Sanbokdoro Renaissance Project
Busan Metropolitan City

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
○ Problems facing Busan citizens - The towns and villages surrounding the areas of the Sanbokdoro were densely populated shanty towns formed back in the 1950s when Korean War refugees clustered around the city's old downtown areas. Situated high on the mountain, their geographical locations offered terrible accessibility and also lacked in public and cultural facilities. - The poor living conditions caused the population to drop more rapidly when compared to other villages. With many houses becoming empty and residents aging quickly, worries arose about slums springing up and crime rates rising. - Residents had no channel through which to have their opinions reflected in government-led projects dealing with improving living conditions and investing public resources. They also had difficulty getting themselves updated on the status of projects underway in their neighborhoods. ○ Problems facing Busan - Busan came under fire from both academic and civil societies for implementing development projects in a unilateral fashion. Historical and cultural legacies littered over these old downtown areas could be destroyed during the project. - Low-income families and the aging population brought about a vicious circle of poverty in these underdeveloped areas, aggravating the burden on the welfare system. - Individual departments in city government tried to address various issues including; urban infrastructure; expanding tourism and cultural facilities; and job creation. However, its efforts fell short as there was not enough cooperation between relevant departments. - The administrative resources invested resulted in relatively few tangible results. Consequently, little was done to raise settlement and population rates.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
○ The initiative was launched under the direction of Busan Mayor Hur Nam-sik in 2009 to engage more villagers in the urban development process. Previously, local governments and private businesses had excluded residents from such efforts. However, Mayor Hur wanted to make local residents' voices heard to maintain the cultural heritage of these areas while raising living conditions. ○ The Sanbokdoro Renaissance Project was initiated under the direction of Mayor Hur to create new cultural, social, and economic values based on creation resources. The Creative City Planning Division task force was established in 2010 with the mission of implementing policies by closely engaging with residents. ○ The Sanbokdoro Renaissance Masterplan (2011) proclaimed the vision of 'Creating together, creative open spaces overflowing with life.' The three main goals were; 1. space regeneration (ecology, transportation, landscape and living environment); 2. community regeneration (restoring sense of community and local economies); 3. cultural regeneration (discover historical and cultural resources, develop tourism resources, expand cultural infrastructure). ○ The five fundamental principles of the initiative are; 1. regeneration (utilize local resources in the Sanbokdoro project); 2. restoration (ecology, restoring sense of community); 3. preservation (create a cultural space where the pride and identity of local residents is preserved, protect local environment); 4. collaboration (public-private collaboration, communication with civil activists); 5. communication (communicating with people in neighboring communities through the help of the Sanbokdoro) ○ Project overview - Residential area on the mountain with a gross area of 54.01㎢ and population of 634,000 people. - Project areas were divided into three regions and nine sectors. Project was phase-based and later expanded to include six regions. - Project began in 2011 to be completed in 2020, with an expected gross cost of 150 billion.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
○ Urban management policies largely have a negative view of slums. However, the Sanbokdoro initiative is focusing on preserving communities by incorporating storytelling through art. The initiative also encourages residents to be part of the process. ○ Online and offline participation and advanced feedback system: - 33 community councils organized, empty houses remodeled, 551 offline meetings before project implementation. - Offline channels for residents to currently participate in the process will be expanded by 2013. For example, media boards, website and smartphone apps will be introduced to keep people updated and allow them to suggest their own development plans. - GIS engine-based mapping will be developed to provide residents with information about the project and allow them to share ideas. - Media boards displaying information about community welfare, news, and useful tips to be setup. RFID cards will be given to seniors to provide tailored services. ○ Public-Private Partnership - Planner/coordinator designated. - Sanbokdoro Forum set up in June 2010 with members from government, academia, NGOs, and the art community to provide advice. - The Busan Metropolitan City Village Creation Support Center, a help desk for residents, set up to provide a 24-hour community business consulting service.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
