The road name address facility project

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
a. Previous addressing system In Korea, address is recognized as the base of life for people and activities for organizations and companies. Korea’s addressing system had used parcel numbers given to each land piece for land identification since 1918 before introduction of the road name addressing system. Over the past 5 decades, Korea’s social environment has drastically changed. Population has gone up twice, mail volume 8 times, number of cars 350 times, and number of foreign visitors 520 times. With industrialization and urbanization progressing, arrangement of parcel number addresses got disordered and parcel sub-numbers increased. This made it more difficult for people to find locations. Parcel numbers are assigned to land parcels. However, their sizes are inconsistent, ranging from 73,980,657㎡ to 1㎡. In many cases, a single parcel number is unequal to a single building since multiple buildings belong to one parcel number. This made it difficult to mark an accurate location of a place. The continuity of parcel numbers were often broken because parcel numbers were assigned based on the date of land alteration. In Seoul, a meager 18.6 percent of parcel numbers remained in sequence and continuous. Due to the absence of address signs in most buildings, people could not locate places with parcel number addresses though they were near the places. With people using building and landmark names to find locations, instead of using parcel number addresses, various types of address information had been in mixed use. b. Impact of a complex addressing system on society Difficulty in finding places with the existing parcel-based addressing system caused Korea’s national competitiveness to weaken in many aspects. First, costs for visitors of locating destinations increased, and logistics costs went up as well. Second, complex addresses hindered effective reponses to emergency events, like occurrences of crime, fire, or emergency patient. In particular, since the areas with complex parcel numbers happen to be inhabited by low-income people, the existing system caused their living environment to grow poorer. Third, complex addresses triggered moving into famous buildings, leading to hikes in rental costs and decline in competitiveness of small-scale businesses. This also caused chaotic installation of signboards, compromising urban landscape. Forth, ineffective use and management of city information required for the establishment of information society hindered the development of public administration services that utilize digital maps and location based services. c. Need for improving addressing system raised To assign discernable addresses to each house and building for every citizen regardless of wealth, and help foreign visitors, workers and marriage-based immigrants as well as Korean citizens easily find places, Korea needed to resolve inconveniences stemming from the parcel-based addressing system. To meet this objective, it was required to assign names to every road and install road nameplates, and give numbers to every building and install building number plates so that each building has a unique address. In addition, Korea’s addressing system needed advancement by establishing a service system that opens address information to the public through digitally managed real-time update of nationwide address information.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
a. Attempt to improve addresses through a block-based system Problems with the land-oriented addressing system had been raised since the 1960s, and attempts to solve the problems had been made. A block-based addressing system – the assignment of addresses based on a block surrounded by streets - was implemented in 6 cities (Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, and Daejeon) from 1971 to 1972 on a trial basis. In 1980, the Korean government tried to expand the system by enacting a relevant regulation (on the implementation of a new address marking policy), but the system didn’t expand since it was a mere modification of the parcel-based addressing system. b. Introduction of road name addresses to use them in everyday lives. In the 1990s, university research papers took the lead in raising the problems with the country’s addressing system, and the study on the problems with parcel-based addressing system presented by the Seoul city government in 1994 led to a full-blown discussion on addressing reform. At last, a government organization, “National Competitiveness Enhancement Task Force Team,” recommended local governments to assign names to all roads and numbers to all buildings so that citizens can use them as addresses in their everyday lives. c. Expansion of new addresses through pilot projects In 1997, Gangnam-gu in Seoul and Anyang-si in Gyeonggi Province implemented the road name system on a trial basis, and 4 local governments (Ansan-si, Cheongju-si, Gongju-si, and Gyeongju-si) followed suit in 1998. The new addressing system was expanded from 1999 to 2003 to 135 local governments, increasing the proportion of local governments adopting the new system to 61% (141) among 230 nationwide. d. Enactment of Road Name Address Act With participation of local governments increasing, the Ministry of Security of Public Administration set up the “Combined Center for Road Name Addresses,” a special organization to operate nationwide address information to establish a new addressing system at the national level. Moreover, the government enacted the Road Name Address Act in Oct. 4, 2006 to use new addresses not only in people’s everyday lives but also in legal and administrative matters and make related procedures mandatory, such as gathering of people’s opinion at every step of the initiative . e. Expansion of new addresses nationwide Based on the Act, 160,000 roads across the country were assigned road names and all 6.5 million buildings were given numbers, and their corresponding road nameplates and building number plates were installed. The Act also obligated the government to gather people’s voices when assigning road names and notify road name addresses to about 34.7 million individual users from March through June, 2011. f. Public organizations took the initiative and opened information Besides, by making the use of road name addresses in public organizations compulsory, addresses in 1,095 public ledgers were replaced with road name-based ones. Central and local governments joined forces to create and manage the Road Name Address Basic Map. Moreover, this address information was shared with the public for free to allow location-based services to use the map. Also, guidance books on the new addressing system were published and distributed. g. Completion of Korea’s location infrastructure In addition, the government has completed the country’s location infrastructure by simultaneously adopting detailed addresses, national grid number and national basic areas. Detailed addresses are aimed at giving individual addresses to tenants. The National Grid No. system provides location information of seas and mountains, and the National Basic Area system manages basic units of various areas that are opened to the public. This has enabled each household to have its own independent address and brought about basic infrastructure for the location-based industry.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
