Participatory Scientific Watershed Management Programme (PSWMP)
Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Though the scenario before the initiative cannot be termed as fully void, there were considerable lacunae. Earlier watershed programme was fraught with myriad issues. Aspirations of subalterns remained suppressed and marginalized thereby tilting benefit sharing in the favour of the haves. External influences rather than inherent project requirements ruled the roost and thus it goes without saying that transparency and accountability got deeply affected. Therefore, problems were found in the following areas of project management:  Lack of institutional structure: There was no dedicated institutional structure to implement such an ambitious programme of watershed management in entire country. In Gujarat, District Rural Development Authority (DRDA) had the additional responsibility of implementing the programme. DRDA got the responsibility of implementing lots of other rural development schemes and it would be understatement to tell that it was overburdened. Therefore, the focus and attention which a watershed programme demanded and required was not coming forth from DRDA.  Poor project planning: Planning is the backbone of any developmental programme which wants to improve the condition of common masses. Planning in recent years has got important position in the project cycle. No project can take off without a sound and appropriate planning taking into consideration all the exigencies and externalities. However, the erstwhile watershed programme did not accord much importance to the planning part and many times directly jumped into implementation. Repercussions of such implementation are not difficult to guess. If at all some planning was made, it was devoid of accuracy and foresightedness because there was no use of scientific technologies. Planning were mostly done by top-down approach and hence the ownership and enthusiasm among intended primary stakeholders were missing.  Absence of proper monitoring system: A sound planning must be backed up by a proper monitoring mechanism to ensure that the project implementation remains efficient and error free. In case of any untoward incidents, a proper mechanism system ensures that corrective actions are taken on time. Such system was grossly missing in the earlier programme.  Haphazard capacity building: In pre-project scenario, capacity building of the involved stakeholders were not done in a suitable manner. There was neither a proper annual action plan for capacity building nor a specific manual. As a consequence of this, the project got grossly affected. Watershed programme implementation is socio-technical in nature and without an informed and able stakeholder, the success of the programme cannot be imagined.  Cumbersome paper system: Earlier system was mostly paper based, so for each different level communication, it used to take time to collect or send data. As well as there was less accuracy in information at each level. Another problem of the system was communication gap between each level. Moreover if the field works data got lost or wrong then it was hard to identify. Therefore, it was necessary to make an online monitoring system to monitor all such kind of works of IWMP from Village Level to State level to remove this problem.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The solution emerged out of the deliberations of erstwhile Principal Secretary (Rural Development) and Chief Executive Officer, GSWMA along with the Programme Team members. The initiative was aimed at solving the existing problem with a multi pronged approach. This approach involved identifying the result areas where focus had to be put to bring on efficiency and effectiveness. In the above context, following measures were taken as part of watershed programme to solve the prevalent problems: a. Institution Building: Institution building is a long-drawn-out process which needs proper attention on its various dimension viz. legal status, bye laws, membership, governing body formation and so on and so forth. In GSWMA too, dedicated institutions were developed at state, district, project and village level as shown below: State Level : GSWMA Governing Body Administrative, Financial & HR cells Multi-Disciplinary Team – GIS, MIS, Livelihoods, Capacity Building, Monitoring & Evaluation & Institution Building District Level : DWDU DLCCC (District level Coordination & Collaboration Committee) Administrative, GIS & Financial Cells Multi-Disciplinary Team – Agriculture, Engineer, Community Mobilizer Project Level : Project Implementing Agency Watershed Development Team – Agriculture, Engineer, Community Mobilizer Financial , Data-cum-GIS Cells Village Level : Village Watershed Committee Executive Committee Self Help Groups User Groups As shown above, at village level, there is a Watershed Committee to take care of the project. It works closely with the WDT to implement the project at the village level. This committee is registered under the Society registration Act, 1860. Such grass roots institutions include not only village watershed committees (VWCs) but also User Groups, Self Help Groups, etc. Promotion of these institutions and devolution of powers