e-government standard framework
Ministry of Security and Public administration

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Korea’s e-government services continue to bring improvements to administrative services. However each ministry developed their own systems, resulting in redundant investment, vendor lock-in, and barriers for SMEs. To solve these problems the adoption of a standard development framework (hereinafter e-Government Standard Framework) was reviewed as a way to enable connectivity with existing ministries and agencies in a whole of government approach. Specifically Korea’s e-government encountered the following problems:  e-Government platform fragmentation and long development times: Korea has around 1,400 public institutions including 45 central ministries, 246 local governments, and each organization focused on creating its own e-government services. While this has led to high quality public service delivery, the lack of agreed upon technology platform also meant that the systems were on different platforms. Also, there was a need for single service to focus more on citizens by integrating services that cross-cut multiple ministries . But integrating services built on incompatible platforms is costly and time-consuming. Furthermore, government must be able to react quickly in order to swiftly modify services to the people, and adapt to changes in the environment. This is very difficult to do when systems are not interoperable each other.  Redundant investment and redevelopment: Korea began implementation of e-government from the 1990s and invested around 3 tril. KRW (2.8 billion dollars) annually. A whole of government approach that would enable reuse of common functions was required to maximize effectiveness of the limited budget. But government systems were dependent on proprietary vendor platforms. Functions built on these platforms were also locked-in making reuse impossible. A survey of 67 e-government projects implemented between 2004 and 2007 found that 15% of the functions were developed redundantly.  Barriers for SMEs : Large enterprises with sufficient capital and technical skills built and used in-house development framework to improve productivity and reliability. ▷ Development framework refers to software development support tools that include core functions commonly required in building an information system. In Korea, conglomerates such as Samsung SDS, LG CNS, SK C&C have proprietary frameworks. These software development frameworks are supplied to the government as a closed black-box where the source code is not disclosed. e-Government services developed on these platforms were locked into that particular framework. In addition, the closed nature impacts follow-up projects including maintenance and upgrades by creating a technology barrier. This resulted in a vicious cycle where SMEs with limited resources were effectively prevented from participating in public sector IT projects. This unfair competition environment in the public sector also led to a warped software industry ecosystem. In 2007, the top 3 companies had combined market share of 80% in e-government projects. Korea was faced with a situation which required the creation of a fair market environment enabling participation of SMEs by changing the unfair situation of monopoly by a few companies.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The problems mentioned earlier persisted when implementing e-government projects, and could not be solved individually. In this context, Ministry of Security and Public Administration (MOSPA), as the chief coordinating body for e-government, launched this project in 2007 with specific goals of enabling interoperability of common functions, improving reusability, ensuring effective technology changes, reducing vendor dependency, and strengthening SME competitiveness. The following comprise the main action items. 1) Standardized development framework: Development frameworks are effective and necessary foundation for productivity and quality improvements. But being tied to a particular vendor inhibits interoperability and reusability, makes maintenance difficult, and leads to unfair competition. To eliminate vendor dependency and maintain effectiveness, MOSPA decided to standardize the development framework used to build e-government services. Over 20 meetings of the standardization collaboration group composed of stakeholders from public and private sectors were held. As a result, a consensus was reached on developing the e-Government Standard Framework, which could be used freely. 2) Multi-Stakeholder Development: As a common platform for building e-government the quality and reliability of the Standard Framework must be guaranteed. To achieve this, the Framework was jointly developed through mutual cooperation among large IT companies and SMEs with expert experiences such as Samsung, LG, SK, Crossent, and etc... A survey of e-government projects implemented from 2004 to 2007 was also conducted to identify redundant developments of functions. These common functions would be provided as common components enabling efficient development through reuse . To eliminate vendor dependency, the framework was developed with widely used standard open source tools after verifying performance and reliability. Created through joint partnerships with experienced private companies and open source software with verified performance, the e-Government Standard Framework is high performing and highly reliable. 