Optimum Utilization of Resources, Transparency and Decision Support through Integrated GIS
Bhaskaracharya Institute of Space Applications and Geo-informatics

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
The various departments of the state government were having their individual data sets either in digital format or physical format. The data quality was inconsistent amongst the departments leading to data exchange issues, ineffective analysis and decision making. The data issues included formats of databases, presence of different categories of maps, no overlapping of maps was possible due to issues like scaling, quality, purpose, etc. The spatial information was not available for the state government for complete state for various purposes like planning, budgeting, survey implementation and monitoring of state government programs in healthcare, agriculture, water supply, waste land development, forest and plantation, sanitation, irrigation, land records, revenue schemes, fund disbursement schemes, flood relief, education, urban development, public distribution system, tribal development, etc. The reliance on Physical survey was only the option available to the government departments for planning and management of schemes. These physical surveys lead to inconsistent data and was huge time and cost consuming process. Most of the geo-spatial data sets are in printed form and the format, scale, projection, etc varies for different applications. The data available with government was scattered in pieces across the departments and no tangible benefits could be derived by analyzing the same. It was therefore difficult to integrate such data sets across a range of applications for holistic planning and decision making. The GIS system implemented acts as a single point for collection of reliable data for various departments, administration and also for citizens. The collection of spatial artifacts and data for decision making was a tedious task and leading to inaccurate results. The major issues before the implementation of GIS system were: • Common multi-purpose digital database for integrated/sectoral decision making was not available. • No efficient was ensuring convergence of resources to effectively address the governance issues through inter-sectoral planning approach. • Participation of local communities was limited in development planning for long term sustainable benefits. • There was no efficient mechanism to ensure the implementation of government schemes, proper need-based planning of resources and projects, convergence of government schemes into citizen needs. • Multipurpose field level database and attributes were not linked • Absence of compatible and geo-spatial database • Minimal convergence of data or database • Geo-referencing and cartography (thematic mapping) were not possible for government departments. No value added maps were available. • No Photogrammetry (Digital elevation models, terrain characteristics, resource planning) • Analytical models and applications - Integrated applications for development planning and decision making were not possible as uniform data was not available. • Database (geo-spatial & attribute) to be compatible, comprehensive, standardized and organized with large scale (program implementable level). • Requirement was to ensure integration of domain knowledge, ICT and systems that should be simple to use and low cost ensuring adoptability and affordability.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Objectives: • To organize multipurpose, comprehensive, compatible and standardized database. • To provide GIS specific services to the government departments and citizens • To provide an aid in developmental planning • To help in taking decision and simplifying the decision making process with minimal/no changes in ongoing systems BISAG has developed centralized geospatial database and Decision Support System (DSS) which can be used as per the requirements of user departments/stake holders. The state-wide GIS database is supporting the government with an active GIS solution in such a way that most governance activities are now on a GIS based. This is an example of seamless integration of whole-of-government.The integrated centralized database leads to saving of time in terms of storing and retrieving of data and easing conflict resolution. e-Map services have been developed for visualization, interpretation and integration of remote sensing data with departmental data including both maps and attributes. Existing data has been integrated with provision of expansion for future data. This has lead to convergence of different departmental programs by sharing of data and applications resulting in support for parity and inclusive growth. Applications have been developed using open source technologies hence supporting the open-source movement and in turn eliminating licensing costs. Almost all major institutions/ departments in Gujarat are actively interacting with BISAG for development of GIS application for their organization for easy and transparent governance. The solution has helped departments in: o Providing effective services to other government departments and citizens at large o Defining efficient development plans based on cross sectoral information and better transparent monitoring o Supporting effective and efficient decision making by providing all the required information and simplifying the decision making process for senior administrators of the state. Remote Sensing Applications programme are in: (i) Inventory, Mapping, Developmental Planning and Monitoring of natural and man-made resources, (ii) Characterisation, Planning and Prioritization of watersheds for ground water prospecting, (iii) Recharge zoning, mapping and monitoring of water bodies, (iv) Land cover mapping, cadastral level planning for resource utilization and management, (v) Crop acreage and production estimation, crop condition assessment, spatial DSS for Agriculture planning and Management, support for precision Farming, (vi) Thematic mapping for Coastal areas, coastal zone information system and related studies, (vii) Disaster Management, decision support system for flood, (viii) Geo-spatial services for disaster management, (ix) GIS mapping for earthquake affected areas, (x) Cyclone mapping and mitigation measures, (xi) Development of customized software for decision making and web based solution for disaster management. Photogrammetry programmme are available in (i) Generation of Digital Elevation Model, (ii) Terrain characterization, (iii) Resources planning, (iv) Road GIS, (v) Rural Connectivity Analysis, (vi) Mineral Information system, and (vii) Geo-spatial based DSS for irrigation management and planning. Cartography applications are for thematic mapping and generating value added maps. Software Development is for wider usage of Geo-spatial applications, decision support systems (desktop as well as web based). GIS capabilities have helped creation of linking various departmental databases at any time as required for theme based map generation and DSS for various applications.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
- Database Integration: This initiative brought together data for analysis, decision making and project planning with the help of the solution developed by BISAG. One of the innovative achievements of the project was integration and linkage of large amount of spatial- non spatial departmental databases and convergence of multiple maps in to a single solution developed by BISAG. Parametric data integration with all the databases and attributes from various databases of Government department and agencies linked to spatial database available for planning. - Departmental Collaboration: Almost all the departments are now on a GIS base. The departments can now rely of the agency BISAG for any spatial analysis and project/resource planning requirement which was a herculean task for every department. - Technological Integration: Various technological integration which includes GIS, GPS, Web technologies acting as a technology service provider through innovation - The process brings about the convergence of various initiatives to facilitate the whole different sectoral stakeholders through a single, multi-purpose, spatial and huge database catering different GIS needs of the departments. This is achieved through o Bringing affordable solution with use of technology o Bringing relevance to the output in most simplified manner so that the acceptability is achieved o The various departmental needs can be helped with reliable and effective solution as per their requirements and carry out capacity building across the sectors – adoptability o Help government departments in policy making, formation of guidelines, planning, monitoring, funding supported by data as per the required criterion o Association with recipient agencies to institutionalize the functions and ensure eConnectivity reaching common man o Develop a reliable and robust GIS solution to help in planning and decision making for various departments. - A single application brings about assistance in whole-of-government departments adding value to each in terms of GIS needs. This lead to adding adoptability and affordability to the application.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The objective of the technology group was to provide the decision support to the sectoral stakeholders through scientifically organized, comprehensive, multi-purpose, compatible and large scale (village level) geo-spatial databases supporting analytical tools. These activities were executed by a well trained team of multi-disciplinary scientists. Government of Gujarat provisioned a modern infrastructure along with state-of-the-art hardware and software facility. As a part of project, it was required to study the land transformation and development over years, a satellite digital data library of multiple sensors of last twenty years has been established and conventional data sets of departments have been co-registered with satellite data. The geo-spatial databases have been created using conventional maps, high resolution 2D and 3D imagery and official datasets (attributes). The databases include terrain characteristics, natural and administrative systems, agriculture, water resources, city survey maps, village maps with survey numbers, water harvesting structures, water supply, irrigation, power, communications, ports, land utilization pattern, infrastructure, urbanization, environmental development, forests, sanctuaries, mining area, etc. The GIS solution developed by BISAG is a very powerful tool which can handle, manipulate and integrate both the spatial and non-spatial data.