Jaldeep Yojana
Deptt.of Cottage and Rural

The Problem

Fishermen in general belong to one of the lowest rung of socio-economic ladder. They are also disadvantageously placed in spatial terms i.e. outside the village or around the reservoir which is generally far-off from the main habitation.

It is the stated policy of the Government of Madhya Pradesh to rehabilitate people displaced due to construction of reservoirs by engaging them in fisheries activity in the same reservoir. M.P. Fisheries Federation has been entrusted this work. For this purpose, the Government has allotted 12 reservoirs having a total area 1.70 lac ha.

One of these is Indira Sagar reservoir. It is the largest in the country ( area 91348 ha.), affecting three districts of Madhya Pradesh viz. Khandwa, Dewas and Harda. It has a 500-600 km long periphery, 60 % of which runs through dense forests. The rest is also inapproachable. The reservoir is also unique as it has approximately 55 islands (numbers vary as their submergence or emergence depends on the water level), of these 8-10 islands are frequently inhabited by the fisher families.

In Madhya Pradesh fishing is banned in the reservoirs from 16th of June to 15th of August every year. By October the rains stop and, the water level begins to recede and islands start emerging. This is the time when fishermen migrate to these islands to stay there until June next year i.e. for about 8 months. The Fishermen move to the islands in search of better catch, but cannot return daily to their villages as the distances are long. They had to stay on the islands. Usually they take their families along because the women help them actively in fishing and small children cannot be left behind. Being so separated from the mainland, they and their families were deprived of all the benefits were government schemes. No healthcare, supplementary nutrition, education facilities were being delivered.

Observing their lifestyle, Kanchan Jain, the then Managing Director of the M.P. Fisheries Federation felt an urgent need to plan delivery of benefits to these fisher families and took the initiative to catalyze and coordinate activities of various ongoing schemes of crucial departments to ensure delivery of essential services to these fisher families.

Solution and Key Benefits

 What is the initiative about? (the solution)
The initiative called Jaldeep Yojna is about being sensitive and responsive to the needs of isolated fisherfolk. The stakeholder government departments did have various schemes for them. But could not deliver the services due to constraint of unapproachability. Jaldeep scheme entrusted .Fisheries Federation to coordinate and synergize the activities of and provide logistic support to these department so that they could approach the fisher families on the islands and regularly benefit them with health care, nutrition etc.
Since May, 2007 more than 230. camps have been organised (and still counting ) on various islands and other isolated areas in/around the three reservoirs viz Indira Sagar , Bargi, Bansagar; benefitting 14733 fisher folk . This includes 2 camps exclusively for administering polio drops. Health intervention includes prophylactic health checkup, distribution of medicines of chlorine tablets for purification of drinking water, of ORS of first aid kits, referral of suitable cases to main hospitals, checkup and measurement of children and expecting mothers for malnutirition etc. their vaccination, distribution of supplementary nutrition and folic acid etc; One more intervention has been made in the area of school education. After due counseling of the parents their children's admission is arranged in the hostels of either tribal development department or school education department (whichever is nearer) where they receive free boarding/lodging, free education, books, uniform dresses etc. More than six female children have been receiving education in this manner. The number of enrollment and passing out of the fisher children from the mainland schools has also increased considerably.
The impact of the initiative is clearly visible in the improved health and increased income (through fishing) of these fishermen. Before this initiative, as no healthcare, nutrition supplement and preventive measures/checkups were available to fisherfolk at all, neither any baseline data regarding health status was available, therefore comparison cannot be made but the sheer no. of fisherfolk being benefitted by this initiative is self-explanatory.
As their health has improved and incidence of disease and sickness has decreased and they do not have to lose their workdays in order to visit the hospital on the mainland their productivity and income has tremendously increased.(post initiative period). The per capita average fish catch and ensuing income as wages in pre initiative period(2007-2008) was 3.407Kg and Rs. 52.06 respectively which after the initiative has increased to 8.979 kg and Rs.170.60 respectively ( as on November 2011).
The primary and major beneficiaries of this initiative are fishermen and the female and children members of their families living on the isolated islands and unapproachable areas. The other beneficiaries include various government departments who have learned to work together in harmony and synergy for a common cause of delivering their services in an efficient and streamlined manner to their target group.