○ The development of a socially inclusive urban regeneration model was undertaken in 2009 under the direction of Mayor Hur. The Sanbokdoro Forum and partnership meeting was held to establish an implementation system involving academia, NGOs, and local residents. - July 2009, Busan Mayor Hur, "The bar has been set to turn Sanbokdoro into a premier culture and tourism destination.” - Sept. 2009, The Sanbokdoro Renaissance Project kicks off. - June 2009, The Sanbokdoro Forum set up with 80 members from academia and NGOs. - Aug. ~ Dec. 2010, on-site inspection, survey, meeting with residents, and partnership meetings take place. ○ Development of Sanbokdoro's storytelling resources and cultural contents started in 2011. A feasibility test and local resource analysis are conducted. A residents' participation plan set up. - April 2011, a community council is formed, and the planner and coordinator are deployed. - June 2011, residents’ projects are initiated and a community business school is opened. - October 2011, the Sanbokdoro Eco-museum feasibility test is started. - Nov 2011, the Sanbokdoro Storytelling Competition is opened and a book is published. - Dec 2011, the basic plan for Sanbokdoro Archive is initiated. - Feb 2012, the Sanbokdoro Community Support Center is opened. - Mar 2012, the new transportation system feasibility test begins. - July 2012, the Busan Village Creation Support Ordinance is enacted - Dec 2012, the Sanbokdoro Renaissance Project compilation book is published. - Feb 2013, the Sanbokdoro Historical Figure Project is initiated. ○ Community welfare, culture, education, and job creation programs are launched along with a universal service started in 2013 to encourage more villagers to participate in the project. - Mar 2013, the Sanbokdoro Archive Center is opened - Apr 2013, the Sanbokdoro Free Medical Service Center is opened. - May 2013, the Sanbokdoro Observatory and Exhibition Center are opened. - May 2013, the Busan Village Creation Center is opened - June 2013, the Sanbokdoro house remodeling service is launched. - June 2013, the Sanbokdoro Concert Hall is opened - July 2013, the Sanbokdoro Community Center is opened - Aug 2013, the Sanbokdoro job center for seniors and book cafe are opened - Oct 2013, welfare, tourism, traffic information services are launched - Oct 2013, joint community brand launched - Nov. 2013, CPTED (Crime Prevention through Environmental Design) system is initiated, and nightlight installed

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
○ The initiative was originally proposed by Mayor Hur and Busan drew up the implementation plan. The BDI (Busan Development Institute) was responsible for the master plan and the community-level plan was set up after consulting with community councils. ○ Action plan for the initiative - Busan financed the project, revised policies and set up an action plan. - Resident councils were responsible for improvement of living conditions and six self-governing districts while community centers ran community programs. - A variety of community centers were involved including knowledge sharing organization ‘Imago,’the welfare corporation Rosario Caritas, and the Busan Development Institute. - Education and cultural programs including the Gamcheon Community Council, the community of Sulosanbok, the Culture and Art Human Resources Association, the Busan Nature Art Association, the Busan YMCA, and Silla University - Community businesses including the Sanri, Gobundori, Gamnaegol Damoa, Amigol Cooperatives, and the Gotmaeul Youth Club - Medical services including the Busan Medical Center, Good Munwha Hospital, Bongsaeng Hospital, Ilshin Christian Hospital, Inchang Hospital, Jeil Nara Hospital, and Songwon Geriatric Hospital
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
○ Financial, technical and human resources for the project - Capital was raised by the City of Busan and through various public projects. To date, 37.2 billion KRW has been injected and 150 billion KRW is expected to be invested by 2020. - Economy-based urban regeneration projects are being implemented to improve residential areas that have been traditionally run down. Other projects include; the Village Creation Project; the Cultural Space Project; and the Neighborhood Economy Revitalization Project. - For technical and human resources, local residents and administrative experts joined forces. Resident councils were formed in 25 villages and residents were engaged from the start of the project. A village creation center was set up and a planner and coordinator were deployed. ○ Finance and contributor - Busan city covered 100% of the budget. As the Urban Regeneration Act went into effect on December 5, 2013, more budget space can now be allocated when this project is selected as a national project. - This project has become a role model for urban regeneration plans by the central and other local governments. Busan was awarded the Presidential Prize in 2013 for this project.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
