Daliya Jalao (Rescue and Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers)
District Administration Budaun

The Problem

The initiative primarily aimed at the liberation of a group of people from manual sweeping of household dry toilets; and collecting and carrying away of human excreta usually on head to a designated place on the outskirt of village/town. Dry Toilets are non-flush toilets that a household construct as a family toilet, whereby each day the accumulated night soil (human excreta) is cleaned and collected manually by a human being. Manual Scavenging is done by one of the scheduled castes known as Balmiki community and worse, among them by women including minor girls. The practice is being carried on from generation to generation and is being culturally accepted rather legitimized. This is an obnoxious and degrading occupation, which the manual scavengers themselves despise, but due to socio-economic and cultural entrapping feel helpless and trapped into. The practice is detrimental to the health, dignity and human freedom of manual scavengers and their families and has serious bearing of their life span. This is one of the worst known employments in human history and memory. The entire family of Manual Scavenger has to go through the dilemma of lifelong self esteem, experience physical and social segregation and untouchability. The everlasting imprints of Manual Scavenging can be seen on the children of this particular caste group.

Manual scavenging seems to be a thing of past. But hard reality is that even in third millennium India the inhuman practice of cleaning and carrying human excreta by human being exists. More painful is the audacity with which this brutal reality is negated. In response to the Supreme Court of India’s direction in 2003, most of the state governments reported abolition of manual scavenging. Can there be any parallel to this worst form of human rights violation? Can there be any justification for any further leverage to this inhuman practice?

Dry latrines affected its users by exposing them to all types of diseases and health hazards, specially caused by feaco-oral route, and much worse than those caused by open field defecation. Especially they affect women and children who are in the house for most of the times in the midst of stinking environment and flies, exacerbated further by delay in cleanliness. They also affect people living in the vicinity of houses having dry latrines, because they are also exposed to all types of health hazards. Excreta lie open sometimes for two or three days as well and sometimes washed away into open drains. The situation was so bad that many outsiders used to report nausea and sickness after visiting villages /town areas having large number of dry latrines.

District Budaun had around 50,000 dry toilets in rural areas and around 20,000 dry toilets in urban areas. There by having around 4 lacs people using dry toilet and around 8 lacs people getting adversely affected. As a result, frequent outbreak of epidemics such as of diarrhea, dysentery, jaundice, gastroenteritis, typhoid, and intestinal worms were common. The district had Infant Mortality Rate of 110 (120 for Rural Females). In year 2009 the district had one of the highest cases of wild polio viruses in India. Of the 66 High Risk Blocks identified by WHO and UNICEF for Polio Eradication in U.P., 16 development Blocks were in Budaun District (there are a total of 18 development Blocks in district!). The UN agencies engaged in district could not correlate it with dry latrine prevalence.

Thus dry latrines and consequent manual scavenging constitute a problem that transgresses into the domains of caste and gender; health and occupation; human dignity and freedom; and human rights and social justice and it is impossible to attain the Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7 without addressing the issue.

Solution and Key Benefits

 What is the initiative about? (the solution)
The initiative reflects conviction and commitment to cause of social justice and a model for district planning. The Initiative has been one that people from more than 500 villages and 17 urban areas in district Budaun alone were looking for centuries.

The initiative is not a technical or procedural solution of a problem rather it is about tremendous hard work put in for a very long period to change mindset of the society by engaging its people. The team of district administration, professionals, local bodies and civil society representatives in unison have created a history of sorts in acknowledging the prevalence of dry toilets and manual scavenging, prioritizing phase based interventions of dry toilets conversion which is sine qua none for ending manual scavenging; and rehabilitating manual scavengers. The initiative is about the mass mobilization and the felt need of the most suppressed class in India.

With the liberation of around 15,000 Manual Scavengers and their family members, the district is now free from the inhuman practice of manual scavenging. These manual scavengers, their children and family members have been rehabilitated and successfully linked to government schemes and programs, and have also engaged in alternative trades for which loans and training have been imparted. Their children have been enrolled in school, given special scholarship and now they have come out of social segregation and can aspire for bright future. Initiative has contributed in recovering the ‘Agency’ of liberated manual scavengers’ especially female manual scavengers. They are vociferous in arguing No to manual scavenging and are thankful to district administration in convincing and making them feel that they can quit manual scavenging. Today these women are proactively working with Balmiki Sena to motivate manual scavengers in other parts of state to quit this inhuman occupation. They have made Dalia Jalao as a representative of a counter-hegemony strategy.

