Social Housing
Republic of Turkey, Prime Ministry, Housing Development Administration

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Housing sector is the fundamental of the city and country economy. It can influence the general economy strongly in real, monetary and financial sense. Housing, the most fundamental tool of accommodation counts as one of the most important investment instruments in the economy, and steps ahead as one of the fundamental indicators of economy. Examinations on housing demand in developing countries revealed that there was a regular improvement in the connection of housing expenses with income. There are highly different practices on the housing policies and schedules of countries at international scale, and ways to meet housing requirements vary in connection with the economic structure. Different practices were also conducted at different times in TURKEY to solve the housing problem. Pace of urbanization was low between 1923-1950, and housing production was showed an individual scale. Between 1950-1965, pace of urbanization increased up to 6% and rapidly increasing housing demand entailed slum formation. In the constitution of 1961 the duty of meeting the needs of accommodation under healthy conditions of the low-incomers was assigned to the state. 1982 Constitution also recorded significant gains with regard to environment and housing rights. With the Housing Development Law passed in 1984 by virtue of this constitution as well as the Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKİ) founded with the law are supposed to provide solutions at national scale to problems regarding housing and urbanization in Turkey, to meet the housing deficit in a regular and planned fashion through the state, and to take measures toward meeting the housing requirements of segments who cannot afford housing in a way to allow their accommodation in a healthy and balanced environment. Furthermore, arrangement of the principles and procedures to apply for housing contractors, development of proper construction techniques and tools are also included among the objectives of incorporation of TOKİ. The fundamental source of housing finance in Turkey is personal savings. The average savings ratio of families is between 16-20%. However, low-income groups cannot afford any savings beyond housing expenditures. Therefore, it is possible that low-incomers afford houses with payments up to 10%, 15% and 25% of their incomes as if they pay rent. Citizens without any revenue were provided the possibility to acquire houses with monthly installments of 100 TL without down payment.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
It is necessary that the social housing policy of a country be shaped in a way to respond to the accommodation needs of the low-incomers and the poor. Establishment of the Housing Development Administration (TOKİ) reporting to the Turkish Prime Ministry was decided upon in the second quarter of 1980s by virtue of this fact. Among the founding objectives of TOKİ are provision of solutions at national scale to problems regarding housing and urbanization in Turkey, meeting the housing deficit in a regular and planned fashion through the state, taking measures toward meeting the housing requirements of segments who cannot afford housing as well as regulation of principles and procedures to apply for housing contractors and development of proper construction techniques and tools. TOKİ is a leading establishment in Turkey that operates most efficiently in the field of housing supply in the government sector. TOKİ is the single administration that accepts as its target population the low- and medium-income groups who are unable to afford housing under the current market conditions, and that provides long-term housing supply to such income groups. As a matter of fact, housing projects realized by the private sector and housing loans granted by commercial banks are not adequately affordable for low-income groups targeted by TOKİ in view of their conditions of reimbursement, which increases demand for the social housing offered by TOKİ. TOKİ, which has worked for approximately 30 years toward development and implementation of policies to eliminate the housing problem of the target population, pursues its activities successfully for realization of adequate and quality housing supply in healthy and viable urban environments. The main target of the works maintained within the framework of the field of activity of TOKİ is the principle of “Shelter for All” put forth in the United Nations HABITAT Agenda. This principle has been universally recognized. In this context, the target of the Administration (TOKİ) is to make our living environments healthier, more reliable and viable in the urbanizing world. Housing as a human right has been recognized with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights dated 1948, and the right has been included in article 56 of the Constitution of Republic of Turkey as “Everybody has the right to live in a healthy and balanced environment” and in Article 57 as “Our State shall take measures to meet the housing need within the framework of a plan to observe the characteristics and environmental condition of the cities”. Consequently, TOKİ, within the 19 year period from 1984 when it was established until the end of 2002, produced and sold 43.145 houses itself, provided loan support to 940 thousand houses and completion loan to 93.215 houses. An effective “housing development mobilization” was launched throughout Turkey within the last 11 years starting from early 2003 in line with the Government Programs of 58th, 59th, 60th and 61st Governments of the Republic of Turkey, and a total of 615 thousand houses have been reached in 2.761 construction sites in all cities (in all of the 81 provinces) of the