to their members has effected quality implementation with a strong sense of ownership. As part of greater emphasis on village level institutions, efforts have been taken to form them in the entire project villages. Details of the same have been given below: Sr.No Batch Village Watershed Committee (VWC) Self Help Group (SHG) User Group 1 Batch –I 1034 2487 3969 2 Batch- II 1097 2605 4158 3 Batch – III 887 1815 2898 Total 3018 6907 11025 b. Partnership and Collaboration: Partnership was developed with various relevant institutions to facilitate the execution of various project components. A consortium of thirty three organizations was formed to support capacity building exercise ( Details of the consortium is provided in Implementation plan attached). c. Scientific Approach with Decision Support System: Scientific Prioritization & Planning with Community participation: In order to decide which area to be taken up first for implementing the programme, scientific prioritization was adopteted under which the treatable watersheds were identified and a ranking was assigned to each based on clear cut parameters identified by the Department of Land Resources (DoLR). The parameters included Natural Resource Indicators, the Socio-Economic Indicators, the Contiguity factor and the Cluster approach. Factors such as the Poverty Index, percentage of SC/ST and the small and marginal farmers provided focus on provision of better livelihood options to the local population in project areas. The Natural resource parameters which include factors such as Moisture Index and the Productivity potential of the land ensured true representation of the watershed. d. Need based holistic and participatory planning of each micro watershed: A need based rather than fund-driven planning was undertaken holistically to address the all encompassing developmental problems of the specific area. Planning of a Watershed Development Project involved the use of GIS in various aspects of prioritization, development of action plan and later for monitoring and evaluation of these projects.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The initiatives taken by GSWMA were highly innovative and relevant in following ways:  Need based holistic planning of microwatershed: Project planning under IWMP were done in a participatory and scientific manner by GSWMA which was acknowledged by Department of Land Resources, Govt. of India and directed all the states to follow the same model of Detailed Project Report preparation.  Mobile based monitoring through Web based GIS system: GIS system developed by GSWMA is one of its kind meant to utilize the usability of GIS technology to watershed management. The Mobile based Work Tracking & Monitoring System which also acts as a tool for the field staff and monitoring personnel (both internal & third-party) to track the various assets created under various schemes or being created under IWMP on the field.  GIS and RS based impact assessment: For impact assessment of the projects, GIS and Remote Sensing techniques are being used.  Mandatory provision of convergence: Convergence has been made mandatory to ensure that all the developmental problems of the project areas are solved without finance and other such constraints. A practical approach has been developed by GSWMA to materialize convergence which involves following: o Participatory Net Planning: o Convergence Action Plan: For different components of the programme, suitable departments/schemes are identified and convergence is made as given below: Project Component Department/Scheme Entry Point Activities Water Supply, TASP, MGNREGS Natural Resource Management MGNREGS, Water Resources, Forest, TASP, GGRC, Agriculture, BRGF, NHM, etc. Production System Agriculture, Horticulture, GGRC, Forest, Animal Husbandry Livelihood Cottage Industry, Gurjari, DIC, TASP, GLPC  Standardisation of Processes: All the processes developed by GSWMA has been standardised and various manuals and guidelines have been brought out to this effect viz. HR Manual, Technical Manual, Operational Guidelines, Capacity Building Manual, Livelihood Manual.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
GSWMA provides district wise GIS based priority maps to the DWDUs for district planning. The prioritized maps helps them in identifying watersheds which are most vulnerable or/and villages which are socio-economically the most backward in the district. GSWMA further provides the State Perspective and Strategic Plan (SPSP) to the DWDUs; the SPSP shows the target for each district for a certain year. It is the responsibility of the DWDU to verify the prioritized maps on field and chose watersheds/villages as projects on a cluster approach. One cluster may include a number of watershed/villages totalling around 5000 hectares of land. This cluster is called a project. The DWDU has to select a number of such projects according to target given in the SPSP. These projects then have to be made into reports called Preliminary Project Reports (PPRs) in the format as supplied by the DoLR, MoRD and submitted to the GSWMA. These projects are then submitted and presented by GSWMA to the DoLR for approval. To operationalize the strategy, following step-wise activities are performed: Preliminary Village Meeting: As part of the strategy implementation, the project starts with a preliminary village meeting in the concerned villages. Baseline Surveys: Meetings are followed by baseline survey that requires baseline surveys for the assessment of existing situation, selection of sites and identification of beneficiaries. The data is gender-disaggregated to make a gender sensitive planning that duly recognizes and addresses the priorities of women. Three types of baseline surveys that are carried out: - Household Survey - Bio physical Survey - Overall Village Survey Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): An extensive PRA exercises were conducted to develop rapport building and triangulate the information gathered through the surveys. Some major PRAs done were social mapping, resource mapping, focussed group discussion, transact walk, etc. Comprehensive PRA exercise is crucial for developing rapport with the community members, generating goodwill, collecting relevant information and validating the information gathered through other sources. Problem Analysis and Participatory Net Planning: The information gathered through baseline surveys are compiled and analysed and problems are identified. Problem analysis is done in Gramsabha. It is followed by Participatory Net Planning (PNP) at village level to prepare the physical-financial plans. PNP is all about the interventions proposed in the project area with technical viability and details, financial estimation and beneficiary identification. Net planning is not bound by the budgetary constraints and is based on the need assessment. Additional funds are mobilised through convergence. On the basis of above planning, the implementation is done by VWC. The day to day activities are performed by Executive Committee of the VWC. PIA and DWDU facilitates in the overall implementation at project and district level respectively. Plans for capacity building were done at a macro basis. Total 33 institutional partners were identified and empanelled for the purpose. The livelihood opportunities were explored specific to the agro-climatic regions prevalent across the state . Moreover a suggestive action plan matrix was developed according to specific themes like agriculture, forest and wasteland by in-house domain experts in consultation with Agriculture universities, research and academic institutes. Planning at District level

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Following are the details of the stakeholders involved in the implementation of IWMP:  Primary stakeholders: Project area dwellers were the primary stakeholders for whome, the project was meant for  Secondary stakeholders: GSWMA is the implementing authority. All the staffs of GSWMA at all levels were involved in the project implementation. A consortium of 33 institutions were developed to fulfil the various requirements of IWMP project management. Capacity Building strategy was developed in consultation with these institutions. Convergence was made with various government departments and schemes for achieving the project objectives in their totality.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Resources utilized for the initiative can be categorised in four broader heads as follows: 1. Human resources: A quality human resource has been the major factor behind the successful implementation of GSWMA initiatives. At state, district and project level, human resources were involvedd to perform different project components and activities. Details of human resources employed at different level have been given below: Institution No. of experts & staff actually engaged for projects sanctioned during Batch- I (2009-10 ) Batch-II (2010-11) Batch- III (2011-12 ) Batch-IV-(2012-13) SLNA 18 WCDCs 362 WDTs 604 564 552 236 WCs 10651 10427 10935 3784 2. Financial resources: The financial resources came from the central government and state government in the ratio of 90:10. DoLR, Govt. of India allocates the budgetary outlay for the projects to GSWMA. Unit cost for watershed development of Rs. 6000 per hectare has been fixed at Rs.12,000/ha. in plains and Rs.15,000/ ha in difficult/hilly areas. To mobilise additional funds, convergence with the relevant departments and schemes was done. Details of the projects with funds approved has been provided below: Sr.No Details 2009-10 (Batch- I) 2010-11 (Batch- II) 2011-12 (Batch- III) 2012-13 (Batch- IV) Total 1 No. of projects 151 141 138 59 489 2 Village 1070 1129 907 344 3450 4 Project Cost 930.11 917.77 921.84 408.68 3178.4 (Rs. in Crore) 5 Total Treatable Area 7.08 7.14 7.11 3.18 24.51 3. Technical resources: Right from the inception of the initiative, technology was utilized as and when required. Therefore, it was necessary to mobilise technical resources. It mainly came from Bhaskaracharya Institute of Space Applications and Geoinformatics (BISAG). BISAG is Gujarat state space applications and GIS Agency. The agency helped in planning and implementation of IWMP projects. For various tasks under IWMP, different technical tools were used as shown below: Sr. No. Tasks Technical tools employed 1 Scientific Prioritization of Watersheds GIS maps, Satellite Imagery, Spatial & Non- spatial data 2 Participatory Micro