In a span of one year the Initiative has been successful in eliminating manual scavenging and converting existing 50,000 dry toilets in rural area and 20,000 in urban areas into Pour Flush latrines with 100% usage. The users of dry latrines and lacs of people of those areas are feeling the extinction of flies that used to be there in their houses and report that their houses and streets no more stink with the foul smell of human excreta. The impact of this on health is very obvious and has historically shifted the paradigm of health and sanitation conditions in those villages.

During the campaign approximately 7,000 village level government functionaries have constructed their own toilet. They set example for other villagers and generated positive atmosphere for the elimination of open defecation.

There has been no polio case in the District since Feb 2010 as compared to 52 in the year 2009. Integrated Disease Surveillance Program reports & WHO data have provided that there is a sharp decline in the epidemics in the villages this year

The initiative has also contributed in identifying the actual beneficiaries of government schemes and services. For example, over 1300 Below Poverty Line (BPL) cards of ineligible families were cancelled and given to deserving scavengers.

Participatory approach has contributed in the capacity building of masses to raise their voice and get their due entitlements. It has set an example of participatory and convergent district planning.

The impact has been measured, verified and crosschecked through surveys, verifications and stake holders meetings by district administration, Delhi university team, International Institute of Health Management Resource, New Delhi and local, national and international media. UNICEF’s district level, state level, national level and even international level office bearers have themselves seen and verified the impact.

Actors and Stakeholders

 Who proposed the solution, who implemented it and who were the stakeholders?
District Magistrate, Mr. Amit Gupta, honestly acknowledged the existence of dry toilets and manual scavengers in such a large number explained clearly the linkages between dry toilets and epidemics in the district and also violation of law including the orders of Apex Court and then appealed the district functionaries to take this task not as another government programme but as a mission that comes once in a life time for the benefit of the masses. The initiative is a perfect example of working together of all the wings of district administration and convergence of a large number of schemes. Instead of complacency, the district machinery has dared to accept the hard reality of existing dry toilets and has considered the inhuman practice of manual scavenging as not only against the law but also against the humanity.
To carry out the task in such a large number of villages a strong educated and motivated village level team was required. The team was formed with village pradhan (head man) & Panchayat Secretary as leader and Block Development Council (BDC) member, primary school teacher, para teacher, Auxiliary Nursing Midwife (ANM), Anganwadi worker, ASHA, Rojgar Sewak, ration dealer, lekhpal, safai karmi, as key members. The pyramid of this initiative rested on this village level team’s effort. This team being from the community itself had a greater reach within the community and provided with a platform where community was motivated by government officials. They were assisted by the volunteers named Village Motivators. The Education department was to organize meetings with parents and children on the issue and to have rallies in the villages having existence of dry latrines. The Department of Health was entrusted to organize Health Camps and to take Hygiene Education Sessions and inform the community about the ill effects of dry latrines. The Department of Drinking Water was asked to get proper water supply for drinking and household usage in these villages and to repair hand pumps as adequate water supply is needed for the pour flush latrines. The Departments of Social Welfare, food and civil supplies, rural development, primary educations etc. were involved in the task of providing all the benefits of various govt. schemes to rehabilitate manual scavengers. Not only the departments were working in full coordination but also the elected representatives at village and block level were involved in the initiative. The key stakeholders starting from Manual Scavengers (primary stakeholders) to users of dry toilets and village community were intensely engaged through village level workshops and meetings involving front line government workers, block, tehsil and district officials; Gram Panchayat; civil society organisations like Rashtriya Balmiki Jan Vikas Manch; UN professionals and organisations. Balmiki Sena - the organization of community that performed the manual scavenging, played its part by mobilizing and exerting social pressure on their fellow community members who were still engaged in the practice of manual scavenging
When told about the ill effect of dry latrine, users of dry latrine were more than happy to come forward and convert their toilet. Many of them invested 5-10 thousand rupees to construct their toilet. Panchayat representatives also participated actively in eliminating dry latrine from their villages. Other villagers were also very supportive as having dry latrine in nearby home cause health problems to them also.
Village level government functionaries became active participants by constructing toilets in their homes and in their friend’s & relative’s homes. Seeing the campaign going on for the historic benefit of the district, the local media became a stake holder in it. They not only published and highlighted the positive outcomes of campaign but also reported on whatever shortcoming they could find during the course of campaign.

