Protecting Women’s Rights from the Illegal Sex Industry through Women’s Participation
Seoul Metropolitan Government

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Increasing women's anxiety and discomfort due to the intrusion of the illegal sex industry in women's daily lives Prostitution is totally banned in Korea, yet its annual turnover is estimated to be 4.1% of Korea’s GDP (as of 2002), which is comparable to that of the country’s agriculture, forestry, and fishery industries combined (4.4%). Previously, the sex trade concentrated on brothels. Since it has become illegal, prostitutes have gone into hiding, working clandestinely. The problem is that prostitution is not abolished but has spread over larger areas. For instance, both “Kissbang” (kissing rooms) and massage parlor businesses are suspected of engaging in the illegal sex trade, doing business in the middle of neighborhoods or along the streets outside subway stations crowded with people of all ages. Women and adolescents are easily exposed topictures of naked female models and sexually provocative phrases on the businesses’ flyers and posters. In a survey conducted by the Seoul Metropolitan Government (females making up85.9% of the respondents), 46.8% of them said illegal adult entertainment establishments were located within 30 minutes on foot from where they lived; 44.9% were exposed to "prostitution flyers" more than two or three times weekly; 55.1% felt their safety was threatened by the businesses advertised on the flyers; 46.3% considered moving to another location. Citizens feel anxiety and discomfort due to the rampant illegal sex industry in the city. Active policy measures are needed. Increasing use of the Internet by prostitutes emerging as another form of violence against women by causing humiliation, anxiety, and fear to women netizens The Internet has become part of citizens’ everyday lives in Seoul. 84.1% of Koreans use the Internet (2012). The rate for Seoul must be higher. Such widespread use of the Internet has created a new form of sex trade called "Internet prostitution" which is rapidly growing because of the Internet’s merits: easy accessibility, openness, anonymity, and speed. Sexually provocative ads with nude photos and obscene phrases make women feel humiliated and fear for their safety on the Internet. The aforementioned survey by the Seoul Metropolitan Government also found that 47.7% of the respondents are exposed to offensive ads for Internet prostitution almost daily and 95% of women respondents are displeased and humiliated by such. The Internet has become an inseparable part of our daily lives so sex trade ads negatively impact women’s lives, committing obvious violence against women and violating women's basic human rights. The increasing Internet sex trade among adolescents and a mandate to establish countermeasures 95% of the prostitution committed by adolescents takes place on the Internet. Prostitution, illegal in Korea, is still spreading extensively due to the Internet. The citizens of Seoul have been voicing strong concerns. According to the survey results, 94.8% of the citizens of Seoul think the sex trade involving adolescents has become very serious, and 48% blame the Internet. Illegal sex trade routes have become much more complex due to the Internet. Law enforcement has become more difficult because of the offenders’ anonymity and the secrecy involved in personal deals. Policy measures are needed.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Seoul established the “Sex Trade Prevention Council” composed of citizens, NGO representatives, police officers, public servants, scholars, and IT experts to fight the sex trade industry in the city The illegal sex industry has intruded into ordinary citizens’lives offline and online. Citizens have filed numerous complaints with the city government about obscene flyers. Women’s NGOs have requested that the municipal government crack down on organized prostitution solicitation over the Internet and adolescents’ involvement in the sex trade. The city government has formed the “Sex Trade Prevention Council” composed of citizens, NGO representatives, police officers, public servants, scholars, and IT experts and it has endeavored to draw up innovative solutions. Countering increasing on/offline prostitution temptations with a comprehensive monitoring network For some time, NGOs devoted to the protection of women and adolescents have undertaken their own monitoring efforts. During the workday district offices throughout Seoul have also done their best to get rid of offensive flyers lying on the streets. However, the next morning, more flyers litter sidewalks and the pavement. NGOs’ monitoring efforts have not had much impact. The manpower could not match the increasing sex trade on the Internet. Thus, Seoul decided to build a comprehensive monitoring network to fight the sex industry, which until that time had continued to grow with criminal organizations being suspected of running much of the prostitution business in the sex trade industry. Building an easy and simple monitoring & reporting/processing system to which citizens can turn instantly The initiative seeks to: raise issues regarding prostitution; get rid of flyers degrading to women with offensive photos and phrases; and deal with the humiliation and anxiety faced by women in the city. The city government has built a simple monitoring and processing system easily accessible to citizens. Citizens can file reports on prostitution solicitations via the Internet, a smartphone app, or the Seoul Call Center, Dasan 120 (tel. +82-2-120). Moreover, Seoul has arranged a new hotline