○ Partnership between local residents, administrative experts and civil society - Community councils were formed to encourage residents’ active participation. - A task force was organized to implement the initiative and administrative and financial support was provided where needed. - A steering committee to review, advise, and monitor progress was established. - The Sanbokdoro Forum conducted academic studies, research on local resources, and encouraged local residents to engage in the project. - Maintained sustained relationships between citizen groups and artist organizations for educational and cultural follow-up programs. ○ Online and offline participation channel opened for all - Held community meetings on a regular basis to increase face-to-face interaction between government officials, experts and local resident council members. - A smartphone app was developed to encourage young people to participate in the project and have their voices heard. - RFID cards were distributed to senior citizens to help them access information. ○ A planned budget was drawn up to ensure that confirmed plans were executed immediately the following fiscal year.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
○ A steering committee was organized to review, advise, and monitor progress. - A promotion committee was formed consisting of council representatives, government officials, planner, coordinator and local resident council members. - Conducted general review of the project to identify which plans were most effective and which were not meeting targets. Design and management plans for each project were also provided. - Audited and advised on proposals submitted by community council. ○ The BIMD (BUSAN Index of Multiple Deprivation) was developed to review the status of the project. - The BIMD consists of seven categories: employment, health and disability, education, housing, social safety, and living conditions. The index analyzes deprivation levels of eup, myeon, dong, and tong, the smallest administrative unit. - Outside professionals assessed the project based on the BIMD criteria once a year and recorded improvement measures.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
○ First, a lack of understanding about the initiative among local residents as well as passive attitudes from government officials in community centers and self-governing districts. - Partnership meetings were held in villages to help local residents understand the initiative. A consultative body was formed prior to the project’s start involving government officials, residents, and relevant organizations. Specialized education programs were held 87 times in 2012. ○ Second, as there was little precedent to implement a new urban regeneration model, it was difficult to secure sufficient local budget without the support of the central government. - The ‘Special Act on Urban Regeneration Promotion and Support’ was proposed to secure support among government bodies.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
○ Empty houses which were once regarded as unpleasant and unlivable were transformed into cultural and tourism centers. - Residents’ accessibility to art was raised as empty houses were remodeled into artists’ residences, small art exhibition centers, and small museums. ○ Residents involved from the beginning of the project turned empty buildings into job creation centers for the community and raised funds to address their own problems. - Seven cooperatives and incorporated associations including the Sanri Cooperative and the community of Sulosanbok among others. - Eight community businesses including the Sanbokdoro Experience Center and the Gamnae Café among others. ○ Population started to rise. - Phase 1 villages: 42,605in 2010 → 42,770 in 2011 → 42,925 in 2012 ○ As Gamcheon Culture Village in Sanbokdoro became known as ‘the most artistic village in Asia,’ tourists flooded in and the local economy grew. - Tourists: 30,000 in 2011 → 100,000 in 2012 → 280,000 in Nov. 2013. - Stores: 22 closed stores reopened. ○ Residents’ negative views toward the project changed after they were able to see tangible results. - In a survey conducted prior to the Gamcheon Culture Village project about the importance of public-private partnership, 66.9% answered it was important. (Survey conducted among 509 respondents from January to February 2013) ○ Tourists’ perception about one of the poorest and most underdeveloped villages in Busan has changed. - 89.6% of tourists responded that they liked Gamcheon Culture Village. (Survey conducted among 3,199 respondents from January to December 2013)

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