(a) Strategies

 Describe how and when the initiative was implemented by answering these questions
 a.      What were the strategies used to implement the initiative? In no more than 500 words, provide a summary of the main objectives and strategies of the initiative, how they were established and by whom.
Team Building; The strength of the Initiative rested on intensive deliberations and informed decision making among district, tehsil, block and village level officials and workers. Teams for each tehsil and block were formed with district level officials as nodal officers. Workshops at block level were conducted under leadership of District Magistrate and CDO with village level team. This was very essential not only to educate and motivate them but because even for many of the lower level government functionaries it was very much an acceptable thing. As a rule there were required to construct pour flush latrines in their houses and set examples for others.

Manual Scavengers and Daliya Jalao (Burning of Baskets): To all of them rehabilitation package was provided so that their dependence on this work could be mitigated. Any person found restricting manual scavenger from leaving his job, was dealt very strictly within the existing provisions of law. The section that wanted to remain associated with this profession of its own will was difficult to handle. Several meetings were organized with them to convince them to leave their job. Influential people from Balmiki community were also contacted and mobilized. The posters developed by them were printed and they were provided with vehicles for moving to distant places using IEC fund. But for all of them what was most important was to counter the hegemony and destroy the legitimacy that the society has given to manual scavenging through centuries of oppression and liberate them psychologically also. The wicker baskets and brooms which are used to collect and carry human excreta are the primary symbols of slavery and the mark of scavenger’s identity. Hence it was decided to burn them in front of everybody and as a final ‘NO’ to manual scavenging in that village. It ended their century long bondage with scavenging work. It was like a bonfire celebration of freedom for manual scavengers. Soon demand from other villages started coming for organizing ‘Daliya Jalao’. The message spread so much that the scavengers from neighboring district visiting their relatives in Budaun used to ask when ‘Daliya Jalao’ will take place in their district.

Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers: After a detailed brain storming it was decided that there has to be a rehabilitation package that not only gives them employment and livelihood but assimilates ‘them’ into the main stream and also creates avenues of social inclusion. Rehabilitation package was provided at their door step to gain their confidence. They were given benefits of various schemes such as loaning schemes, rural employment guarantee scheme (MNREGA), targeted public distribution system (TPDS), pension schemes, special scholarship for children (not given till now merely because of denial of existence of scavenging work), Rural housing schemes and skill up-gradation training. It was utmost important to get the children of manual scavengers enrolled and study in schools so that differences that are generated right from childhood are minimized. It was ensured that they sit and have mid day meals with other children. Loans meant for Buffalo keeping were also provided and an eye was kept on the fact that milk from the hands of a Balmiki shall not be denied access to the market. MNREGA job cards were given to the families of manual scavengers and in order to provide immediate employment, new works were started. It also brought them at par with other ‘upper castes’ as they did the same work at same work site. Health camps were also organized for scavengers to treat them for skin and other diseases caused as the result of this work. Two components were deliberately introduced into the package of rehabilitation one was the provision of flush toilets in houses of manual scavengers and another training them as masons which not only ensured a benefit for them but also ensured that they were their own change agents.

(b) Implementation

 b.      What were the key development and implementation steps and the chronology? No more than 500 words
The District Magistrate after his visit to a Village called Ramzanpur (having more than 1000 dry latrines) on 6th July 2010 and then meeting with District officials on 7th July ordered the survey of all villages where Manual Scavenging was in practice on. The initial survey revealed more than 25 thousand dry latrines. It took more than three months to complete the survey of nearly 1500 villages and urban areas of the district. On the one hand the district had nearly 70 thousand families using dry latrines and on the other there were the 15000 Manual Scavengers and family members that were entirely based on this profession. Work was started immediately after initial survey without waiting for finalizing survey.

A series of meetings, rallies, health camps, cleanliness drives were held from 9th July onwards and initially 78 villages were taken in what was termed as the Phase 1 of the conversion drive. On 20th July 2010 nodal officers were appointed for various blocks to review, monitor and give pace to campaign. It was difficult for the district level officers and the Block Development Officers (BDOs) to reach each and every village and motivate community so the District Magistrate ordered the identification and training of village motivators for each such village where the conversion drive has been initiated. By the month of August all such villages where the conversion drive had been initiated was having two or three village motivators from the same villages. Similarly Block Motivators were also appointed. On 30th July 2010 guidelines were issued to government employees and village level workers of various departments to construct toilet in their own homes.