3) Open Standard Framework : MOSPA adopted an open source software licensing scheme to allow any company including SMEs to freely use the Standard Framework. This allows relatively unrestricted use and redistribution without mandatory release of the source code, and thus allows 3rd parties to use it for profit. These source codes are open to the public and available on the Standard Framework portal site (www.egovframe.go.kr), and can be used freely. Feedback is also promoted with users encouraged to post solutions to complaints and errors. Direct technical support is available upon registration of individual projects. The Standard Framework Center has been established as the chief coordinating body for management, R&D, and technical support. The Center provides assistance on applying the standard framework from the planning stage of e-government projects, and also on solving difficult problems encountered during deployment by providing direct on-site support services to SMEs. 4) Expand Target Audience: Because the Standard Framework takes a whole of government approach, it has a wide range of target audience that includes government entities, IT companies and developers, and finally end-users, the people. In order to effectively reach such a wide target audience, the project was designed to be implemented gradually with its impact radiating in a chain reaction. First, the primary target audience included central and local government agencies, and public organizations that put out e-Government project tenders for e-government projects. By promoting the effectiveness and reliability of the Framework to these customers, it naturally spilled over to the secondary audience who are IT companies and developers placing bids on the tenders. The ultimate and final target audience is the people who use e-government services. Even though the creation of the Standard Framework does not visibly impact e-government services, it has brought about quality improvements by enabling the provision of high quality services to the people in an efficient and timely fashion from a whole of government perspective.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
Standardizing common platform for the whole government is a very difficult task, the likes of which is extremely rare worldwide. This is because getting the wide array of stakeholders from different background to agree on a standard is difficult in the first place, and even if an agreement is reached, the actual application and dissemination is just as difficult. In order to solve the problems derived from Standardizing common platform, MOSPA implemented open innovation strategy composed of open souring, open processes, open outputs, and open ecosystem. The whole lifecycle of planning, implementation and operation incorporates open innovation. Globally verified open source software was used to ensure agility, reliability, and vendor neutrality. In addition, the whole planning and development process was open to all the stakeholders allowing IT companies and developers to voice their opinions. The whole resulting source code was released as open source software to allow IT companies, developers, and government entities to freely make use of it. A continuous enhancement is to be carried out by the open community, quarterly experts meeting and open forum of public-private partners. It fosters self-sustaining and developing Open Ecosystem. Its success demonstrates new success strategies for e-government projects.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Implementation strategies for the e-government standard framework are building a technologically superior framework, building support system for improvement of the standard framework and gradual application and promotion of the standard framework. The e-government standard framework has a following history of implementing several steps. 1) As a first step, MOSPA built a Technologically Superior Framework. 7 types of development framework used by local enterprises both large and small, were researched and analyzed; common standard development functions needed for software development were then defined. The functions that were defined were standardized to raise productivity of software development. Also, 219 common components (log in, bulletin board, user management, etc) were identified by analyzing development functions used in e-government services implemented from 2004 to 2007, in order to build a technologically superior development platform that is reusable and competitive in the market. Open source software was chosen for development and runtime environment for system implementation to prevent technology dependency on platform of a particular company. In order to verify quality (functionability, reliability, usability, etc.) of open source software to be used, software evaluation process mode l(ISO14598) and more practical software evaluation process (PECA) were used to comprehensively test and analyze globally used public software, and 45 types of open source software were selected. The 45 types of open source software selected were continuously combined organically into the development and runtime environment for developing systems that would not be dependent on a particular platform of a company with proven reliability. As result of such efforts, a technologically superior e-government framework was born. (Refer to the enclosed implementation plan for detailed content of development) 2) The second stage was to build the Support System for Improving the Standard Framework. In order for the standard framework to become a success, services such as continuous function improvements, support for deployment and training were identified and decided to be provided through a dedicated full-time organization. To achieve this goal, the Standard Framework Center was established at the National Information Society Agency (NIA) and it offers R&D, technical support and free training courses on the framework. Moreover, standard specifications and source code for the e-government standard framework was released through the standard framework portal (www.egovframe.go.kr) to allow anyone to access and use it. The portal offers introduction to the e-government standard framework, technical manuals, Q&A, various training material and more. As part of the strategy to promote self-sustaining development of the standard framework, 「Standard Framework Open Community」 was established with voluntary participation from diverse outside developers. The open community was used to resolve issues arising from the use of the standard framework, share technical know-how and ultimately, added functional improvements and new functions to the framework. 