 What is the initiative about? (the solution)
‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ is the rehabilitation activities for eligible prisoners which is implemented outside the prisons wall. This programme covers the inmate’s rehabilitation and integration processes into society, such as community services, working in factories, plantations or agricultural sectors, enrolling in short courses or other activities as approved by the Commissioner General of Prisons.
‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ involves collaboration with other government agencies, private companies and non-governmental organizations (NGO). This programme is the collaboration with the Malaysian Armed Forces, where inmates are placed in Correctional Rehabilitation Centers (Pusat Pemulihan Pemasyarakatan) which is built inside the military camp, but inmates remains under the supervision of the Prison staff.
Inmates living in the Correctional Rehabilitation Center work in an army camp before they are released into the society. Inmates are also able to pursue further rehabilitation programme conducted by the Prison Department of Malaysia and the Malaysian Armed Forces personnel. In addition, they will also have the opportunity to pursue short-term courses conducted by the Labour Department of Malaysia and the Local Community College.
The ‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ was implemented in March 26, 2011 and to date (December 19, 2011) a total of 1911 inmates, also known as persons under supervision (ODS) has undergone the programme. There are 675 inmates (ODS) have been released from the Correctional Rehabilitation Center and a total of 116 (ODS) has been released on Parole Order. From a total of 675 inmates (ODS) released, 352 inmates or 52% has gained employment and 48% are still looking for jobs. So far there is no recidivism among former persons under supervision.
Through the implementation of the ‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’, serving time is never a waste of time. The period of incarceration allows inmates to prepare themselves with skill and education. The programme is aimed to reduce the tendency of an offender reoffending after released.
Through this programme, the Malaysian government need not build new prisons where 1200 persons under supervision can be placed in Correctional Rehabilitation Center at one time. This programme has saved government expenditure. The cost of the building five (5) Correctional Rehabilitation Center in a military camp is RM 22,884,300.06, and is far lower than building a new prison. For example, the construction of Perlis Prison with a capacity of 800 offenders costing RM 135 million. The Savings from this programme can be used for other projects and welfare for the other citizen.

Persons under supervision have the opportunity to acquire specific skills through short courses such as reflexology skills, hair-cutting, motor mechanics, basic business skills and others in order to increase the potential to earn an employment upon release. They also have the opportunity to mingle with the community while serving their sentence in the Correctional Rehabilitation Center.
The safety of community is guaranteed because inmates or ODS have been successfully rehabilitated and able to face any challenges in life. This enable them from repeating their criminal behavior.

Actors and Stakeholders

 Who proposed the solution, who implemented it and who were the stakeholders?
‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ is the continuity of correctional rehabilitation programme. This program was introduced to expose inmates in order to prepare them for integration into society.
If the inmates are not rehabilitated, they would threaten the safety of the community and can threaten the harmony of the that exists in the society. The economic effects caused by the increase of crime rate is deterioration of confidence by investors, create fear to foreign tourists to travel as well as damage and loss of property.
To achieve the goal of Malaysia Prison Department to reduce and eventually eliminate recidivist’s, the Department has introduced ‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ for inmates. It is the result of the meeting of National Strategy Execution Summit 'under the' Blue Ocean Strategy 2’ chaired by the Chief Secretary to Malaysia Government. It is intended to provide ongoing rehabilitation for prison inmates in the community environment before they are released from prison institutions.
‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ is a continuation of correctional rehabilitation programme in prison in prepareration for prisoners for eventual release. It is hope that it will reduce and eliminate the repeatition of crime as well as recidivism.
This programme was launched by the Prime Minister of Malaysia on March 26, 2011 at Correctional Rehabilitation Center in Mahkota Camp Kluang, Johor.
‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ in collaboration with the Malaysian Armed Forces is one of the transformation programme implemented by the government's continuous effort to develop the human capital who have committed offense. In the Correctional Rehabilitation Center, advance programme is being carried out. Here, the rehabilitation process occurs in the societal environment.
Apart the cooperation from the Malaysian Armed Forces, two other departments have participated in the programme, they are the Department of Agriculture and Department of Fisheries Malaysia.
Prisons Department has also established cooperation with other agencies in the process of rehabilitation of persons under supervision. Among them are the Department of Manpower, Ministry of Human Resources, Labour Department of Peninsular Malaysia, Local Community Colleges and others.
Local Community Colleges provides short courses for persons under supervision who are interested in the courses offered. Courses include basic business course, massage, reflexology and hair-cutting. While the Manpower Department has organized courses in areas such as Motor Mechanics, Air Condition Repair and Basic Computer.
While some local NGOs have been involved with religious lecture for persons under supervision in Islamic Teaching, Christianity, Buddhism and Hinduism.