reporting system with the Korea Communications Standards Commission(KCSC), Internet portals, and Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency. Now, Internet sex trade information gets deleted instantly. Furthermore, to discourage sex traders from distributing pornographic flyers, the city government has signed an MoU with the country’s three major telecom carriers for the immediate service suspension of phone numbers on those leaflets. Female adolescents offering peer counseling to potential sex traders female professionals offering professional services free-of-charge to protect victims' human rights To dissuade young girls from engaging in prostitution, Seoul has introduced "Online Peer Consulting." Girls who once sought to make easy money through prostitution offer counseling services on popular chatting sites among adolescents, telling the dangers of involvement in the sex trade industry to their peers. The city government pays the girls for their counseling services to encourage them to stand up and fight back. They talk to their peers and build a bond with them easily. They are playing a key role in using the Internet to reduce the involvement of female adolescents in the sex trade. The Seoul Metropolitan Government has also secured 86 professional women including medical doctors and attorneys who offer professional services free of charge to adolescents exposed to the sex trade.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
First, the Seoul Metropolitan Government has defined the illegal sex industry rampant both online and offline in the city as "violence against women" and an "infringement on women's basic human rights," which causes much humiliation and anxiety for women and seriously limits women's activities for fear of various crimes. The city government has come up with various solutions. Second, women in Seoul are no longer just victims of the sex trade industry. They have risen to protect all women from the illicit sex industry. The city’s large monitoring group is composed mostly of women. Former female victims of the sex trade have come forward to help prevent more victims from falling into the trap. Femaleprofessionals like doctors and lawyers donate their talent and do their best to protect the human rights of female victims. The city government backs their efforts through education and meetings, among other ways. Third, the key to the city’s comprehensive monitoring network is building a simple and fast reporting/processing system. In collaboration with IT experts, government agencies, and NGOs, the municipal government has created a hotline, which is the driving force behind the success of the initiative.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Recognizing the issue's seriousness, Seoul builds a comprehensive monitoring network (2011-present) The Seoul Metropolitan Government recognized the need to eradicate the illicit sex industry, which intrudes into citizens' daily lives online and offline. In 2011, it formed a monitoring group with 255 college students and homemakers, more than 90% of whom were females. This doubled in 2012 to 555 and quadrupled in 2013 to 1,253. They have formed a strong monitoring network online and offline throughout Seoul. To encourage more women to participate, the city government offers incentives including education, support for small group sessions, mayoral awards, culture vouchers, recognition as volunteer services (for young students), and cultural performances. Building a simple, convenient reporting system accessible through the Internet, a mobile app, or the Seoul Call Center, Dasan 120 (tel. +82-2-120) Citizens encountering prostitution solicitation or indecent flyers on the street or in e-mail didn't know where to file complaints. Even if they did, they knew they would not see any difference. Now, Seoul collects all the monitoring results of monitoring group members and requests relevant government agencies to take immediate actions ("reporting by monitors -> collection of reports by city government -> actions by relevant agencies"). Reports can be made by monitors or ordinary citizens easily by posting on a website bulletin board, by using a smartphone app, or by calling the Seoul Call Center (tel. +82-2-120). Establishing a hotline between the city government, police, and portals for immediate actions on sex trade ads and signing an MoU with telecom carriers to suspend the service of phone numbers on solicitation flyers (2012-2013) In 2012, the municipal government signed an MoU with the Korea’s National Police Agency and Korea's five major portals including NHN, SK Communications, and Daum to establish a hotline. At the city government's request based on monitors' reports, portals immediately delete pornographic videos or prostitution flyers, and the police take legal actions. InAugust 2013, the city government signed another MoU with Korea's major telecom carriers KT, LGU+, and SK Telecom for service suspension for telephone numbers on indecent flyers based only on offensive images or phrases on flyers as judged by the city government. Prevention of adolescents’ involvement in the sex trade through peer counseling and professional women’s offering of their services free-of-charge (April 2013-Present) To prevent adolescents’ involvement in the Internet sex trade, the municipal government set up the "Special Division against AdolescentInvolvement in the Sex Trade" in April 2013. It offers peer counseling and professional legal counseling and medical services from the Legal and Medical Support Team composed of 86 professional women who signed up to offer their services beginning in May 2013. These activities help adolescents avoid the sex trade or adolescent victims escape it. Raising awareness of citizens to eradicate prostitution on/offline (2011-present) To raise citizens' awareness of the initiative’s importance, the city government nominated a celebrity as goodwill ambassador in 2011, launched joint campaigns with NGOs in 2012, and helped citizens initiate street campaigns in 2013. It placed subway car ads and outdoor billboards and provided education on preventing violence against women. It helped women victims get assistance from relevant NGOs.