3) The third stage was gradual Implementation of the Standard Framework and Promoting Implementation. The standard framework was applied to several projects in 2009 to verify its stability and identify success cases. During this process, in order to promote application of the framework in the private sector, large contractors of this pilot project were encouraged to apply the framework to their own projects. From 2010, application of the framework was expanded to new and follow-up projects from all public informatization projects. A guide for replacement and co-existence of the standard framework was distributed to promote stability in operating the framework. Together with gradual deployment, the Standard Framework Center responsible for promoting the framework provided support services such as consulting, technical support and verification, to organizations that wished to implement the framework. In order to train experienced developers, regular training courses were developed and offered free of charge to SME developers.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The e-government standard framework has been developed over the past 6 years with the participation an array of stakeholders such as government agencies, research institutes, private IT companies, developers, and more. These stakeholders played pivotal roles in developing the e-Government Standard Framework into self-sustaining software in all the stages from planning, developing, support to dissemination. 1) Planning and Development : MOSPA proposed and planned the standardization of development framework. During the planning process, internally, opinions were gathered from various agencies that implemented e-government services as reference and externally, outside opinion and advice were gathered through standardization associations. Also, MOSPA made use of 11 IT companies that possessed technical know-how on development framework to develop the standard framework for 6 years. 2) Dedicated Supports for the Standard Framework: Because the e-government standard framework contains diverse technologies for developing information system, it requires constant R&D as well as technical support and training. The Standard Framework Center was established in 2010 at NIA, Korea’s informatization specialized organization. The Standard Framework Center is composed of experts from NIA and developers that participated in developing the standard framework and conducts R&D on the framework. Also, based on expertise and R&D know-how, the Center provides technical support to government organizations using the standard framework and technical training to private IT developers that wish to learn about the framework. 3) Promotion and Dissemination: From its distributing in 2009, the Framework keeps improving every year through indirect efforts of stakeholders such as 9,000 developers from the open community. Having implemented the framework in diverse e-government services, it was possible to include software development functions demanded by users including government agencies, IT companies and developers. In addition, development functions demanded by government agencies with specialized administrative services such as defense, national tax and customs were also added.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Through the will and leadership of MOSPA, the budget necessary for implementation and operation of the e-government standard framework was secured, and the base for support as well as private & public cooperative governance system for nationwide promotion was established. 1) MOSPA Secured funds through e-Government support projects run by the Government . The e-government standard framework started out as part of e-government support project in 2007 from the demand of its need by MOSPA. Beginning with Information Strategy Planning (ISP) in 2007, a total of 18.5 bil. KRW (1.7 million dollars) was spent over a period 6 years until completion. The MOSPA invests budget of 1 bil. KRW(943 thousand dollars) each year to maintain the framework and support its dissemination and implementation in developing countries. Normally, 15~18 bil. KRW(1.4~1.7 million dollars) is needed to develop such development framework in the private sector. Considering that private companies pay out 3~4 bil. KRW(2.8~3.8 million dollars) each year for maintenance, the Korean government is showing higher efficiency with lower budget. 2) Autonomous technology improvement supported sustainability based on Private & Public Cooperation and Securing Human Resource. Because of the demand for high level technology, this project started off with participation from 11 large•medium•small enterprises and cooperation by the government to secure all needed technical expertise in the development platform. Diverse development framework from the private sector and open software base development framework were benchmarked. In order to secure and foster experienced human resource, open community for standard framework was launched(Aug., 2010) and 18 private sector leaders in development are carrying out various activities; the community provides the venue for over 9,000 developers to freely interact and improve the functions of the standard framework. 3) Centralized Standard Framework Governance System was created. NIA established the Standard Framework Center in Oct. 2010 made up of 16 people, 8 from NIA and 8 from the private sector. The Center provides consulting, technical support, training and more, on development lifecycle (planning→implementation→operation) of information system. As result, it was possible to monitor and check implementation and operation progress of information systems based on the standard framework and provides the result as feedback for improvement, enabling continuous upgrade of the standard framework.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