country. That figure means 23 cities with a population over 100.000 each. TOKİ’s target is to reach one million houses in total by producing a second 500 thousand houses in total by the end of 2023. As of December 2013, 300 thousand houses are at planning stage. A total of 5.128 social facilities have been produced in various regions of the country within the last 11 years including those for government organizations and entities, and an investment of approximately 40 billion dollars have been made. Improvement of the increasing slums in the country, population growth, rising trend of housing and rent prices, status as renter of approximately 15 million citizens or 3.7 million households, and more than approximately 2 million households with low- and middle-income included in this figure have played important roles in acceleration of the housing mobilization carried out by TOKİ.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The primary target group of TOKİ is low- and middle-income group families. Therefore, social housing supply of TOKİ is not a profit-oriented activity. At maturities of 10-15 that extend up to 20 years, TOKİ offers housing with sales at the start of the construction period with low down payments and monthly installments, and applies a sales strategy based on repayments with monthly installments renewed semiannually at civil servant salary increase rates that come to an end by the end of maturity. Besides, a repayment schedule is arranged in view of the savings and repayment conditions of the target group. For example, in housing supply toward the poor, land share is not reflected on sales prices, and a tiny down payment is collected from the people. The down payment levels of other income groups are also determined in view of the savings of those groups. TOKİ receives no subsidy from the general budget of the state in the course of production of social projects corresponding to approximately 85% of the entire portfolio, rather it ensures cash flow by producing finance by repayment of existing projects, and by sale of the lands in its portfolio, purchasing at their price valuable lands in metropolitans with the high cash flow it earns from sale to high-income groups via the model of revenue sharing against land sale of projects developed on some of those lands, and by purchasing against their price from the treasury, zoning with its legal authority and then selling over increased price, valuable lands in metropolitan cities. The Revenue Sharing Model against Land Sale is a model produced by TOKİ, and constitutes 15% of all projects of TOKİ. To fulfill its social mission and produce fast, TOKİ forms its own finance model itself acting fast and efficient within the public order, and manages in the best way under market conditions its thus formed high receivable portfolio, is able to realized practices in all provinces of the country.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
TOKİ has developed a comprehensive approach toward elimination of the housing problem in Turkey by producing low-cost solutions to the narrow- and middle-income citizens against the housing and urbanization problems of Turkey. Although the administration faced several changes in the course of the period it was active, such processes reinforced the ability of TOKİ to develop approaches with a focus on solutions. Particularly in the period of office of the new governments in the last 11 years, 25 laws were passed and comprehensive legislation amendments were put into effect to overcome bureaucratic prohibitions, to realize resources of finance, to pave the way for rapid organization and mobilization to allow the Administration realize its objectives. The housing development projects of TOKİ not only meet the accommodation needs which constitute a human right, but also are socially integrated settlements where necessary facilities for health, education, sport, belief and resting needs are considered. TOKİ also makes serious contributions to settlement of a modern planning understanding in our country. Its benchmarks in the activity process are as follows chronologically: 1982 • Articles 56 and 57 of our Constitution have put forth that every Turkish Citizen has the right to healthy and modern housing, and the State is liable to take measures to meet such need and to support housing development projects.- 1984 • Housing Development and State Partnership Administration reporting to the Prime Ministry have been formed to support housing development projects. • With the Law on Housing Development, the principles and framework of provision of housing and creation of loan possibilities were put forth. The law also established the Housing Development Fund beyond the general budget for housing and housing production activities. Approximately 580 thousand citizens benefited from the loan possibilities offered by the Housing Development Fund between 1984 and 1987. 1990 • With the Decrees with the Power of Law numbered 412 and 414, Housing Development and State Partnership Administrations were divided into two, and were restructured as State Partnership Administration and Housing Development Administration (TOKİ). 1992 • TOKİ was commissioned about restructuring of the buildings and substructure in Erzincan, which were heavily damaged due to the earthquake that occurred in Turkey. 1994 • TOKİ, providing housing loans to hundreds of thousands of low- and middle-income families and successfully implementing Erzincan Earthquake Restructuring Project, was awarded with HABITAT Certificate of Honor by the United Nations. 1996 • Istanbul hosted HABITAT II, the Second Human Settlements Conference of the United Nations, with the organization of TOKİ. Participants nearly from all countries of the world discussed the problems and remedies with regard to formation of the shelter, substructure and social facilities the world needs. 