Actors and Stakeholders

 Who proposed the solution, who implemented it and who were the stakeholders?
Mrs. Kanchan Jain, proposed the solution and formulated strategy
a) During her tenure, observed that fishermen , along their families migrated to island in order to catch more fish and remained there for about 8 months in a year. Due to their constant hopping on remote islands, they remained cut off from the main land and deprived of delivery of services like health, education and women and child welfare schemes . Mrs. Jain realized that though these fishermen families were bonafide and potential of these services beneficiaries but were not able to avail them only due to inaccessibility. The fisherman wouldn't go to main land lest they lost the opportunity to catch fish and the government machinery could not reach the island for want of infrastructure.
b) She therefore proposed to provide the stakeholder departments with boats so that they could reach the islands and the unapproachable areas . She also synerzised the activities of stakeholder departments.
c) She conceptualized and formulated the scheme to provide the benefits of government schemes, without any additional staff, resources or expenditure. She prepared a concept note and sent it to stakeholder departments.
d) After conducting extensive surveys of the islands and discussion with the fishermen families of the Indira Sagar reservoir and several rounds of meeting with the fishermen and the field officers she prepared a detailed project plan. The project plan emphasized on coordination of ongoing activities of the line departments. Roles of each and every department and its officers at various levels were clearly pronounced .This ensured active participation from all of them and helped to fulfill their own targets.
e) The proposal was discussed with the senior officers and head of the departments and their approval was obtained. The District Collectors of the concerned districts were contacted and committees were formed for successful implementation of scheme at the field level.

Mr. R.K.Khare , Asst. Manager implemented the initiative on the ground
He was posted at Indira Sagar reservoir and carried out survey of all the islands in the reservoir. He was the functional link between the fishermen and the Managing Director. Inputs provided by him helped formulate the project and ensured successful implementation of the initiative. He implemented the initiative at the cutting edge level.

The stakeholders besides the beneficiaries were

A. M.P.Fisheries Federation - (Major stakeholder)
B Department of Women and Child development
C. Department of health and family welfare
D. Department of School Education and
E. Department of Tribal Development
F. Department of Panchayat & Rural Development
G. Department of Social Justice
H. Department of Food & Civil Supplies

(a) Strategies

 Describe how and when the initiative was implemented by answering these questions
 a.      What were the strategies used to implement the initiative? In no more than 500 words, provide a summary of the main objectives and strategies of the initiative, how they were established and by whom.
Main objectives of the initiative were -

1. To bring to the main stream the fisher folk who were isolated not only geographically but also socially.
2. To ensure delivery of basic services at their workplace.
3. To improve their living conditions and ensuring their welfare.

Strategy to achieve the objectives

The strategy was to optimize on the existing resources. A strategy was evolved which was need based, suited to the fluid conditions, did not demand any extra budgetary support or extra financial or human resource. It was also compatible to the conditions, changing with time and place, so that it was easy to replicate it in other reservoirs with certain modifications.

Main strategy :

1. Strategy was evolved to approach the fisherfolk through extensive survey and participatory approach and continuous feedback to assess their needs and formulate the proposal accordingly.
2. Delivery of services by various stakeholder departments was ensured by inter departmental coordination and synergizing their activities.
3. Logistic support i.e boats were provided to these departments to physically transport them to the fisher families dwelling on islands and other unapproachable areas.
4. While formulating the proposal, due care was taken to clearly assign duties to each department/organization and officer so as to ensure smooth functioning of the initiative.
5. Optimization of resources was ensured, thus utilizing existing human , financial and other resources of the stakeholders and saving on extra deployment of resources.
6. The conceptualization, coordination, designing and synergy part was performed by Mrs. Kanchan Jain, the then Managing Director of the Federation. The survey, implementation, feedback collection and communication role was performed by Mr. R.K.Khare, Asstt. Manager, Indirasagar.