Planning Thematic Maps, GPS, Hydrological Modeling, 3 Monitoring & Evaluation Web-GIS system, Mobile embedded Tracking system, eGram 4 Impact Assessment Multi-temporal Remote Sensing 4. Knowledge resources: Watershed, being a highly knowledge intensive programme, it is crucial to acquire and utilize right knowledge and knowhow. To achieve this, collaboration were developed with 33 organizations by making a consortium. These knowledge partners helped in various project component as given below: Sr. No. Project Component Knowledge Partners 1 Scientific Prioritization of Watersheds Bhaskaracharya Institute for Space Applications & Geoinformatics (BISAG) 2 Participatory Micro Planning through Scientific Approach Central Ground Water Board (CGWB), Central Soil & Water Conservation Research & Training Institute (CSWCRTI), BISAG, Agri. Universities & KVKs 3 Capacity Building 33 Institutions like IRMA, ICRISAT, NID, NIFT, CSWCRTI, Agri. Univs. KVKs etc., Reputed NGOs like AKRSP, Sadguru Foundation, DSC, BAIF etc. 4 Livelihood Promotion Agri. Univs, KVKs, NID, NIFT, NDDB, Regional Dairies like SUMUL, Vasudhara, Banas, Government Departments/Schemes like MGNREGS, GGRC, NHM, Agriculture, Forest etc.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Following are five main outputs achieved under the initiative: a. Entry point activities: Entry point activities are performed to build the rapport with the community, strengthen and sustain it throughout the life of the program and beyond. To build a rapport between the PIA and the villagers before initiating the watershed programs. In a nut cell the purpose is as bellow: • Rapport building • Opportunity for creating awareness in the community regarding IWMP • Elicit participation from communities in planning • Increase Community participation. Sr. No. Entry Point Activity Unit type Physical Financial (in Lakhs) 1 Animal camp No 736 243.13 2 Animal water trough (Havada) No 1157 569.87 3 Drinking water facility No 3389 1981.54 4 Rain water harvesting system No 942 351.66 5 Drainage/Sanitation No 1576 581.57 b. Soil and moisture conservation works: Soil and moisture conservation works are done in ridge line and other approate areas of a micro watershed to arrest soil erosion and maintain moisture in the soil. Following soil moisture works have been done under IWMP in Gujarat state: Sr. No. Soil and moisture conservation works Unit type Physical Financial (in Lakhs) 1 Contour Trenches No 2620641.5 336.67 2 Waste-weir for field outlet No 3667 633.47 3 Land Levelling ha 8465.68 1180.32 4 Afforestation/Plantation ha 2756.362 533.34 5 Farm Bund rmt 1795822 800.06 6 Gully Plug no 5507 723.01 7 Nala Plug no 1004 367.84 8 Stone Bunding cmt 152018.03 363.91 9 Gabian Structure No 779 183.85 10 Protection Wall No 653 1081.11 c. Water harvesting works: To solve the acute problem of water scarcity in the project areas, following water harvesting activities have been taken across Gujarat state: Sr. No. Water Harvesting Structures Unit type Physical Financial (in Lakhs) 1 Checkdam Repairing/ Desilting No 556 559.20 2 New Checkdam No 853 2219.83 3 Check Wall(Small Check Dam) no 1209 1000.84 4 Cause way Cum Checkdam No 574 1234.97 5 Waste-weir for Earthen Bund/Pond no 1053 404.15 6 Deepening of Pond no 1114 2377.87 7 Village Pond(Gam talavadi) no 312 683.56 8 Farm Pond(Khet talavadi) no 681 241.22 9 Earthen Bund no 6700 713.29 10 Percolation Tank no 379 511.22 d. Production system and microenterprise: To enhance the productivity of the project areas and materialise watershed plus approach, following activities have been carried out across Gujarat stae: Sr. No. Product system and microenterprise Unit type Physical Financial (in Lakhs) 1 Agriculture Activities No 49171 1656.50 2 Diary Development Activities No 4594 425.98 e. Livelihood for assetless: Watershed works are mainly land based programme and therefore benefits are unequally distributed. Major chunk of benefit goes to landed stakeholders. To bring on equity in the programme, special livelihood activities are taken up for the landless. Following activities have been performed under this specific component: Sr.No. Livelihood for Assetless Unit type Physical Financial (in Lakhs) 1 Livelihood Activities No 2354 263.94

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
A well- designed multidimensional monitoring system has been put in place for regular monitoring of the project. Both process and outcome monitoring is carried out. Different kinds of monitoring are performed as follows: - Independent and External Monitoring by independent agencies: GSWMA involved Third Party Monitoring Agencies for the evaluation of the projects. These third party agencies have been chosen through a rigorous process and approved by DoLR, Govt. of India as well. The evaluation method included a mix of quantitative analysis, participatory methods and physical verification. The three main components of the evaluation were Procedural Appropriateness, Financial Appropriateness and Effectiveness of Activities / Impact Assessment. - Internal Monitoring by project teams (PIA/WCDC): Regular internal monitoring is conducted by project team themselves to monitor the progress, check the appropriateness of the activities, find out the