(a) Strategies

 Describe how and when the initiative was implemented by answering these questions
 a.      What were the strategies used to implement the initiative? In no more than 500 words, provide a summary of the main objectives and strategies of the initiative, how they were established and by whom.
As one of the Prison Department of Malaysia's efforts to reduce crime and the recidivists, ‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ implementation objectives are :-

The New Approach is to help rebuild self-esteem and overcome negative social stigma.

i. To provide early exposure to the inmates or also called as ODS to live as useful citizens upon release from prison.

ii. As a method of integration and customization the inmates (ODS) into the community before they are released.

iii. Provide opportunities for ODS to serve the community.

iv. Ensure that ODS who are released are able to accept the changes that occur in the community and able to face the 'social stigma'.

v. Ensure ongoing mentoring to ODS while they are in Correctional Rehabilitation Center to ensure the safety and welfare of the community.
vi. To return ODS to their families and communities through ongoing rehabilitation programme in which it can generate more confident among ODS.

vii. Involving the community in ODS rehabilitation process, including government agencies and NGO.
viii. To explain that prison is not only a place of sentence but also as a rehabilitation organization.

All inmates who are sentenced to a year and above, and have a remaining sentence of not more than 24 months are eligible to participate in the programme. Inmates or ODS must have successfully completed the Human Development Plan at least in Phase 1 and Phase 2 successfully in the prison institution before being considered for this programme.

Their participation in this ‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ is voluntary, and ODS should be certified eligible by the Medical Officer to work or attending organized activities.

This ‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ gets cooperation between the two agencies, Prison Department of Malaysia and the Malaysian Ministry of Defense in the control and efforts of rehabilitation of the inmates or ODS. This programme involves the placement of ODS in Correctional Rehabilitation Center at the Army Camp as follows:

I. Correctional Rehabilitation Center at Mahkota Camp, Kluang, Johor

II. Correctional Rehabilitation Center at Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah Camp, Alor Setar, Kedah

III. Correctional Rehabilitation Center at Desa Pahlawan Camp, Kota Bharu, Kelantan
IV. Correctional Rehabilitation Center at Batu 10 Camp, Kuantan, Pahang

V. Correctional Rehabilitation Center at Syed Sirajuddin Camp, Gemas, Negeri Sembilan

ODS living in Correctional Rehabilitation Center will be working in a military camp to earn an income in preparation for released into the community. In addition, they also have the opportunity to pursue short-term courses of skills such as reflexology, massage, hair-cutting, business skill, motor mechanics, air conditioning services and computer skills conducted by the Labor Department and the Local Community College.

They will also have the opportunity to get business loan from the ‘Fund for Venture Economics’ (TEKUN) if they achieve a level of excellence in the courses undertaken. For persons under supervision from poor family, they are also eligible to apply for assistance to start small businesses or to engage in agriculture activities through ‘1AZAM’ programme introduced by the government.

(b) Implementation

 b.      What were the key development and implementation steps and the chronology? No more than 500 words
The involvement of the inmates or persons under supervision in the ‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme’ at the Correctional Rehabilitation Centre in the Army Camp is a form of transformation that will be able to achieve the target of two thirds of inmates serving a sentence and continuing the rehabilitation process in the community by 2020.

This ‘Community-Based Rehabilitation Programme was launched by the Prime Minister of Malaysia on March 26, 2011 at Correctional Rehabilitation Centre Mahkota Camp in Kluang, Johor.