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The project stated with the objective to provide decision support to the sectoral stakeholders through scientifically organized, comprehensive, multi-purpose, compatible and large scale (village level) geo-spatial databases and supporting analytical tools. The applications of space technology and geo-informatics have been operational in almost all the development sectors of state. Key stakeholders of the project were BISAG team, senior administrators and project officers from the respective stakeholder department and other nodal agencies and institutions who supported in the database sharing and integration. Details of the key stake holders is given below: - Geo- Spatial and Software development team of Bhaskaracharya Institute of Space Applications and Geo-informatics (BISAG), - Department of Science and technology, Government of Gujarat for overall support and guidance for the project - Whole of Government (departments, ministries and administrative authorities) are users and stakeholders of use of GIS platform and need based application services which include o Agriculture and cooperation department o Education Department o Forests and Environment department o Health and family welfare department o General Administrative Department (Planning) o Home Department o Industries and Mines department o Revenue department o Ports and transportation department o Rural development department o Social justice and empowerment department o Water resources department o Women and Child Development department o Urban development department o Water supply department o Science and Technology department o Roads and Buildings department o Panchayat department
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
- First requirement was to bring ownership of maximum number of stakeholders in the initiative. Every stakeholder was ensured the output as per their need in a time bound fashion. - Financial support was available from all the stakeholders who provided proportionate funds for the initiative. The profit to the stakeholders was in terms of application development, provision of services and human resource development, etc. - All stakeholders provided the need based fund support for the project and specific needs. - The project involve the overall structural change and resource allocation in the areas of • Infrastructure:  Database, Software and application development at BISAG  Central service facility – BISAG, GSDC.  Network Infrastructure – GSWAN  Capacity building – BISAG • People:  Government functionaries at different hierarchies, NGO’s and common man. • Process:  Decentralized functioning, common objective and integrated applications. • Synergy among sectors:  Convergence of program  Interdependence of database  Government guidelines • Public value:  Proper diagnosis of problem  Value added services  Transparency and conflict resolution  Ensuring services to deployed for inclusive growth • Holistic development  Data from all the sectors in same format  Establishment of inter-relationships and criteria  Sectoral normalization  Need based development • Horizontal and vertical cooperation  Vertical cooperation through departmental mandates  Horizontal cooperation through policies, guidelines and supporting documents.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Innovator in GIS applications for state government: Almost all the government departments are now on GIS base having specialized usage of GIS technologies. The procedures through proactive initiative of department of science and technology was simplified in such a way that all most all sectors are partner in this initiative and data base are seamlessly available to all the stakeholders. Value-add for government: Almost all the G2G organizations have benefited through this in terms of: • Value added products • Suitability concept for a wide range of problems • Decision support system Inclusiveness: Social inclusiveness, Communication between government and society, transparency, monitoring and public governance Performance enhancement through: o Data sharing among agencies o System sharing o Efficient use of resources (avoid duplication) o Seamless integration of data processes, systems, services, etc o Security, confidentiality Whole-of-Government involvement: The application brings about the transparency in the system ensuring the effective planning of government schemes, quality implementation and monitoring, resulting in convenience to the citizens through various services. The work done for various government departments include o Water Resources (Classification of watersheds, hydro-geomorphic studies, ground water prospects, cadastral level water sources action plans, mapping water bodies, water harvesting structures) o Road and Commutation planning – Gujarat Urban Development Mission (GUDM) – Development plans, administrative boundaries, water supply, drainage, land-use o Agricultural output (support for precision farming, crop condition assessment, District and village level crop inventory, spatial variability of mapping of soil-nutrients, geo-spatial information system for coastal districts of state) o Environment and forest (mapping and monitoring of mangroves in the coastal districts, geo-spatial systems for wild-life sanctuaries) o Energy and Petrochemicals (Rooftop solar power generation project) o Panchayat Department (Village level macro-micro decision) o Conceptual application of rural development department (Rural GIS: Village amenities information system) o Revenue department (Computerization of city survey maps, village map information system) o Industries & Mines department (identification of suitable land for investment locations, earmark industrial zones, promote balanced regional industrial development), Superimposing physical infrastructure like Power, Gas, National Highway Road, Water, Port, SEZ, waste disposal, etc o Commissionerate of geological mining: Mineral atlas o Directorate of petroleum o Gujarat Electricity board (information retrieval on Network, Circle, Division, Sub-division, substation, feeder, assets – LT Pole, LT Line, HT Pole, HT Line, DTR, Substation. o Gujarat power cooperation limited – Power plants, along with MSL height, areas, lithology, earthquake zone, geology distance. o Education department – School mapping, site selection, identification of villages served, etc. (Mapping of actual 40943 school locations, CRC, BRC, and Cluster Boundary in GIS environment.) o Disaster Management (Medical, Education, Housing, demography, etc) o Tribal development department