2001 • Housing Development Fund was abolished. The banking activities pursued by Emlak Bank have been transferred to Ziraatbank and Halkbank. The assets as well as Real Estates excluding its banking activities were also transferred to TOKI as investment capital. 2003 • The Emergency Action Plan suggesting construction of 250 thousand houses by the end of 2007 for Housing and Urban Development took effect on the 1st of January. • Housing Undersecretariat was abolished with Law numbered 4966 and its duties were mostly transferred to TOKİ. In this context, TOKİ undertook the duties of granting individual and housing development loans, realizing projects within the country and abroad, and to pursue profit-oriented projects to earn revenue. In addition to construction, if deemed necessary, of housing in regions damaged due to natural disasters, the Administration has also been conferred the responsibilities of encouraging and supporting housing production throughout the country. 2004 • With the Law numbered 5104 ratified by the Parliament, TOKİ and Ankara Metropolitan Municipality were authorized to plan, develop and realize housing developments, substructures and social facilities in order to ensure transformation of urban spaces. Toplu Konut - Büyükşehir Belediyesi İnşaat, Emlak ve Proje A.Ş. (TOBAŞ), whose company shares pertained to TOKİ by 49,9% was established to offer consultation on the project. • With the amendments imposed via this Law on the Housing Development Law numbered 5162, TOKİ was vested in the authorities to plan and implement projects toward discharge of low-quality houses. With these amendments, TOKİ has been granted the right to prepare zoning plans and to make necessary regulations when necessary. Besides, the authorities to expropriate, in case public benefit requires, unoccupied lands and buildings, and to plan and implement financial regulations were also granted for slum transformation projects. • The duties and responsibilities of the Land Office repealed with the Law numbered 5273 have been transferred to TOKİ. Such transfer also involving transfer to TOKİ portfolio of 64.5 million square meters of real estates throughout Turkey diminished bureaucratic processes and paved the way for more efficient use of lands by the Administration. • TOKİ took over the supervision of 14% shares of Vakıf Emlak Gayrimenkul Yatırım Ortaklığı A.Ş. (Vakıf Emlak Real Estate Investment Trust, Inc.) to diversify its portfolio and for higher revenues. 2005 • Law numbered 5366 providing necessary finance for restoration and preservation of the historical and cultural areas was ratified. 2006 • With the Housing Convention it arranged in Istanbul, TOKİ presented before national and international participants its practices toward provision of modern housing solutions to citizens. The convention gathered speakers and participants from eight countries. 2007 • In Barcelona Meeting Point organization, TOKİ was conferred the “Best International Real Estate Project” reward due to its experience in its initiatives and success in development of the economic and social conditions of Turkish citizens. • The targets set for a period of five years being surpassed by 35 thousand houses, the total number of houses constructed by the end of 2007 reached 285 thousand. 2008 • Expo Italy Real Estate awarded the “International Entrepreneurship Award for Real Estate and Housing Production” to TOKİ. TOKİ was presented as candidate to the Best Habitat Practices in the organization of Dubai Municipality. 2009 • Northern Ankara Entry Urban Transformation Project realized by Toplu Konut – Büyükşehir Belediyesi İnşaat Emlak Mimarlık ve Proje A.Ş. (TOBAS), a partnership of TOKİ and Ankara Metropolitan Municipality, was elected one of the Best 26 Implementations of 2009 by Habitat Business Award Election Committee that gathered between 25-26 May 2009 in Peking city of China to determine whom the UN-HABITAT Business Award should go to . EIRE Award was conferred upon the TOKİ president by the organization committee of EIRE International Real Estate Fair held in Milano city of Italy, thanks to his contributions to his country for social housing implementations. 2011 • An international Housing Convention with the theme “Innovative Housing Approach, Strategies, Implementations and Urban Transformation; Urban Transformation Rally for a Natural Disaster Risk Free Turkey” was arranged by our Administration in Istanbul on 03-04 March 2011.• TOKİ launched production of 500 thousand houses throughout the country as of the end of 2010 within the scope of Planned Urbanization and Housing Mobilization in line with the Government Programme. The target of production of another 500 thousand houses by 2012 was set for the Administration. 2012 • The Law “on Transformation of Sites under Disaster Risk” dated 16 May 2012 and numbered 6306 prepared the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization imposed significant duties on TOKİ.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