By the end of July 2010 more than 4000 dry latrines were converted and 300 manual scavengers and family members were rescued. This figure was 8000 and 500 by the end of August, 15000 and 1000 by the end of September and 20000 and 1600 by the end of October. On 23rd November 2010 a verification drive involving district and block level officers was launched to evaluate the work done till then. By mid-December 2010 a total of 30000 dry latrines were converted and 10000 manual scavengers and family members were rescued. From January 2011 health camps were organized for recued manual scavengers. The July 2011 witnessed 15000 rehabilitated manual scavengers and family members with almost all of 70000 dry latrines converted to pour flush latrines.

In rural areas initially dry latrine users of whole village were given incentive of Rs 1500, irrespective of whether they are APL or BPL. But the money available for APL was limited so after a time and in most of the villages only BPL could be provided incentive. Hence in around November strategy had to be redesigned after the initial success. There was resentment because in villages everybody demanded money. Massive IEC campaign was launched and large numbers of meetings were organized at this time to give pace to the program. Village wise and family wise micro planning was done and their Economic & Social Profile was prepared. Members of village level team were used extensively and effectively. Among APL richer ones were approached individually. They together with the government functionaries including village level team members, people associated with government system and their relatives living in the village were the ones, which were identified as the first target group to launch the program in the village. As a second step influential people and village level functionaries were given a target to convince a certain number of people of their choice. Influential Pradhans were identified and they were motivated to carry campaign on their own in their villages so that senior officers could focus on other villages.

(c) Overcoming Obstacles

 c.      What were the main obstacles encountered? How were they overcome? No more than 500 words
This initiative required a behavior change both from the side of Manual Scavengers and also from the Dry Latrine users. It was not an easy task to get the community motivated for the conversion of the dry latrines as this practice is widely prevalent in state as well as country. District level nodal officers along with their respective tehsil and block functionaries organized series of workshops and open meetings, numbering around 500 in all, in the villages to orient the masses on the ill effects of dry latrines and other issues of health, hygiene and sanitation as also of the legal implications and penalties of having dry toilets and engaging manual scavengers. The first question raised in meetings was regarding the need of the pour flush toilets when they already have a dry latrine. Second was regarding the high cost needed to convert the dry latrines, but when the low cost model was built and shown to them in one or two places then they got. There were also doubts about the longevity of small pits. People were skeptical that it would fill quite early. They were informed that the pit would last 5-7 years due to bacterial decomposition. It was shown that cost can be reduced by using existing super structure of the dry toilet. Construction material was provided in villages having far off markets. In a village people who opted for conversion in the starting automatically became the messenger of the benefits of pour flush toilet and gave boost to the drive. The paramount part of this conversion drive is that because of involving & educating community, there is 100% usage of all the toilets that were converted in the villages.

The second obstacle was from the Manual Scavengers those were not ready to leave their age old profession and also there was no proper rehabilitation model available and whatever was done earlier was not successful because of their exclusion from main stream. They were skeptical of the promises made by the government and that it takes much time to get proceedings done by the government. Men folk of Manual Scavengers resisted because they are not habitual to work and live on earnings of females. They were convinced by providing them with immediate relief in packages form and at their doorstep as discussed in detail above. Dalia Jalao was used for libration & social transformation. A major task was done by the posters that were developed and displayed at these villages urging the Manual Scavengers to discard this work. The Balmiki Sena leaders who joined the program also played a positive role in convincing the people engaged in manual scavenging.

At times, in some villages users of dry latrines protested through demonstrations etc because their toilets could not be cleaned as scavengers had stopped working. But they were dealt firmly and at the same time they were also convinced about the program.

Since the volume of work was so large that surveying itself was a gigantic task, it was very necessary to motivate govt. workers and officers involved in order to sustain the campaign for such a long period. These workers and officers were skeptical about their routine departmental works getting affected. They were motivated by educating on the issue, through regular monitoring and by sharing appreciation received in national media. Their picture doing hard work used to be uploaded on daily blog and shown in presentation in review meetings. Village pradhans and other team members doing good work were honored in open meetings. Motivational levels were so high that throughout the campaign hardly any need was felt to punish any worker involved for not giving desired result. For this campaign not only DM created extra time slot, after routine work, but also motivated others to spare and create extra time.