The Correctional Rehabilitation Center information are as follows :

I. Correctional Rehabilitation Centre Mahkota Camp in Kluang, Johor
• Construction 15 November 2011
• Completed March 21, 2011
• Capacity of 200 persons under supervision
• Operations on March 23, 2011

II. Correctional Rehabilitation Centre Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah Camp, Jitra Kedah
• Construction 15 November 2011
• Completed 22 April 2011
• Capacity of 200 persons under supervision
• Starts operations May 19, 2011

III. Correctional Rehabilitation Centre Desa Pahlawan Camp, Kota Bharu, Kelantan
• Construction 15 November 2011
• Completed 18 April 2011
• Capacity of 200 persons under supervision
• Starts operations May 6, 2011

IV. Correctional Rehabilitation Centre Syed Sirajuddin Camp, Gemas, Negeri Sembilan
• Construction 15 November 2011
• Completed construction May 19, 2011
• Capacity of 400 persons under supervision
• Starts operations May 23, 2011

V. Correctional Rehabilitation Centre Batu 10 Camp, Kuantan, Pahang
• Construction 15 November 2011
• Completed July 13, 2011
• Capacity of 200 persons under supervision
• Starts operations July 15, 2011

Security level was minimal at the Correctional Rehabilitation Center in line with the level of rehabilitation of persons under supervision categorized as less risky and the movements of persons under supervision in the center are also freer than in proper prison. Persons under supervision also have the opportunity to mingle with the local community while serving a sentence in the Correctional Rehabilitation Center.

A total of 1200 persons under supervision have the opportunity to participate in this programme at a time. They involve in maintenance work in the army camp, 'landscaping' and minor repairs. In addition, there are ODS who participated in agriculture and fisheries activities. Persons under supervision will receive the reward of RM200 per month for their services and insurance will be taken on each persons under supervision of RM10.00 per year for personal protection.

Persons under supervision rehabilitation programme will also be held at night and on Saturdays. The implementation of rehabilitation or intervention programme for persons under supervision involves Prisons Department of Malaysia, Armed Forces through the Directorate of Education and KAGAT and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO).

Rehabilitation programme covering aspects of thinking, psychosocial, religious and cross-cultural modules. Family counseling and family-friendly programme also provided for persons under supervision so that they can contribute to the nurturing of family values and responsibility. Successfully rehabilitated persons under supervision will be able to become a productive citizens that capable of working to stimulate the economy and reduce social problems.

(c) Overcoming Obstacles

 c.      What were the main obstacles encountered? How were they overcome? No more than 500 words
Obstacles encountered during implementation the possibilities of two uniform agencies working together with different sets of existing Standard Operating Procedures. This was overcome by having thorough discussions on how to merge both the SOPs in order to have better working environment as well maintain safety and security at all time.

(d) Use of Resources

 d.      What resources were used for the initiative and what were its key benefits? In no more than 500 words, specify what were the financial, technical and human resources’ costs associated with this initiative. Describe how resources were mobilized
By initiating this programme, there was a saving in the budget. For example, to built a prison to accommodate prisoners, it cost the government approximately RM125 million. But the cost of building accommodation blocks at the camp was only RM4.3 million.

Prison staff were deployed to the rehabilitation centres to supervise and manage prisoners. With their experience and additional training, they are able to perform their duty well. Besides that army personnel are also assisting the prison staff in managing the perimeter control to avoid untoward incidents.

Sustainability and Transferability

  Is the initiative sustainable and transferable?
This initiative of collaboration between two agencies although it is still at the initial stage, it is seen to provide lots of benefits. Thus, the department is confident that this initiative can be implemented throughout other public service and other private agencies in providing support to prisoners to turn into new live.

Lessons Learned

 What are the impact of your initiative and the lessons learned?
This initiative created a very positive impact toward the inmates.

Private agencies, NGOs, ‘Skill Training’ Centers & Colleges came forward to participate in the rehabilitation process of the inmates after the initiative was introduced.

The government started to work across agencies and there was a good cooperation among the agencies
The inmates were involved in big scale industries which enabled them to acquire the latest development in terms of technology and management aspects.

With this big leap in the life of the inmates, they felt that there is a future for them. They are not left behind by the fast development outside. The skill that they learn from the program, the attention and guidance/help that they receive from the community/agencies gives them the confidence that they need in life.

Thus so far the initiative has proven that the inmates who has gone through this initiative never relapsed

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Prison Department
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Abdul Aziz Mohamad
Title:   Mr  
Telephone/ Fax:   0387341804 / 0387341805
Institution's / Project's Website:
Address:   Parole and Comunity Service Division, Malaysian Prison Department
Postal Code:   43000
City:   Kajang
State/Province:   Selangor
Country:   Malaysia

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