TOKİ’s primary objectives are the activities it pursues within the scope of its duties described in the Housing Development Law numbered 2985 as well as to produce solutions at national scale to problems regarding housing and urbanization in our country. Also adopting the principle of “Adequate Housing for Everyone”, one of the main themes of United Nations Habitat, the Administration shapes its policies and activities within the framework of the targets our Constitution imposes on the State as well as those included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Government Programme the Emergency Action Plan, and coordinates with the public and private sectors, NGOs and academic environments when necessary, to implement the government decisions on the existing housing and settlement policies. The size of our projects is first determined via the method of demand collection as organized by concerned Governorships, District Governorships or Municipalities primarily in the housing production process, and implementation is then started having determined the needs of the local people through local administrations via studies such as selection of location, production of plans and projects etc. at the implementation sites. The zoning planning studies of the project sites are made within the framework of the terms and conditions set forth in the Zoning Law and concerned regulations in view of criteria such as topography, climate conditions, population structure of the region in line with opinions of all investor establishments in unplanned areas. TOKİ also constructs several social-purpose facilities such as facilities of health, education, security, dwelling houses, sport centers, affection houses for orphans, non-handicapped life centers, libraries and dormitories in line with the demands of public entities and organizations where needed. In this context, construction of 941 schools, 13 university campuses, 143 dormitories/boarding houses, 217 hospitals, 94 village clinics, 14 stadiums, 965 gyms, 20 Non-Handicapped Life Centers, 35 Affection Houses, 7 Nursing Homes, 41 libraries, 102 public utility buildings and similar buildings have been started totaling to 5.128 social facilities, most of which were inaugurated. All implementations realized by our Administration are conducted with public-private sector cooperation. Besides joint study platforms are formed to evaluate and to develop the physical, social and economic results of the implementations of our Administration along with all participants of our projects as well as the public, and joint R&D efforts are performed with academicians and NGOs.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The primary incomes of TOKİ consist of revenues from the sale and rents of houses, work places and land, loan reimbursements, interest incomes, subsidy allocated with the budget laws and fees for departure to a foreign country, and the service fee amounts collectable from concerned entities and organizations between 3-10% of the construction cost of the constructions made in the name of government agencies. Besides, the Administration has gained a comprehensive land stock on transfer of the non-banking real estates of Emlak Bank upon its shutdown in 2001, and also assignment of the duties and responsibilities of General Directorate of Land Office resulting in coming under TOKİ’s possession of 64.5 million m2 of land in 2004. TOKİ constructs houses on such lands, and puts those houses to sale providing loans. To do so, affordable payment conditions are determined to allow low- and medium-income families who cannot afford a house in the current market conditions but still have a certain level of savings to buy houses under terms and conditions like paying rent through suitable payment terms. In this model, 10% to 40% of the house price is collected in advance in view of the affordability of the target mass, and the remaining portion of the same is extended over a maturity of 36 to 240 months. In order to ensure new housing development production and provision of loans via the limited possibilities of our Administration, the loan reimbursements and payments of housing installments are regulated semiannually pro rata the civil servant salary increases. On the other hand, TOKİ has developed different finance sources while pursuing its activities with its limited resources. Furthermore, funding is provided to fund raising projects by zoning of the lands received in return for works to government entities, which are mostly encumbered, annotated, unplanned. This model both ensures that the lands of the public are made use of, and funding is thus provided to TOKİ and consequently the state, and improves urban life quality entailing development of quality environments through funds formed for housing projects toward low- and middle-income people. Besides, with this model that is applied without state subsidy and without utilization of public finance on the areas owned by the Housing Development Administration, lands purchased from the treasury or corporations at their prices and then zoned are accepted as assets and contractor firms are awarded contracts via tender to build houses based on revenue sharing principle. In this context, 87.358 houses were produced within the last 11 years in coordination with the private sector via the method of revenue sharing against land sale on valuable lands, bringing 11,5 billion dollars of funding to the public.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
1- TOKİ, with its mass housing projects for the narrow- and middle-income groups, meets 5-10% of the housing need in the country. These projects are non-profit social projects, and the ratio is approximately 85%. TOKİ has made significant contribution to becoming a house owner of the low-income group and the poor without possibilities of owning a purchasing a housing in the current market circumstances (the 20% bottom segment in income distribution). 