○ To ensure the sustainability of the initiative, we laid a legal and institutional foundation. - Enactment of local ordinance「support for village-making」(July 2012) - Declaration on Busan urban regeneration (May 2013) - Enforcement of「Special act on the promotion of urban regeneration and support」(December 2013) - Revised proposal of 「Enforcement Decree of the Tourism Promotion Act」(August 2013) ○ The initiative has been awarded domestically and internationally, being modeled by local governments from home and abroad. - Grand prize (President’s Award) of ‘Local Development’at the 2013 Korea Regional Hope Expo - First prize (awarded by Minister of Security and Public Administration) at ‘Local Community Revitalization’ contest - 2012 ASIAN TOWNSCAPE AWARDS, organized by UN-HABITAT Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (Fukuoka), Asian Habitat Society, Asian Townscape Design Society and the Fukuoka Asian Urban Research Center - President’s Award for best practice of public-private collaboration at a contest organized by the Korea Governance Forum ○ By introducing and presenting the ‘Sanbokdoro Renaissance Project’ at home and abroad, we are trying to spread awareness of the initiative. - Presentation at the India Heritage Cities Network (IHCN) conference hosted by UNESCO New Delhi Office (May 14~17, 2011) - Presentation at the 2011 World Humanities Forum hosted by UNESCO, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Korea and Busan Metropolitan City (November 25, 2011) - Presentation on a case study of ‘The Encounter between Urban Regeneration & Regional Employment’ at the International Symposium on Regional Employment, hosted by the Busan Human Resources Development Institute (November 10, 2011) - Presentation at the 6th Korea-China International Seminar, hosted by the Ministry of Security and Public Administration of Korea (May 8, 2012) - Presentation at the Place Branding Symposium 2012, hosted by Dongseo University (May 20, 2012) - The initiative published in the Journal of Local Government Studies 2011, released by the Local Government Officials Development Institute ○ Implementing on-site training programs in order to pass along practical know-how of the project to developing countries in Africa, Southeast Asia and others - Invited high-ranking public officials from Uganda(July 4, 2012), Tanzania (September 19, 2012) and Sri Lanka (November 14, 2013) and offered them an opportunity to visit and study the Sanbokdoro Renaissance Project - Offered an opportunity to visit and study the Sanbokdoro Renaissance Project to 12 officials including the dean from the Tsinghua University's School of Continuing Education (SCE), China (May 9, 2012), to the Vice Mayor of Beijing, China (October 31, 2013), and to seven officials from KOTOBUKI Alternative Network in Yokohama, Japan (December 2, 2013) ○ Exchanges of design models for urban regeneration with Japan and China - Japan (twice): the City of Nishinoomote on the island of Tanegashima, Kagoshima Prefecture (2011, 2012) - China (twice): Boxue Eco Village in the City of Haikou, Hainan Province, and Zhouwo Zhen of Wuqiang County in the City of Hengshu, Hebei Province (2012, 2013)

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
○ We realized that collaboration among many different parts of the community from residents and NGOs to artists and scholars makes it possible to discover potential beneficial opportunities in old, run-down areas and use them in a creative way. This would have been impossible through administrative efforts alone. - To encourage residents’ active participation, a system able to collect and reflect many different opinions through on/offline channels should be established. - Efforts are needed to spur public interest and raise the usage rate of public services by providing residents and even those who are not directly participating in program information via a community newspaper, newsletter or website. ○ For urban regeneration in old downtown areas, project implementation from the perspective of integrated development through a single delegated office (from urban renewal, residents’ welfare, to tourism and others) was found to be more efficient and effective than those of that were run by several separate individual departments. - The cultural contents of a community can serve as the software to upgrade the old hardware of a city, but this is only possible with the active participation of residents during every stage of development from identifying potential resources and their application to their promotion and sales. This kind of approach will help to increase residents’ income as well as revitalize local economies.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Busan Metropolitan City
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Hye Min Kim
Title:   Official  
Telephone/ Fax:   82-51-888-3141/82-51-3119
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   1001, Joongangdaero, Yeonje, Busan
Postal Code:   611-735
City:   Busan

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