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Women / To deal with the humiliation and anxiety stemming from the rampant sex trade in the city, women have actively participated in the city’s monitoring efforts. For instance, more than 1,000 women volunteered to work as monitors within five days of the city government’s announcement in 2013. Women have given an enthusiastic response to the initiative by praising it on the Internet, and encouraging other women to get involved in the initiative. Public institutions / The city government has established a comprehensive monitoring network. It has built an easy reporting system that takes immediate countermeasures. It has designed and implemented an online fight against adolescent involvement in the sex trade. It has rendered the distribution of indecent solicitation flyers useless through an MoU with the three major telecom carriers of the country. The police begin investigation of any sex trade website operators as soon as charges are filed. The Korea Communications Standards Commission (KCSC) reviews and makes decisions right away on complaints made by the city government regarding online sex trade solicitation and ads. Private sector / Internet portals (NHN, SK Communications, Daum, etc.) have signed an MoU with the municipal government, deleting ads for online prostitution as soon as requests are made by the city government. Telecom carriers (KT, LGU+, and SK Telecom) suspend their phone service for telephone numbers on sex trade flyers. NGOs and experts / Women’s organizations requested the city government to crack down on Internet sex trade solicitation. Now, they are actively participating in the city government’s sex trade monitoring and campaign efforts. They are also evaluating the city government’s achievements in the area. They check the efficiency of the city government’s on/offline monitoring system in collaboration with experts in women’s studies and information technology. Inaddition, female lawyers and medical doctors offer their services free-of-charge to help female sex trade victims.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Effective use of women, experts, and related NGOs (human resources) The city’s comprehensive monitoring network was established to abolish the sex trade in the city and address the humiliation and anxiety felt by women with regard to pornographic pictures and indecent phrases they face day and night. For the successful operation ofthe network, human resources were most important. Through the monitoring group, the city government has not only encouraged women to get involved in efforts to eliminate prostitution in the city but also trained them as professional, conscious activists through education on various topics related to violence against women and networking with related NGOs. It also trains female adolescents who were once sex traders as counselors through a comprehensive training course. Overall, the city’s initiative has been designed and implemented in collaboration with experts in women’s affairs and information technology as well as NGOs. Moreover, the city government takes special measures in areas particularly dangerous to women including the “Safety Escort Service for Women” with 495 volunteers who protect women going home late at night and the “Village Guard”composed of 1,000 volunteer delivery personnel who keep an eye on dangerous locations while riding motorcycles late at night and make reports on incidents or dangerous situations right away. Use of information technology and the establishment of cooperative systems with public institutions and private companies (technology resources) It was critical for the city government to establish a system of “monitoring by monitors -> collection of information and making of reports by the city government -> measures by related agencies” to make sure that the initiative would bring about the desired effects. Thus, the city government established a user-friendly monitoring and reporting system with an IT infrastructure that includes a website, a smartphone app, and the Seoul Call Center, Dasan 120. Furthermore, it has boosted technical collaboration and established a hotline with MoUs with public institutions (the National Police Agency and theKCSC) and private companies (Internet portal companies and telecom carriers) to ensure that necessary actions are taken immediately both online and offline. Raising the public’s awareness through campaigns financially supported by a private company (financial resources) The city government did not need to commit a large amount of financial resources to encourage women to participate in monitoring, build a comprehensive monitoring network, and set up an instant reporting and processing system. Still, the city government needed to launch campaigns to raise awareness and mobilize a large number of citizens to eradicate the on/offline sex trade in the city. It was able to launch the campaigns successfully though the cooperation and sponsorship of a private company, SK Communications.