2- TOKİ has also undertaken several different missions such as giving a healthy face and disciplining of the housing market via urban transformation. By constructing schools, hospitals, public utility buildings, sport facilities, security facilities, social and cultural facilities in cooperation with governmental institutions, the Administration has also undertaken a very significant mission in the field. Construction practices after national and international disasters, long-term cooperative loans, agricultural village projects for rural areas, interest-free loan possibilities to martyr families and restoration loans are also included in the mission of TOKİ. 3- TOKİ’s projects are meaningful in that they influence economic growth in our country in a positive way. These practices have become a significant element for prevention of off-the-books economy, and by contributing to employment, have been useful for improvement of contractors in housing construction, and training intermediate staff. The projects constructed by TOKİ throughout the country are being equally distributed around Turkey, and contributed to reduction of the real estate sales prices and rents. It has been seen that “house ownership” is a sector with the highest share in GNP in 2003-2010 period. The contribution of TOKİ implementations is great to the increasing rate of house ownership. By production of 610 thousand houses within the scope of these implementations, quality housing stock has increased and contribution was made for access to housing. 4- The total housing figure reached by TOKİ from 2002 until today is noteworthy in terms of quantity. This figure corresponds to 23 cities with populations of 100 thousand each. In these projects, TOKİ offers not only housing but also modern life possibilities to those in need in addition to all necessary social facilities (school, hospital, trade center, etc.). TOKİ not only leads in offering sound, quality and safe settlements with contemporary possibilities to the target groups, but also tries to form a new planned urbanization and housing production understanding. 5- Since 2003, TOKİ has carried out urban transformation projects in cooperation with local managements within the framework of legal regulations realized due to the target of “prevention of slum formation and unplanned building” included under the title “Emergency Action Plan, Social Policies” of our Government. With the joint study, it was targeted that our local managements rapidly deal with and include slum transformation areas in urban areas with participation of all beneficiaries. The urban transformation projects in Turkey have become a state policy today. In this sense, TOKİ’s practices constitute a model for local governments and other actors of the housing sector. TOKİ not only transforms slum and shanty settlement areas, but also tries to prevent formation of new slum areas with the houses it produced for narrow-income groups. In this context, slum transformations were planned for a total of 264.811 houses in 222 projects in line with the major urban renewal programme launched by us in joint efforts by local managements upon the instruction of our Prime Ministry. Tender works for 95.440 houses in 193 different regions have been made, 84.441 houses have been started under 170 projects whose tenders are complete, and construction of 51.246 houses have been completed and the houses were delivered to the beneficiaries in 89 regions. (In 2008, TOKİ’s Erzincan-Çarşı Quarter Urban Renewal-Slum Transformation Project was selected as a “Good Practice” in the Habitat Best Practices Award organization. Besides, North Ankara Entrance Urban Renewal Development Project was selected as one of the “Good Practices” for the year 2009 by the international selection committee of the UN-Habitat Business Awards, China.) 6- Not only the lands owned by the public are utilized having been zoned to bring revenues to the state through fund raising projects against land sale for the high income group realized in addition to social housing practices but also funds are formed for low- and middle-income groups via the finance provided from the same. In this context, TOKİ model has increased its level of recognition at international platforms as a story of success, and is being carefully monitored particularly developing countries. TOKİ has close studies and negotiations with countries willing to implement TOKİ model. At international scale, the housing construction or knowhow demands of approximately 85 countries from TOKI are at evaluation stage, and negotiations are in progress.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
TOKİ is not a competing corporation in housing sector of Turkey with its developed models but rather undertakes an umbrella-like duty with a guiding, supervising and training responsibility. TOKİ is an administration which is always in the limelight in the public opinion. Therefore, it is highly important that its corporate image is equally distant to stakeholders, responsible, accountable, and transparent. Since 2007, TOKİ procures international rating service from international credit rating institutions Fitch Ratings and Moody’s like determination of its credibility and borrowing capacity at international markets (Fitch Ratings (12 November 2012); TOKİ has increased its long-term foreign currency credit rating to “BBB-“, and local currency credit rating to “BBB", and its long-term national credit rating is “Α(tur”, and appearance “stable”. Moody’s (17 May 2013): TOKİ long-term exporter rating Baa3/, credit appearance “stable”) Furthermore, all activities of TOKİ are under audit and supervision by Turkish Grand National Assembly “State Economic Enterprise” Commission, and Audit Court Chairman.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