(d) Use of Resources

 d.      What resources were used for the initiative and what were its key benefits? In no more than 500 words, specify what were the financial, technical and human resources’ costs associated with this initiative. Describe how resources were mobilized
Fund management; in urban area fund was available for around 12,000 toilets but in rural area initially funds for incentive money were available for only around 6000 toilets. It was found that part of funds released under TSC to various village Panchayats during the last 3-4 years were unutilized. Such villages were identified and funds were reallocated. Thus an amount of around Rs 15 million was recovered and given to the BPL families at earlier rate of Rs.1500 under TSC, which was hitherto not even known to not have been spent. As discussed earlier rest of the toilets were converted without giving any financial support but few of them were helped by providing toilets seats etc by rich village pradhans, banks and private institutions.

Parallel Support Structure; for the successful implementation of the program it was essential to have a set of workers matching the government structure. For this at the Block level and at Village level the motivators were appointed using the TSC guidelines. Usually there is a delayed payment to the motivators and thus it makes them lenient towards the cause. So in order to make payments available for the village motivators an amount matching to their honorarium was transferred to the accounts and the Village Secretaries and the Gram Pradhans were told to pay the amount instantly to the motivators. Payments to motivators gave required pace to the program. The financial help of rupees 5000 per month by UNICEF in the form of honorarium to block motivators also helped a lot. Trainings were also conducted for Village motivators from the district. Heavy floods affected large part of district in the month of September, not seen in last 50 years. Panchayat elections lasting for around 3 months also took place in the drive period. Such events involved whole government staff and in such period the parallel structure was the one, which did not allow the pace of campaign to die down.

Arrangement of trained masons; The quantum of work was so high that when the work was in full flow the shortage of trained masons was felt, as the construction of a large number of toilets started simultaneously. Masons from nearby villages were mobilized and large number of training programs with the help of UNICEF were held to overcome the shortfall. In some villages family members of the manual scavengers were trained which served additional purpose of providing employment to them. Moreover, with this initiative now manual scavengers were themselves contributing in eradication of dry latrines.

People with good communication skills were required to educate and motivate various team & team members, manual scavengers & other people. During the course of campaign such good orator were identified from among district level officers, block level officers, TSC coordinators and from community also. Separate scripts for different target groups were developed and provided to them. District coordinators and staff of UNICEF & WHO also acted as resource person in various meeting. They also gave technical advice on the construction of toilet during the course of campaign.

Sustainability and Transferability

  Is the initiative sustainable and transferable?
A recently public census report (on the basis of survey conducted in early 2010) has shown around 20 lacs insanitary toilets (dry toilets and toilets in which human excreta is washed away in open drains) in various states of India and chances are that even this in less than actual figures. This means around 15-20 million people facing worst kind of health hazards and few lac people engaged in manual scavenging. Such toilets must be there in other parts of the world also. The initiative is sustainable and transferable in India because Total Sanitation Campaign which is a national flagship program of Government of India has been the focal point of this. Major components of initiative are taken from various government schemes which exist in every district. Since the results have been achieved by mass education & mobilisation, it is replicable in every country which has welfare schemes for its people. The strength of replicability also lies in the fact that available government machinery, infrastructure, programs and services are sufficient enough to engineer the process of dry toilets conversion and liberation of manual scavengers. Only a push is awaited. Then DM of Budaun Mr. Amit Gupta himself replicated this model in his later postings as DM in district Bijnor & Pilibhit. Budaun model has been presented, appreciated and adopted at state and national level workshops organized for elimination of manual scavenging. Learning from Budaun experience districts such as Gautam Budhh Nagar, Gaziabad, Firozabad, Bulandshahar, Meerut, Farrukhabad, Muradabad, Bareilly etc. have started the program some other are in the process of doing so.
Districts not having dry toilets are replicating it as a campaign to achieve the goals of total sanitation. The campaign for sanitation has attracted national and international attention also as is evident from the fact that officials from district were called in workshop organized for eliminating polio in other states. District Magistrate was also invited to share the model in WSSCC Global Forum on Hygiene and Sanitation. The district TSC team is being invited to share the experiences in other districts. The initiative also demonstrates that if the strength of government machinery available at the village level in the form of village level workers channelized properly and the fact that they are part of village level community and more educated and influential ones among them, district administration can become a change agent in any field.
The Initiative has inbuilt sustainability because not only problem has been tackled from both end but also results achieved by Mass awareness. First the dry toilets are eliminated from the districts. Former dry toilet users, now using pour flush toilets are themselves feeling liberated. Manual Scavengers are completely liberated from the inhuman practice of manual scavenging and linked to government schemes, programs and services and have also been provided alternative trades through trainings and loans. Most importantly the participatory approach of initiative has contributed in the recovering the lost ‘Agency’ of liberated manual scavenger women and during the campaign itself they became strongly committed that neither they will do manual scavenging not allow anybody else in the village to do it. Today they are the great advocates of ‘Dalia Jalao’ in other districts. The amalgamation of those leaving the job of manual scavengers with the rest of the society has taken place at an unbelievable pace. With the success of efforts towards inclusion of manual scavenger, they are part of mainstream of society.