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Increased women’s participation: The number of citizens participating in the monitoring group quadrupled between 2011 and 2013 from 255 to 1,253, and 90% of them were females. To expand women’s participation, the city government introduced various incentives and made the reporting system simple and effective. Women chose to deal with the humiliation and anxiety they felt about the degradation of female dignity by actively participating in the fight against the violation of women’s human rights. Deleting sex trade and advertising websites: A total of 12,645 online prostitution ads were reported between January and August 2013 for a monthly average of 2,529 cases and 9,916 of the total cases (78.4%) during the six month period were deleted through the efforts of the monitors. In 2012, 1,408 ads were deleted out of 5,160 reported ads. In 2011, 3,162 indecent ads were reported, and 269 were deleted. Women have filed lawsuits against 27 sex trade-related website operators based in Seoul. Their action has greatly contributed to discouraging online prostitution ads. Immediate suspension of telephone service for phone numbers on solicitation flyers: Through a memorandum of understanding with the three telecom carriers, the city government has established a system that can have phone numbers on sex trade flyers suspended immediately. In June 2013, the service for 22 telephone numbers was suspended, rendering millions of illicit offensive flyers useless. It proved to be a very effective means of eradicating offensive flyers. Gangnam District, for example, sees virtually no solicitation flyers nowadays but used to have tens of millions of flyers every day spread indiscriminately throughout the district including its residential areas and along the streets outside subway stations. Prevention of adolescents' involvement in the sex trade through females’ intervention: For the past seven months, the city’s peer adolescent online counselors had a total of 8,218 real-time counseling meetings (a monthly average of 1,174) with 100 adolescent sex trade victims who were identified and rescued. They have received legal and medical assistance, and some of them are protected in shelters. The achievement was made through a new approach solving women’s issues through women’s participation.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Monitoring and counseling by the “Sex Trade Prevention Council” composed of citizens, NGOs, police, civil servants, scholars, and IT experts The initiative has been promoted in collaboration with the Sex Trade Prevention Council composed of citizens, NGOs, police officers, public servants, scholars, and IT specialists which is involved in all of the processes ranging from planning to implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Women’s participation in monitoring was remarkable, focusing on identifying on/offline sex traffickers and pimps. NGOs concentrated on measuring the efficiency of the initiative through their network with women activists. IT experts closely monitored the efficiency of the online reporting/processing system. Police officers and public servantsin district offices of the Public Health and Sanitation Division and Family and Welfare Division, in particular, have also contributed to the success of the initiative. Legal counseling on monitoring and the filing of lawsuits against illegal website operators In Korea, the sex trade is illegal. Still, legal counseling is necessary. New types of sex trafficking continue to emerge. There are some grey areas between what is legal and what is illegal with regard to the sex-related industries in the country. Femaleattorneys have provided legal counseling to the city government regarding the establishment and operation of its comprehensive monitoring system. The lawyers have also helped the city government file lawsuits against website operators for sex trafficking. Surveying citizens' consciousness of the danger of the illegal sex trade industry at "policy listening workshops" and using them as basic data for relevant policies In September 2012, the city government held a "policy listening workshop" to collect the opinions of citizens and experts on the campaigns against sex trafficking in the city. In addition, it has gathered women’s opinions through various regular offline meetings. In March 2013, it conducted a survey on the awareness of the sex industry in the city including sex trafficking facilities, sex trade flyers, and Internet sex trafficking among 1,500 citizens including monitors. It has used the results as basic data for its relevant policies.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Setting up a hotline to take immediate actions on the increasing number of Internet sex trade solicitation ads In line with the continuous spread of the Internet, sex traders have adopted corporate approaches to their marketing, simply disappearing and reappearing with changed URL addresses when the city government cracks down on their illicit operations. Previously, they even reappeared and operated while the city government was preparing to take actions on them, rendering the municipality’s efforts almost useless. Now, reporting on sex trafficking is made instantly through a hotline. The most advanced information technology has been mobilized. Countermeasures are taken immediately, too. Establishing the hotline system was possible thanks to the collaboration of the public and private institutions concerned. Indiscriminately distributed sex trafficking flyers -> Immediate service suspension of telephone numbers on flyers Previously, sex trafficking flyers with nude pictures of women and obscene