1. Since TOKİ is an investing, implementing and land developing public administration, it has joint studies with several corporations (Treasury, Exchequer, Municipalities, Electricity Transmission and Distribution Companies, Natural Gas Distribution Companies etc.). The Administration undertakes, whenever necessary, some works normally supposed to be performed by other corporations in the bureaucratic system, and tries to minimize probable difficulties in his/her work schedule. 2. There are nearly 300 thousand active or unemployed civil engineers in the construction sector in our country. It occasionally gives negative results that particularly unqualified ones among those contractors are awarded jobs in the market (approximately 30%). New legal regulations have been started on the subject since 2012. 3. TOKİ’s legal and financial structure have been reorganized within the last 11 years, and 25 new legal regulations have been passed. These laws eliminated some technical and financial bureaucratic prohibitions before the housing construction process, as a consequence, TOKİ, without any share from the general budget of the state, and without being a burden to the state treasury, gained a self-funding, more autonomous structure with high maneuverability and quick action capability.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
It is obvious that in developed and developing countries, acquisition by the low-income group of houses can be realized to a great extent through public subsidies. In this sense, TOKİ is the public organization with the highest funds to housing production and finance. A Planned Urbanization and Housing Production Mobilization at a unseen scale in the history of our Republic was launched in 2003 in line with the duties imposed by the Constitution of Republic of Turkey to the State and the Government Program and Emergency Action Plan, and TOKİ rapidly carries on its implementations regarding the same throughout the country. As of 12 December 2013, the number reached 615 thousand houses in 2.761 construction sites in 81 provinces of Turkey. 85,40% of the houses produced at the hands of TOKİ constitute social housing. The number of sold houses is 497.554. 470.509 of 468.329 houses at the stage of completion along with their social facilities and landscapes. In this context, the Administration (TOKİ), in view of its limited resources, has launched the “Revenue Sharing Model against Land”, which requires no public finance and which was not implemented before in Metropolitans on lands with a high revenue bringing value under its proprietorship in order to fund the “Social-Purpose Projects” it produces for low- and middle-income citizens who do not own a house within the framework of the current market conditions. Via this model, not only the areas held by the public are used in the best manner to increase the housing supply in the country via Fund Input to TOKİ and the state, but also certain amount of finance is provided to social housing production throughout Turkey for our low- and middle-income citizens to obtain houses and implementations to increase planned housing supply are realized through the finance from the same. TOKİ employs more than 300 local and international contractor firms in the sector through its various practices and consequently provides indirect employment possibilities to approximately 900 thousand people in the sector. TOKİ has taken active duty en restructuring after various natural disasters both within the country and abroad in line with its assignments, and is technically appreciated and heeded as a successful “implementation unit” using its know-how and speed. The activities of the Administration in the field of disaster management and restructuring started in the east of Turkey with Erzincan earthquake in 1992. It undertook a duty to meet the emergency accommodation needs due to the earthquake that happened first in Simav and then in and around Van province and Erciş district in 2011, and completed and delivered to the beneficiaries 17.489 housing units, 30 schools, 10 commercial centers, 27 mosques and other social facilities within a period like a year. As to its (TOKİ’s) activities abroad, 1050 houses in Banda Aceh region of Indonesia for those losing their houses in the earthquake and tsunami that occurred in South Asia, and 500 houses in Sri Lanka for the victims of the same disaster were completed with necessary social facilities and put into service. “Muzafferabad Local Government Management” complex project has been realized in Jammu and Kashmir States after the earthquake to the northeast of Pakistan in 2005, and 2 primary schools, 2 dormitories, 197 houses, 12 management buildings, a mosque, college building, conference and exhibition hall, shopping center, guesthouse and gym were constructed. After the flood disaster that occurred in Pakistan in 2010, construction of 4620 houses and 37 social facilities have been started having completed their tenders in the first half of 2011. Finally, it undertook construction of a 200-bed hospital, occupational college of nursing with 40 classes, roads and drainage systems, mosque for 2000 people, bazaar etc. fundamental facilities in Somalia, which is at the stage of delivery. The implementations of TOKİ abroad have been realized with grants provided by the Republic of Turkey, without any commercial aspect.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The Administration (TOKİ) has been established in 1984 for the purpose of finding a solution to the housing problem in Turkey as a legal entity reporting to the Prime Ministry beyond the general administrative budget of the state, and has maintained its implementations with ever increasing activities and authority since it was first established. In this context, although its efforts pursued in parallelism with Government Programs were toward provision of housing loans particularly until 2003, a Housing Production and Planned Urbanization Mobilization was initiated starting from 2003 with the new governments under the leadership of our Prime Minister. As a result of the experience and speed in completion of works, it has also undertaken, within the framework of mutual Protocols in relation with the fields of activities of Ministries and government organizations and agencies, construction of health, education, sport facilities, Affection Houses, military quarters and guard posts as well as public buildings in addition to its housing production