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Process: ISO compliant for establishing and regulating process and auditing the same as per international standards. BISAG facility and services are ISO 9001, ISO 27001 and CMMI 3 certified in the area of service delivery and innovation for the institute. Besides these, proactive independent third party evaluation are been conducted to maintain the efficiency and the quality of the followed processes. Government of India team have evaluated and assessed the facilities and services. Government of Gujarat proactively approached Secretary, Ministry of Earth Sciences – Government of India and Chairman of National Natural Resources Management System to evaluate GIS systems at BISAG with respect to its applications in various areas. The secretary as a chairman constituted a committee where Chief Executive Officer of National Spatial Data Infrastructure and Director NATMO (former Surveyor General of India) and a renowned professor from IIT Bombay evaluated the system. Government of India – Planning Commission constituted a task force which has evaluated the GIS activities in the BISAG. Periodic evaluations by senior civil servants and technical experts are done on regular basis. Moreover stakeholders feedback are continuously incorporated in the system.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The primary obstacles in the implementation of the project were - The compilation and quality control of data formats, scales, quality and sector based content for various departments were a challenge. This was resolved by active involvement of key stakeholders from each of the institutes or departments and sharing of required information for development of the required data sets - All the map layers in conventional and also in digital format were to be brought into high resolution 2D and 3D imagery and official attributes. - Assessment of exact need of the stakeholder departments were to be addressed with minimal changes in the exiting process and simplicity. - Cost of software – there was a challenge to identify the cost of each of the component of the entire solution. This issue of cost distribution was resolved by going for in-house development. Each of the stakeholder department was charged based on the manpower effort for that particular component and requirement. - Capacity building through collaboration - There was a need of a large ecosystem that can help in creation of an entire solution across large stakeholder group. This challenge was mitigated through active collaboration and proactive involvement of senior official and administrators across stakeholders and creating an entire ecosystem for future development and growth of the initiative

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
- Spatial field-level, multi-purpose, compatible, standardized, geo-spatial huge database available with the Government departments enabling better decision making. - Micro planning of various government schemes and public services could be done on GIS base. Quick decision making for all the infrastructure, revenue, development and government scheme planning - Convergence of all government departments into a single solution yielding decision support to all Government and administration. Transparent decision making (example: watershed, NREGA, education, health facilities) - Adoptability and affordability to government and citizens – with no change in exisiting processes of departments. - Better products, available at Less cost saving in time and efforts through online database and attribute mapping - Providing solutions as per the requirement of the departments - Efficient allocation and use of resources and monitoring of the programs run for the citizens - Seamless integration of data sources and systems enabling the capability to perform data mining across the various layers of maps overlapped under the GIS application of BISAG. - Inclusiveness and collaborative planning of government schemes. Data sharing and resource planning through system integration and attribute mapping helps in proper implementation planning of the Government schemes and government GRs. - The project has helped to ensure convergence of various government schemes. Integration of all government data - Data integration and decision making for Policy formations - Need based solutions on demand for all the departments being created as per the regular and specific requirements of the departments. Some of the key initiatives include o Disaster Management – DSS for floods, Decision support system for Cyclone Mitigation, GIS based system for Crude oil and Natural Gas Pipeline o Agriculture - Field wise land degradation and categorization & Crop Acreage & Production Estimates project (for Groundnut, Cotton, Mustard and Wheat) o Gujarat State Land Development Corporation - Large Scale Multi thematic Maps of Land developmental planning o Education - Primary school locations have been mapped in GIS environment. GIS based school information system has been developed. o Directorate of Environment - Field level Forest status mapping. Field level Coastal Zone Mapping GIS system and atlas showing village wise land parcel wise Sanctuary boundary. GIS based system for Wild Life Sanctuaries in the State. 