(b) Implementation

 b.      What were the key development and implementation steps and the chronology? No more than 500 words
A. Conceptualization
1. Intensive visit of the area i.e. islands in the reservoir discussion with the fisherfork and assessment of problems (September/October 2006).
2. A concept note was given to stakeholder government departments for consideration and support.
3. An extensive survey of all the islands exposed at the moment along with the fisher families . (September / October 2006).
4. A series of brain storming sessions and the feedback from primary stakeholders i.e. the fisher families, a project proposal was prepared wherein the objectives and roles of various stakeholders was clearly laid down and sent to them.
5. Meetings in the Federation both at the state and the reservoir level continued and finally a state level meeting under the Chairmanship of Principal Secretary Fisheries department was held in January 2007 in which Secretaries of all stakeholder departments participated.
6. As new issues emerged and more information was required, the field officer i.e. Regional Manager Indira Sagar was given additional instructions in January 2007.
B. Coordination
7. In April 2007, a committee at district level was proposed by the M.P. Fish Federation to state Government which in turn issued instructions to the district Collectors involved, who then formed the committees as proposed. The committee was headed by the Chief Executive Officer the District Panchayat and its convener was Regional Manager M.P. Fish Federation in charge of the reservoir.
8. The committees at district level fixed 2 days in a month when the camp would be held in all the islands falling in the district's jurisdiction and also nearby islands.
C. Implementation
9. M.P. Fish Federation offered to provide them logistic support and transported them to the islands on board its fish collection boats and surveillance boats.
10. As water level began to recede, the islands began emerging and fisher families started staying there, the innovative scheme called Mobile Aaganwadi or Jaldeep Yojna was launched on 22.5.2007 on the islands adjoining village Joga Kalan in district Khandwa.

(c) Overcoming Obstacles

 c.      What were the main obstacles encountered? How were they overcome? No more than 500 words
1) Inaccessibility was the major obstacle. Fisher families used to reside on islands and other unapproachable areas where government machinery could not reach. The fishermen themselves did not come to main land during fishing season lest they lost their earning making the delivery of services almost impossible .
(2) Inertia and unawareness in the attitude of fisher families. They had resigned to destiny and accepted the situation of being deprived of the basic services as their fate.
(3) Inability and /or insensitivity on the part of government machinery as the fisher families were not only unapproachable but also invisible and nomadic. There was also no means of transport to reach them. Neither any budgetary provision in the government schemes to cover the cost of transport to reach this invisible and floating population.
(4) Vertical compartments in the government set -up allowing no coordination or synergy amongst various government departments. The departments therefore could not work together for a common cause.
These obstacles were overcome by initiating and maintaining communication with the fisher families on one hand and government stakeholder departments on the other. Their needs were assessed through participatory approach. Better and permanent coordination between various stakeholder departments was ensured through systemic improvement as well as interpersonal approach. Means of transportation, specially boats and other logistic support were provided to the stakeholder departments so that they could reach the fisherfolk dwelling on islands and other inaccessible areas.
The federation under the leadership of then MD Mrs. Kanchan Jain took initiative to synergise the activities of stakeholder departments and provided means of transport to them. It also motivated fisher families to take advantage of government schemes and made them aware of their rights through counseling and camps and enabled them to get those rights.

(d) Use of Resources

 d.      What resources were used for the initiative and what were its key benefits? In no more than 500 words, specify what were the financial, technical and human resources’ costs associated with this initiative. Describe how resources were mobilized
The resources used to implement the initiative were :

1. Financial resources :
Interestingly , no financial resources were required as all the stakeholder government department of health , women and child development, school education and tribal development etc. had these fisher families already as their beneficiaries and had budget allocation for providing services to them as well. Similarly, the M.P. Fisheries Federation already had boats for surveillance and collection of fish. It did not have to buy additional boats.

2. Human resources -
Doctors, medical team, women and child care staff, teachers etc were required to implement the scheme. They were mobilized though interdepartmental coordination. The government department of health the women and child development , school education and tribal development all had trained , experienced, willing and motivated human resources and offered them to implement the scheme who were posted in the area of jurisdiction anyway. The local officials of the M.P. Fisheries Federation worked to coordinate the day to day functioning of the scheme. No one was paid extra remuneration for the services offered on the camps/ initiative as it was part of their regular duty.

3. Technical/material/logistic resources.-

The medicines, supplementary nutrition etc as well as various instruments, consumables, stationery etc. were required. They were arranged by the stakeholder departments themselves from their regular ongoing schemes.
A referral service to needy patients was provided by government hospitals. School education and hostel facilities to children was provided by departments of school education and tribal development
The unique fact about the scheme that it does not require any extra resource of any kind has helped the initiative to sustain on its own.
The benefit to the target group ie; fisher families:

1. Incidence of disease among fisher families has considerably reduced.
2. The increased workdays and better health has enabled them to catch more fish raising their per capita daily income from average fish catch and ensuing income as wages in pre initiative period(2007-2008) was 3.407Kg and Rs. 52.06 respectively which after the initiative has increased to 8.979 kg and Rs.170.60 respectively ( as on November 2011).
3. The Nutritional levels of pregnant & lactating mothers, young and adolescent children are being regularly monitored and addressed.
4. Children's education is continuing uninterrupted..
5. The most important outcome of Jaldeep is not only the services fisher families get but that it has made them increasingly aware of their rights, making them vocal and more demanding for improved services, motivating the government machinery to be more vigilant transparent and responsive.