activities. Nevertheless; the practices carried out successfully by TOKİ throughout the country and the fact that the developed models are monitored curiously in the international platform have entailed the requests of information exchange and cooperation by various countries. Negotiations by our Administration with similar corporations and establishments of more than 80 countries, particularly in the region, are in progress, and memorandums of understanding “for the purpose of cooperation in the field of mass housing development” are being signed with various countries. On the other hand, responsibilities of TOKİ in the construction sector growing day by day, not only its implementations are used as a model by the private sector within the country (fund raising projects), but also demands are received from several observing countries for establishment of a similar model in their own countries. Besides, the Administration (TOKİ) not only protects and respects with its work schedule and discipline the rights, including human rights, of all its domestic and international customers including suppliers, but also is able to manage the environmental effects of its products and services, and strives for corporate sustainability in a structure transparent in its activities and includes its stakeholders in the processes of evaluation and decision-making. Registration as a national and international brand of TOKI having been ensured and confirmed by concerned authorities for its efficiency and sustainability within the sector, it carries out activities to meet the demands for planned urbanization equipped with viable, health and green fields, social facilities and playfields.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
 One of the main frameworks of TOKI implementations in Turkey is the principle of Shelter for All put forth with the United Nations HABITAT Agenda. This principle has been universally recognized. In this context, the macro target is to make our living environments healthier, more reliable and viable.  There are actions and policies sustained at national and local scales throughout the world to reach that target. However, it has become inevitable in the economic, social and scientific atmosphere of today’s world to handle such actions comprehensively, to form new partnerships toward solution of main problems, and to produce new suggestions and policies.  In this context, the main agenda of the decision-makers is indeed improvement of our quality of life. This concept becomes a multi-variable problem particularly in view of the production and consumption patterns of industrialized countries, excessive conglomerations of population, changing social characteristics and now rapidly changing global economic conditions.  Among the fundamental problems ahead of the policymakers, decision-makers and executive administrations (one of which is TOKİ in Turkey) of the subject encounter are inadequate resources, increasing poverty, migrations, deficiency of adequate planning, legal and administrative inadequacies, environmental deteriorations and natural disasters.  As specified in “Istanbul Declaration of Human Settlements” prepared pursuant to HABITAT II Conference organized by TOKİ in 1996; “Occasions created by human settlements are global, but countries and regions face specific problems requiring solutions unique to them”. Thus, cooperation, information exchange and experience sharing are important to better our living conditions. Current efforts on the subject should be intensified. In this sense, activities at national and international scale, funding models, technical capacities and corporate performances of organizations with intense implementations such as TOKİ should be heeded.  The issue should not be perceived as an accommodation problem merely as in the example of Turkey, the problem in fact is meeting the fundamental needs of health and education, utilization of sustainable energy sources and realization of policies that involve global, economic, social and environmental tendencies to form better spaces of life.  Most efficient modeling of central Governments, local managements and public-private sector cooperation are also required within the solution, as in the example of Turkey. Nevertheless, the opinions, suggestions and contributions of non-governmental initiatives and NGOs should also be heeded in implementation.  Today, globalization of economies and responses to risks and ambiguities are experienced quite fast. We have to show efforts to increase our land and credit possibilities in our efforts toward expansion of the affordable housing supply.  Political determination and assignments of the central government are significant in solution the housing problem. Efforts to increase (within the framework of existing legal structures) the corporate capacity, financial performance, and transparency of establishments such as (TOKİ) charged on the subject are important. The best example to it is “TOKİ model” and TOKİ’s experience.  We should support sharing of processes of know-how transfer, information exchange, technology sharing, and development of new funding models not only at national but also at international scale for solution of the housing and urbanization problems. The activities of TOKİ at international platform (becoming evident particularly in recent years) constitute a good example to this article.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Republic of Turkey, Prime Ministry, Housing Development Administration
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Ahmet Haluk Karabel
Title:   President  
Telephone/ Fax:   +903122667702-03
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   Bilkent Plaza, B1 Blok, Bilkent, Ankara, TURKEY
Postal Code:   06800
City:   Ankara

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