Lessons Learned

 What are the impact of your initiative and the lessons learned?
The first and the foremost thing that makes this initiative distinctively a success is that the District Budaun dared to differ and acknowledge the prevalence of Manual Scavenging which many other districts simply deny. The issue of dry latrine and manual scavenging that too of such a large scale was very ticklish to handle. If manual scavenging, is stopped abruptly then there used to be large scale resistance from dry latrine users and also demand of work from manual scavengers and it required determination to start working on the issue. The next important thing was to review the previous efforts of rehabilitation of manual scavengers in country over a period of time and analyzing as to why these efforts could not bore results. The previous efforts of rehabilitation only focused on providing loan to the manual scavengers but this time complete rehabilitation package with components of social inclusion were provided at doorsteps. Daliya Jalao (burning of wicker baskets) was used as counter hegemony strategy. Lot of work was done towards recovering ‘Agency’ of manual scavengers. Toilets were provided in scavenger’s homes and they were also trained for construction of conversion of dry toilets to make them active participant in the change. Also previously whenever there was an effort to rehabilitate scavengers, they had to face the pressure from the dry latrine users as there was no effort to convert the dry latrines but this time focus was also put on ending the prevalence of dry latrines which is the root cause of manual scavenging. Budaun initiative also focused on creating awareness among people on both health and legal issues.
Success could be achieved by educating and using around 10,000 village level government functionaries which are from the village level community itself, thus forming a big team and helping in ensuring community participation. Indispensable is the fact that this requires a great determination as qualitatively and quantitatively it was a really challenging task to educate and motivate them.
The success of the Initiative lies in the multi-pronged strategy involving all stakeholders from top and bottom, which was contingent to strong Teamwork and Team spirit. In villages/town areas where there used to be large-scale resistance senior officers including DM used to go to convince people. It is here that the district officers have shown the proven qualities of an exemplar-developing and leading towards conclusive end and leading a highly dedicated and motivated team from district level to village level workers; from professionals to Gram Panchayat and civil society representatives; from manual scavengers to users of dry toilets. A free flow chain of communication was developed and stakeholders accessible to each other for the mission of making district manual scavenging free. District Magistrate had ensured the daily assessment of progress by e-mails, every evening and over that used to discuss telephonically with BDOs. Regular meeting with district level officials and BDO(s) were held to review progress, remove obstacles and impart new and innovative ideas. The parallel structure of village and block motivators helped a lot in attaining the village wise targets and daily reporting of the progress. Extensive field visits were done to check the effectiveness of strategies planned and also to get innovative ideas. WHO, UNICEF, Media and peoples representatives were used as independent source of feedback. As was necessary in such a voluminous work, any shortcoming noticed was immediately rectified and mid course correction was done as and when required.
Last but not the least was the motivation of government machinery by the District Magistrate stating this is a life time opportunity where everyone in the district has a chance to be a part of a very noble cause of liberating the manual scavengers from this drudgery.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   District Administration Budaun
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Amit Gupta
Title:   Mr.  
Telephone/ Fax:   00915882257911
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   amitgwalior@yahoo.co.in  
Address:   District Magistrate Residence, Civil Lines
Postal Code:   262001
City:   Pilibhit
State/Province:   Uttar Pradesh
Country:   India

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