Sustainability and Transferability

  Is the initiative sustainable and transferable?
• Sustainability of the initiative
It has been running successfully for the last four years (since May 2007). It is going to sustain itself in future as well, as it does not require any extra budgetary provision or extra staff. Ongoing regular schemes of the stakeholder departments are sufficient to sustain the initiative. The initiative is demand responsive, as the fishermen beneficiaries with raised awareness will not allow the scheme to be discontinued.

The initiative has an inclusive approach, as opposed to being an exclusivist stand alone program. Jaldeep strives for more and more schemes and benefits to join the improved delivery mechanism such as : solar lighting for safety, supply of subsidized ration (PDS).

• factors to ensure sustainability -

1. Self-sustainable, does not involve extra resources - financial human or otherwise.
2. well established system evolved
3. Elements of self-satisfaction theirs service among stakeholders.
4. Raised level of awareness and expectations among fisherfolk.

Transferability (replicability) of the initiative

As the initiative is focused on delivering services to secluded population living in unapproachable pockets by synergizing ongoing schemes of key delivery departments, it can be and has been replicated in other reservoirs having islands or other unapproachable areas. It has been replicated in 2 more reservoirs viz Bargi and Bansagar in the year 2008-09 and since then it has been running successfully there too.
Using the same approach, it can be used in areas cut off due to rainy season, due to lack of transport infrastructure or due to calamities etc. specially when the target beneficiaries are a floating population.

Lessons Learned

 What are the impact of your initiative and the lessons learned?

1- It has benefited 4881 fishermen, 4881 women and 5248 children making a total of 14733 beneficiaries in Indira sagar , Bansagar and Bargi. The results are sure to lead the fisherfolk towards a socioeconomically better life making them increasingly expectant, confident and aware of their rights and place in the system of government and society.
2- Better health and decreased incidence of disease/sickness.
3- Better efficiency and increased number of workdays has resulted in more fish catch and more income , for example per capita average fish catch and ensuing income as wages in 2007-2008 was 3.407Kg and Rs. 52.06 respectively which after the initiative has increased to 8.979 kg and Rs.170.60 respectively ( as on November 2011).
4- Number of school going children has increased .
5- Children of parents living in islands get admission in hostels ensuring continuation of education.
6- Raised level of awareness amongst fisherfolk about their rightful place in the services delivery system as well as ways to achieve the same.
7- Link departments have learned to work together in harmony and synergy for a common objective of service delivery in an efficient and cost effective manner to their target group.

Lessons Learned :

1- The initiative sets a successful example of inter-departmental synergy for a common cause i.e. meeting the requirements and expectations of poor people living in remote and inapproachable area.
2- It also provides a model to further experiment and mainstream service delivery to migrant populations.
3- Measures like the Unique Identification No. to migrant populations could help in overcoming this dichotomy and make the other schemes also amenable to implementation with these disadvantaged groups.

The key elements which made her initiative success were -

1 Recognition/ acceptance of her sincere and genuine concern to make the life of fisher families better by all the stakeholders.
2 Her ability to inspire the team of officers in the organization as well as other departments to work for a common cause.
3 Evolving a workable and sustainable system (of organization as well as operation eg. Formation of team with well-defined duties and frequency of camps) which is continuing even after her tenure as Managing Director of the fisheries federation was over and she got transferred to other govt department.
4 Ability to coordinate and synergise the functioning of various stakeholder departments towards the common goal of providing services to the inaccessible and needy fisher population.
5 The fact that the initiative did not require any extra resources: financial human material, logistic or technical was the most important factor leading to its success.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Deptt.of Cottage and Rural
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Kanchan Jain
Title:   Principal Secretary,Deptt.of Cottage and Rural  
Telephone/ Fax:   0755-2550084
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   kanchanjain@gmail.com  
Address:   Room No.204,Vallabh bhawan
Postal Code:   462004
City:   Bhopal
State/Province:   Madhya Pradesh
Country:   India

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