e-Government implementation and operation platform was built through private•public cooperation and information systems are being implemented nationwide based on identical development platform. The following are some our most successful outputs. 1) Single Open Standard Platform Promoted Nationwide to realize a whole of Government: Since its launch in 2009, 421 e-government systems (1.1 billion dollars in size) have been implemented and applied to 77.1% of government work services. Of these projects, 184 (556 million dollars) were for central government, 159 (466 million dollars) for public institutions, and 75 (93.9 million dollars) for local government. The framework has been designated and being used as common standard for development and operation for various information systems used by central government and other public institutions, not limited to specific system from certain agencies. In fact, this platform recorded over 300,000 downloads, the highest for local open source software; its use is beginning to spread to the private sector such as Uengine(commercial), Meritz Securities(financial), Lotte Home Shopping(retail), Hyundai AutoEver(automobile), etc. It can also be applied to foreign government systems; MOUs with various countries such Vietnam and Mexico have been concluded. Currently, it is being applied as implementation and operation platform for 11 informatization projects in 7 different countries. Recently in Mexico, this platform is being implemented nationwide and Standard Framework Center (http://egovframe.cinvestav.mx/) is in operation to transfer the Korean e-government standard framework for Mexican projects. 2) Strengthening Capacity and Raising Competitiveness of SMEs: From 2009, free training courses to SME developers are being provided; technical training for SME developers (completed by 2,498 developers) and framework dissemination seminars (participation by 6,169 persons) have strengthened capacity of SMEs. 7,663 developers from the private sector are strengthening their development capacity as well as exchanging technology and information through the open community. And redundant R&D cost is being reduced for informatization projects by over 150 SMEs. Based on cost reduction and strengthened capacity, from 419 e-government systems (1.1 billion dollars in size) implemented based on the standard framework, SMEs have won 75% of these projects, increasing their participation. 3) Fostering and Building Open Innovation Ecosystem by Autonomous Participation: Members of the open community is rising steeply every year, from 1,000 members in 2010 to 7,000 members in 2013. Technology and information are being shared, but more importantly, open innovation development model is establishing itself and will bring about autonomous development for function improvements.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The Standard Framework Center is taking lead in gathering opinion from central•local government, public institutions and the private sector; all information gathered is evaluated and analyzed with result reflected back into projects. Also, to facilitate and promote expedient monitoring and evaluation, various activities have been incorporated into performance evaluation system for e-government support projects run by the government for more comprehensive management. 1) The Standard Framework Center performs comprehensive monitoring and evaluation. Because the standard framework is open source software that can be downloaded and used by anyone, its use and performance is not easy to measure on a nationwide scale. To effectively deal with this issue, the Standard Framework Center is operating the following system. - Monitor and evaluate level of satisfaction of the people - Carry out developer training satisfaction survey - Provide performance feedback through best practice presentations and gather opinion Through the standard framework portal, comprehensive satisfaction level of the general population is being surveyed; by analyzing this survey, exact needs and requirements of users are being identified to improve services. Also, surveys are being done after technical training provided to the main users of the framework, the developers; requirements demanded by actual users are being reflected into the framework. From 2011, NIA is holding presentation for best practice for applying standard framework to projects and sharing implementation strategies and study cases to everyone from the public sector, private enterprises and research institutions. Best practices shared with over 500 participants every year has alleviated anxiety over implementing the standard framework for reluctant organizations and shaped consensus for the need and effectiveness of the framework in strengthening competitiveness of SMEs. In fact, there has been much demand for continuous and stable support organization for diverse and systematic technical support and more training opportunities. 2) Our Government monitors and evaluates through e-Government Support Project Run. This project was planned and implemented as part of e-Government Support Project run by the government; as such, monitoring and evaluation are being performed through performance evaluation system of the e-Government Support Project. Four indicators from the standard framework, ①appropriateness of project management ②user satisfaction ③number of usage ④number of projects using the standard framework, are checked. Comprehensive monitoring and evaluation have been carried out since 2010 and performance has surpassed target objective every year.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