phrases were spread indiscriminately in residential neighborhoods and along the streets outside subway stations, causing severe humiliation and anxiety to women in particular. The service of the telephones on the flyers was hard to suspend because the phone numbers listed on the flyers were made in the names of acquaintances or total strangers, and the suspension needed those people’s consent. Moreover, to circumvent law enforcement, sex traffickers printed their flyers in rural areas and distributed them in Seoul at dawn using bikes or motorcycles. Even catching flyer distributors or prosecuting printing shops was not a fundamental solution. Collecting flyers and incinerating them did not make a dent in the fight against the sex trade in the city. To solve the problem fundamentally, the Seoul Metropolitan Government signed an MoU with the country’s three main telecom carriers. Now, these carriers immediately suspend the service of the telephone numbers listed on obscene flyers when they have offensive images or phrases as judgedby the city government. Sex traffickers see no point in spending money printing and distributing prostitution flyers. The volume of flyers has greatly decreased throughout the city.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
Building an effective, comprehensive monitoring network to crack down on the illegal on/offline sex industry and improve citizens’ living environment Previously, citizens of Seoul encountered various obscene images and phrases advertising the illegal sex industry. Seoul has built a comprehensive monitoring network for citizens to monitor, report, and help relevant agencies crack down on sex trafficking ads online and offline. It has successfully drawn women’s full cooperation. From 2011 to the present, Seoul has filed reports on 20,967 websites involved in the sex trade, with 11,593 or 55% being deleted. 27 website operators have been charged. Service for telephone numbers on obscene flyers is now suspended almost as soon as they are distributed. The Gangnam-gu office estimates that millions of sex trafficking flyers were previously distributed throughout the district daily. Now, they have disappeared. Peace in neighborhoods has been restored. Women as the driving force behind changes in women's lives Women havesuffered considerable discomfort and anxiety because of sex traffickers. The city government has succeeded in mobilizing female power in fighting sex trafficking. The city government offered female participants various incentives including education and networking opportunities to cultivate them as able professional and conscious activists and created a reporter-friendly reporting system. Women organized themselves, emerging as key players in the city’s efforts to make changes in its citizens’ living environment. Raising social awareness to eradicate the on/offline sex industry For some time, the sex industry in the city continued to grow despite Korea’s complete ban on sex trafficking. Moreover, Korea is still a male-dominated society; hence the persistent sexual discrimination. Prostitution solicitation on the Internet is so widespread many men in the country take itfor granted although it is illegal. For three years now, the city government has continued to fight prostitution. It launched various campaigns to eradicate online sex trade and invested in advertising on subway cars and outdoor billboards. Women participants have cooperated with the citygovernment by using various websites and social media and encouraging other women to take part. The result is hundreds of positive comments by other women agreeing on the necessity to continue the initiative. The city government has done its best to encourage the involvement of its citizens. Now, citizens regard sex trafficking as a crime to be eradicated and a serious infringement on women’s basic human rights. Preventing adolescents’ involvement in the sex trade via the Internet Seoul has introduced Online Peer Counseling to prevent adolescents from engaging in the sex trade. With adolescent involvement in sex trade done on chatting sites or through smartphones, the city government hired former online sex traders who were still adolescents to monitor chatting sites and chat with adolescents about to engage in the sex trade. The city government has provided teenagers exposed to the sex trade with the necessary legal and medical support and housed runaway girls likely to engage in sex trafficking in the city shelter. Such efforts can be a new policy model for preventing the young from engaging in Internet sex transactions.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Women’s participation in monitoring to eradicate the on/offline sex industry proving to be worth benchmarking The spread of the Internet is a global phenomenon. Sex trafficking is gaining momentum. Countermeasures are needed. Each nation has a different perspective with regard to the sex trade; hence the different approaches to it. A global consensus is hard to reach. The global community, however, acknowledges that obscene and pornographic information is being fed to the young indiscriminately particularly over the Internet, and that more young people are using the Internet to engage in sex trafficking. The situation is more serious in developing countries, where the young are tempted to engage in the trade more easily due to the incredibly rapid development of the Internet in their countries. Due to these factors, the Seoul Metropolitan Government’s initiative is worth benchmarking by other municipalities. The initiative is easy. It does not require considerable financial commitment. All it takes is the public