irregularities. It also promotes cross learning. - Progress Monitoring: Progress monitoring is done through both third party agencies as well as internal SLNA and DWDU staffs. - GIS/ Web Based On-Line Monitoring: The Web-based-GIS System has been made available in the public domain and can be accessed by a wide base of users including the project stakeholders. The system primarily comprises of 2 parts viz., The GIS Interface which includes the spatial and non-spatial database in the GIS environment and the data required thereof which are a part of the central server at BISAG (Bhaskaracharya Institute of Space Applications & Geoinformatics). The Mobile based Work Tracking & Monitoring System which shall act as a tool for the field staff and monitoring personnel (both internal & third-party) to track the various assets created under various schemes or being created under IWMP on the field. Remote sensing is used for impact assessment. Below is given pre and after imageries of a watershed area where project was implemented which clearly shows the increase in vegetative areas- a positive result of watershed intervention: - Social Audits: Social audits have been planned to empower the community members to do the self monitoring and bring transparency in each and every area of the project implementation.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
While implementing the projects, there were many impediments encountered and deal with which have been listed below: 1. Existing power and political structure: Every community has its own power structures which created an unhealthy situation in some cases. There were individuals who tried to manipulate the benefits towards their personal gain. To deal with such bottlenecks, scientific prioritization using GIS and such inputs was adopted and proper care were taken during the identification of Entry Point Activities to ensure that such factors do not affect the process and the activities taken up ensure maximum benefit for the community. 2. Lack of awareness among community members: watershed Programme is a multipronged one which involves many dimensions. Understandably, community members took time to fully grasp initially. It took considerable time and efforts in their capacity building to make things understood and implement the project. 3. Highly technical nature of Watershed Programme: Watershed programme is considered to be highly technical in nature. In such scenario, it took more intensive capacity building of the involved stakeholders to implement the programme in a suitable manner. 4. Conflict within project area: In many project areas, conflicts of diverse nature among various groups of people emerged due to clash of interests. In such scenario, it was difficult to implement the programme. Proper measures to ensure participation and ensure equity were taken to avoid such clashes. 5. Lack of availability of trained staff and high attrition rate: Project area in the first batch of the programme fell in remote areas of Gujarat which are inaccessible and backward. Therefore, it was hard to come by employees who could stay and work for the project. This was solved by extending additional benefits to employees like remote area allowances and need based capacity building of the employees.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
Benefits resulting from the initiatives of GSWMA can be broadly divided into two categories as given below: 1. Tangible Benefits  Improvement in Ground Water status: Due to interventions related to in situ water conservation and water harvesting activities, there is considerable improvement in the status of ground water which has been observed as high as 2-5 m  Augmentation in surface water harvesting: Surface water availability has increased due to the intensive water harvesting works under IWMP.  Increase in Net sown area: On an average, net sown area has increased making more area available for agriculture related activities.  Increase in cropping intensity: Cropping intensity has increased because of improved availability of water for irrigation in summer season and conservation of soil.  Increase in agriculture productivity: Many watershed plus activities coupled with availability of water has contributed to the improvement in agriculture productivity.  Increase in milk production: Due to many animal husbandry related interventions under IWMP, milk production has improved leading to more comprehensive dairy activities and higher income from such activities.  Availability of drinking water: A major focus under initiative has been solving drinking water problems which have yielded good results. Most of the project villaged have now water available throughout the year.  Favourable BC Ratio: BC ratio of the interventions taken under IWMP falls in a favourable range of 1.5 to 4.  Technically appropriate selection of project area & location of physical interventions: Identification and prioritisation of most needy and critical areas throughout the state.  