To standardize the development framework, the main obstacles were to gain consensus and agreement between stakeholders such as government agencies, public institutions and IT enterprises was needed. 1) At the beginning, MOSPA faced difficulties in implementation from disagreement between Stakeholders. The diverse array of stakeholders with conflicting interests brought complications in implementing this project. - Supplier group that develop e-government system - User group that use e-government system - Contractor of this project - User group that use the result of this project Large enterprises feared losing market monopoly and SMEs feared that the development framework would only benefit large enterprises and market would shrink for SMEs. For public institutions, there was concern over insufficient support for government sponsored standard framework since most open source software have no ownership causing difficulties in timely technical support and training. Client of this project, MOSPA, had doubts over impact and ROI of this project, while developers who would use this framework did not regard highly technical superiority and market competitiveness of this platform. 2) Open Innovation Strategy Implemented to overcome concerns of stakeholders. An open innovation strategy was prepared and systematically implemented in order to effectively overcome obstacles cause by various stakeholders. First, know-how was shared and project co-implemented by 11 large·medium·small enterprises, the direct stakeholders, thereby securing independence of technology. Second, by opening the multi-year development process to the outside and gathering opinion from over 500 stakeholders, concerns harbored by the market were resolved. Third, license of the framework was opened to all; free training and technology transfer was provided to SMEs. Lastly, open community and the Standard Framework Center were established so that enterprises could build an open ecosystem for sustained win-win partnership and cooperation.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The e-Government Standard Framework provides the necessary base environment that is standardized and reusable for implementing and operating information system. It has become possible for both the public and private sector to use this framework for implementing diverse information system while technology dependency was resolved and efficiency of operation management for information system has been raised. By securing the framework technology, SMEs were able to take advantage of more business opportunities. Furthermore, developers can focus on building more functionality into the systems rather than redeveloping common functions . The following provides more details on the key benefits from this initiative. 1) Higher Investment Efficiency by Minimizing Redundant Development of Identical Functions: Information system need diverse common functions such as log in, user authentication for work functions and development for these common functions for every information system caused repetitive development cost. The e-Government Standard Framework provides 229 types of reusable common components when developing such functions and also raises efficiency of investment by allowing these functions to be reused after customization when developing information system. Analyzing the result of 11 e-government support projects in 2010 and making use of common components have produced development productivity of 1,075 dollars per project on the average. 2) Stronger SME competitiveness by Opening and Sharing E-Government Base Environment: While large enterprises spend about 3 ~ 4 bil. KRW (2.8 million dollars) annually on R&D and maintenance for development platform, SMEs do not have the technology or resource to develop and maintain such development framework. By providing standardized development framework that need large budget and personnel for free, the Korean government has helped SMEs develop the capacity to compete with large enterprises in short time. 3) Increased Management Efficiency by Implementing and Operating Information System based on Standardization: Building information system based on several development frameworks leads to increased complexity and difficulties in maintenance. When linked with other different system to support the diverse government work and services, interoperability becomes a problem. But when information system are implemented using the open source based standard framework, architecture of application developed was based on a standardized platform, allowing the client to easily understand the function and composition of the information system. Also, this allows low level developers to maintain a certain level of quality, thereby lowering dependency on capacity of the developer which in turn, increases efficiency of maintenance. By providing connection modules and compatibility support standard, system interoperability is raised significantly for system that are developed separately and has difficulty linking to each other. 4) Qualitative improvement of e-Government Service: The e-Government Standard Framework enables developers to focus more on developing functions by using verified development form and pattern, instead of redeveloping similar or repeated common tasks since it provides common modules and standard templates which are typically required to implement a system. As a result, competition takes place in bringing more robust services with more features rather than developing to meet just the minimum requirements leading to improvements in e-Government services as a whole.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
1) Building Sustainable Standard Framework based on Open Innovation Ecosystem: The standard framework of Korea was built based on open innovation ecosystem that allow it to sustain its growth. This ecosystem is made up of the following three phases of sustainable growth cycle. ① Technology development phase: based on knowledge gained during communication process between stakeholders in the development phase, superior technology for the standard framework is standardized continuously. ② Technology dissemination phase: by providing technical support and introducing best practices while providing cost free training to developers, consensus for implementation is reached. ③ Technology improvement phase: by opening and sharing result of the project through the open community, self-sustained improvement is possible. 