3D Mapping of Velavadar Black Buck Sanctuary. o Election Department - Mapping of panchayat boundaries of district, taluka and village. Ward boundaries, Polling booth, other amenities like school, govt. building etc. are marked in GIS environment for all 159 nagar palikas and 8 corporation of state. o Commissioner of health - Prepared a GIS system for health infrastructure in rural areas and disease mapping. o Water Resources Department- GIS, MIS and mobile based Integrated Water Resources (Rivers, Canals, Irrigation Schemes, Water Bodies, Check-dams etc.) Information System. Level of Head regulator at canal are submitted through mobile (SMS) and the same is displayed on GIS and on charts for water discharges o Institute of Seismological Research - Preparations of GIS layers for identification of region affected through earthquake for relief and rescue management. o National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad, Department of Space, Government of India - Land Use/Land Cover Mapping, Crop Acreage Estimation, Coastal Land use Mapping, Wasteland Change Analysis project, Wetland mapping, Land Degradation Mapping, Geomorphology and Lineament Mapping, Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
- The solution and applications developed are scalable and can be extended to other states and countries - Various government departments have been approaching BISAG for various functional needs and getting the customized solutions as per their needs. - Implementation and development of need based applications can be done in other states based on the requirements - The applications and solutions are based on the in-house development GIS application software and mostly open source software use was the focus. - The work has also been extended to projects in social infrastructure schools, healthcare, institutions, etc. - Benefits are easily transferable to other states and work has already been done for other government departments of Government of India (Land degradation mapping, Coastal landuse mapping, wetland mapping, National Landuse Landcover mapping)

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
- Remote sensing and GIS applications have proved to be extensively helpful in planning and developmental activities at the grass root level as well as monitoring and management in various disciplines. - The use of GIS technology can enhance the administrative operations and assist governments in decision making through scientifically organized, comprehensive, multi-purpose, compatible and large scale database and also provides supporting analytical tools on operational basis. - Huge amount of meta-data and cross sectoral databases have been linked to provide decision support to all the government departments and other stakeholders. This brings the convergence in whole of Government departments. - Continuous improvement in the capabilities is the key for successful analytical capabilities of the department. The data layers, map layers and attributes of various departments help enrichment of the data to the next level. Also the departmental data being cross-linked at the single nodal agency, the cross sector programs can be efficiently implemented across the state and can further be extended to country level. - Organizational culture to achieve public value can be developed through political, executive and public acceptability has been achieved - The data if Integrated and collaborative planning is done, the sector based and problem specific development planning can be achieved. Standard, Compatible and easily retrievable datasets, if brought together helps efficient planning by governments and help making decision support systems. - Helps planning the government initiatives for inclusive growth and ensure spread of program in remote, deprived and rural citizens. - Technology is to be simplified further for general use. BISAG has used the departmental data as the base put up on the layered GIS solution base of BISAG to facilitate various need based solutions and applications to the departments. - Innovative methodologies have been developed at BISAG to build a seamless cadastral database with revenue maps and satellite images without using the topographical maps. The parcel level information available with the survey numbers integrated with other data attributes has been very effective and almost all the departments are effectively using the same. - Transformation of administration (Large scale and whole of government reforms). Associated with all the Government departments which include the state government and Government of India for various GIS engagements.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Bhaskaracharya Institute of Space Applications and Geo-informatics
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Tejpal Singh
Title:   Director, BISAG  
Telephone/ Fax:   91-9909945001/079-23213091
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   info@bisag.gujarat.gov.in  
Address:   BISAG, Near Ch:0, Gandhinagar
Postal Code:   382007
City:   Gandhinagar
State/Province:   Gujarat

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