Stakeholders Coverage: An impressive number of stakeholders have been covered by GSWMA under the initiative as provided below: Batch Total Households Farmer HHs Covered Landless Households ST HHs SC HHs BPL HHs Women Beneficiaries 2009-10 (Batch- I) 1,78,522 1,55,314 23,208 61,670 7,306 74,569 29,300 2010-11 (Batch- II) 2,22,148 2,04,376 17,772 56,291 10,826 59,603 17,548 2011-12 (Batch- III) 1,90,287 1,70,985 19,302 55,727 8,636 63,242 21,976 Total 5,90,957 5,30,676 60,281 1,73,688 26,768 1,97,414 68,824  Cost and Time Efficient : The centralized MIS and GIS based monitoring system helps in taking quick decisions and corrective measures, thus saving a lot of time and money.  Scientific Impact Assessment: The satellite imagery based impact assessment provides us with absolute proof of the returns of the public investment in the projects. 2. Intangible Benefits:  Ownership by community: Improved community participation and ownership of the project where the developmental schemes are suggested and executed by the community itself. The illustration given below shows an Entry point activity identified by the villagers themselves: 4252 total number of EPAs for 2009-10 have been identified, scientifically located and executed for the project of 2009-10 in 1048 villages  Transparency across board: Last but not the least, the on line banking operations helps us establish transparency throughout the different levels and guarantees accountability.  Inculcation of scientific temper in community members Case study of Eval Project Eval (IWMP-6) project is situated at the north western part of Santalpur taluka of Patan district in Gujarat. The project is a cluster of four micro-watersheds (6A1B7a2b, 6A1B7a2a, 6A1B7a2c & 6A1B7a1a) and consists of one village. Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) has changed the fate of few farmers of Eval to maximize the potential of rain-fed agriculture using Hi-Science tools under watershed management programme. Impact of – Pond at Eval After the construction of an Earthen Bund and Pond under the IWMP 2009-10, the same group of farmers is cultivating cumin and castor in the area which was one time cultivable till last year. The 410 mt earthen bund is constructed on survey number 33p with average height of 2.5 mt during 2011 before monsoon. The benefits are given below: : Sl no Crop Area (ha) Production (qt) Market rate(Rs/20kg) Amount (Rs) 1 Castor 2.4 60 (est.) 650 195000 2 Cumin 15.6 95 3000 1425000 Total 18 155 1620000

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
To ensure sustainability of the project and its benefit, many measures were taken up. Many of them were brought in as part of project planning itself. Major steps are as follows: - GSWMA has established effective institutional framework from village to state level which will ensure the sustainability. - Regular capacity building of the users/beneficiaries making them well equipped to handle the technology - Long term collaboration with the technology partner, Bhaskaracharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-informatics (BISAG) which is situated in the vicinity - Documentation and support materials in form of Technical Manual, HR Manual, Operational Manual, etc. - Strengthening and empowerment of VWC - Funds and tools for post project management - The technology inputs are well established and getting better by the day - Villages are connected on line through e-gram network New watershed development programme being run in Gujarat state is replicable in many ways which may be summed up as below: • The whole planning exorcise undertaken in Gujarat state can be followed in other states as well. DPR Model developed here has been acknowledged by Government of India and circulates as well to all the states to follow the same. • Institutional building is in consonance with the government norms and can be established elsewhere as well. • Softwares developed for planning, monitoring and other various purposes is tailor made for the project and can be provided to other states. • Manuals and guidelines developed to suit the requirements can be slightly modified by other states to accommodate their requirements. • Convergence is an effective tool in maximising the benefits under the watershed programme. An effective convergence strategy has been adopted in Gujarat state which can be adopted in all other states.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The implementation of the project has provided many lessons which can be summed up as follows: - It has been observed that without a strong institutional base, no project can take off, let alone realizing desired outcome. - External undue influence can be minimized if one operates with transparency and integrity backed up by use of scientific tool - Community mobilization is the key for success of any initiative. Once primary stakeholders are taken into confidence, no constraints remain undefeated - Devolution of power to the village level leads to speedier and quality implementation - There has to be no complacency on the part of implementers to ensure that project does not meet its unnatural death.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Ram Kumar
Title:   Mr.  
Telephone/ Fax:   079-23253454
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   Commissionerate of Rural Development, Block No. 16, 3rd Floor, Dr. Jivraj Mehta Bhavan
Postal Code:   382010
City:   Gandhinagar
State/Province:   Gujarat

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