2) Accumulation of Know-how for Customized Standard Framework Support: The standard framework has become the subject of worldwide benchmarking and 11 systems from 7 countries totaling 39.5 bil. KRW (3.7 million dollars) in size, have applied the framework. The framework is being customized and implemented in 3 different ways. a) Partial implementation b) Full implementation c) Complete Transfer of the Whole Eco-system First, as in Korea, the framework can be applied to new projects and scope of its application can be expanded at a later date. (local cases available) Second, if no e-government system exist and new system need to be implemented, the framework can be applied to all projects. (Vietnamese case available) Third, support for transfer of the whole eco-systems is also possible. (Mexican case available) 3) Providing Capacity Building through Training of Standard Framework: Securing necessary experts for development and dissemination of the technology is just as important as implementation. The Standard Framework Center provides 4-day course for the private sector 20 times a year. Regular seminars are provided to the open community made up of SI enterprises and private individuals. Such training and education can be provided to other countries; recently, some 20 countries such as Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia and Mongolia have requested and are receiving training for their workers in the public IT sector. 4) Recognition of Excellence for Standard Framework and Benchmarking: Accomplishment of the standard framework has been recognized by organizations both local and international and received the 2009 Award for Software Technology and 2010 Open Software Utilization Award in Korea as well as award from Singapore at the FutureGov Award in 2011. In 2012, the UNCTAD published the 2012 Information Economy Report which introduced the standard framework as a successful model of growth for local Korean IT industry; it has become the subject of benchmarking by many countries. Every year, introductory courses for the framework are being provided to developing nations. Proactive standard framework implementation strategies are being shared and cooperation network with various foreign nations has been established. Also, cooperation network with international organizations such as the UN, World Bank, AFDB and ITU is being developed. Through the English standard framework portal site, download of the framework, English guides, technical assistance and other services are available.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Prior to the development of the standard framework, ①for e-government projects, similar functions were developed in redundancy for each of e-government system. ②For the client, different development methods used for every system required a lot of time and manpower to connect different system. ③For contractors, previous development framework was not reusable and replacement cost needed to be paid out. After the development of the e-government standard framework, standardized information system development lifecycle (planning -> implementation -> operation) became possible. ①Even when e-government projects are carried out separately, like pieces of a puzzle, all the projects fit in with each other to realize a singular e-government system. ②Clients can also make use of connectivity modules provided by the standard framework for efficient interoperability. ③Replacement cost burden for contractors has been alleviated due to ease of analysis, modification and maintenance of previous projects. Many SMEs have chosen this framework as their development platform, thereby expanding its use in both public and private sector; application cases such as home shopping and in the financial sector have been increasing. Based on such projects, following lessons have been learnt. 2) Lessons Learnt through Standard Framework Projects Horizontal leadership is more important and needs to replace government led legal or mandatory enforcement by building consensus and understanding among stakeholders through coordination and persuasion, made possible by nationwide implementation of the standard framework. With the saying “two heads are better than one”in mind, to build the highest quality standard framework, diverse opinion needs to be gathered from initial phase of the development process through expert committees and public hearings with participation from diverse sectors rather than from a single organization or private enterprise; after development of the framework, synergy needs to be achieved by fostering cooperation between private and public sector for dissemination. The prejudice that open source software is difficult to implement in the public sector can be overcome by preparing technical verification and success cases; and the framework needs to be disseminated not just to the public sector but also to the private sector. The standard framework is open source software that can be used by anyone and is not tied to any specific technology. Through stability secured from constant improvement, it is a superior technology. Another country that wishes to realize a singular government can make use of the standard framework as their base technology to strengthen IT capacity and create high quality public service. Also, open innovation strategy based on private-public collaboration can be used as standard model for resolving issues to realize demand driven public service by breaking away from supply-oriented practices. Korea would like to propose that open platform based on open innovation strategy which was used for the e-Government standard framework. It will bring about not only successful collaboration between the public and private sector for other countries including developing countries in their early stages of e-government but also achieve a whole of government.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Ministry of Security and Public administration
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   Sang_yul Jeon
Title:   Deputy Director  
Telephone/ Fax:   82-2-2131-0260
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   upsf@nia.or.kr  
Address:   209 Sejong-daero, Jongno-gu
Postal Code:   110-760
City:   Seoul
State/Province:   Seoul

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