sector’s success in mobilizing citizens’ active participation through changes in perspectives on sex trafficking. Effects of the initiative proven bybenchmarking requests by Busan and other big cities, increasing citizens’ participation, and upgraded citizens’ awareness The rampant online and offline sex trade is a serious issue in other big cities of the country, too. For instance, Busan, the second biggest city in the country, has suffered a tainted image due to its sex industry, which has troubled not only its residents but also tourists. The city needed to turn the situation around. Having witnessed the success of the Seoul Metropolitan Government’s fight against the sex industry, Busan benchmarked Seoul’s experiences in June 2012. It is now successfully implementing the program in the city. The self-governing district offices of Seoul are paying keen attention to the initiative, too. In addition, Korea’s Ministry of Gender Equality & Family is studying the details of the initiative to implement it nationwide in the near future. Seeking ways to expand the initiative overseas The Seoul Metropolitan Government’s initiative to prevent adolescents’ involvement in sex trafficking was recognized with the International Award for Urban Innovation at the inaugural Guangzhou (China) International City Innovation Awardsin 2012. It has drawn keen interest from many countries in the region. The fact that the vulnerable are exposed to indiscriminate attacks by the sex industry on the Internet is a serious issue. The global community must address it as a matter of urgency. Solutions are needed right now. The Seoul Metropolitan Government is seeking ways to introduce its initiative to other parts of the world. One of them is the presentation of the initiative at the Metropolis Women International Network Forum.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Expanding women’s involvement: Making the system easily accessible is most important In preparing to introduce the initiative, Seoul faced abig concern: "How many women will participate?" Based on its successful launch of the initiative, Seoul knows that more women than expected are deeply concerned about the expanding on/offline sex trafficking industry and are more than willing to participate in the municipality’s fight against the crime. It’s “how to help them participate,” not “whether they will participate” that now concerns the city. Since most women participants are homemakers, female office workers, or college students, they want to participate in the initiative in their free time. Moreover, whenever the participation process was complex or difficult, a number of volunteers dropped out midway. Therefore, the city government focused on allowing participants to contribute anywhere,anytime. It has encouraged them to design their own activities and organize club activities amongst themselves. Women suffering from the humiliation and anxiety caused by the indecent presentation of womanhood by those wanting to exploit them were more than ready to participate in the initiative. The city government has established a system that facilitates their participation. Women have volunteered to participate, emerging as leaders in this major fight for human dignity. Local government considering the on/offline sex industry an infringement on women’s human rights and drawing gender-sensitive countermeasures The rapidly developing Internet has helped the sex industry grow while women’s discomfort and displeasure have kept rising. Many have treated everything that’s happening on the Internet as not happening in the real world. But Internet sex trafficking is part of the real world, and complete technical, legal, and policy countermeasures have yet to be prepared. The Seoul Metropolitan Government was the first public institution to define sex trade solicitation and advertising as a “real problem” affecting citizens of its city. It has decided that the illegal prostitution sweeping the world online and offline constitutes violence against women and a violation of women’s human rights and has taken actions accordingly. It has implemented policies from a gender-sensitive perspective. The policies have successfully reduced damage to women from the illegal sex industry in the city while offering women a chance to expand their influence in key social issues. Governance-based policy implementation: Building social consensus on the need to eradicate the illegal sex industry The Seoul Metropolitan Government has successfully built social consensus on the necessity of eradicatingthe illicit sex industry in the city through governance so that the city’s comprehensive monitoring network can realize tangible effects. The city government has secured the agreement of various stakeholders such as NGOs, public agencies (the National Police Agency and the KCSC), and private companies (portals and telecom carriers) and ordinary citizens on the need to unite to promote the initiative in the city through constant communications with them. It has been a very successful strategy in terms of not just the effective mobilization of social resources but also the expansion of social support for a particular initiative that the municipality is promoting.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Seoul Metropolitan Government
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   Mi Hye Won
Title:   Deputy Director of Women and Family Policy Divisio  
Telephone/ Fax:   82-2-2133-5040
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   110, Sejong-dareo, Jung-gu, Seoul, Korea
Postal Code:   100-744
City:   Seoul

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