Korea’s new addressing system was established based on the analyses of addressing systems worldwide, helping people easily predict locations. a. Road names and building numbers render locations predictable Since roads are named by setting up road sections in set directions (west to east, south to north), one can easily tell the direction by looking at road names. Names of main roads and branching roads end with “daero” (boulevard), “ro” (street), or “gil” (road). Moreover, the name of a “gil” consists of the name of the main road from which it branches off and a number, allowing people to predict which main road the corresponding gil branches off from. To assign building numbers, a road is divided at 20-meter intervals regardless of existence of buildings, and odd numbers are given to the buildings on the left side of the road and even numbers to those on the right side. This helps people help predict the distance between two nearby buildings. (building number x 10 meters = distance) b. Allows free digital map updates By incorporating new addresses in digital maps, a nationwide digital map database has been built, and is centrally managed and updated in real time by assigning road names if new roads and buildings are built. This has led Korean navigators to provide precise guidance to destinations, promoting development of the location-based services industry

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Addressing system restructuring in Korea was spearheaded to improve public convenience and enhance national competitiveness through advancement of the overall location infrastructure. To meet this goal, the Korean government has adopted a globally generalized addressing system and created a user-oriented address use environment. a. Legal and institutional foundation was laid To bring about a systematic and effective addressing system, various efforts have been made. Procedures and standards to assign road names and building numbers were developed, and six pilot projects were carried out in Gangnam-gu in Seoul, Anyang-si, Ansan-si, Cheongju-si, and Gyeongju-si from 1997 through 2005. Also, the Road Name Address Act was enacted in Oct. 4, 2006 to lay the foundation for the new addressing system to be used in public law relation as well. b. Necessary facilities were implemented “The road name address facility project” was implemented to survey roads and buildings across the nation, create digital maps, assign names to 160,000 roads and numbers to 5.63 million buildings, and install 350,000 road nameplates and 5.63 million building number plates. The project has also built a Webpage and mobile application and set up telephone numbers to allow people to search for their road name addresses at any time. c. Preliminary guidance and nationwide notification were made Before making public the new addressing system, village and town heads visited 2.6 million households from Oct. to Nov. 2010 to inform them of road name addresses and listen to their opinions to remedy any shortcoming of the system. Also, public officials visited about 3.4 million prospective main road name address users (owners or occupiers of buildings) from March to June in 2011 to give information on preliminary road name addresses. In addition, 5.63 million road name addresses were nationally notified in July 29, 2011 so as to make those addresses legally valid and enable them to be used in public law relation. d. After address conversion in public ledgers, civil affairs document began containing road name addresses After making road name addresses legally valid, the government applied the new addresses in systems used by public organizations and converted parcel-based addresses to road name addresses in 1,095 public ledgers. By doing so, road name addresses began to be included civil affairs documents such as resident registers, building registers and local tax bills from Oct. 31, 2012. With the help of manuals published for employees in public organizations, those organizations also started to use new addresses e. Address conversion by companies In particular, “the private and public joint committee on address conversion” was established to provide counseling on address conversion. The committee has provided 1,005 consultations and distributed 20,000 copies of user manuals. Thanks to this effort, car navigation service providers and map services in Internal portal sites have replaced old addresses with road name addresses. Those handling bulk mails, such as banks, communications companies, insurers, credit card companies, have converted their customer addresses to road name based ones. (32, or 80 %, out of 40 such leading companies have conducted address conversion). f. Road name addressing culture expanded Local governments that had completed the road name address facility project have been producing and distributing information leaflets on road name addresses and promoting the new system through TV, Internet portal sites, radio, free daily newspapers, and various training events. To raise awareness of children, in particular, road name addresses were incorporated in textbooks for 3rd and 4th graders and teacher’s manuals from 1st semester of 2008. From 2010, road name addresses began appearing in textbooks for middle school students.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
a. Participants in establishment of the new addressing system To analyze addressing systems used in different countries and implement the new system on a trial basis, various government and private organizations participated in the initiative at the stage of establishing road name assignment system. Those organizations are as follows: the National Competitiveness Enhancement Task Force Team, the Security and Public Administration Ministry, the Information and Communication Ministry, the Construction and Transportation Ministry, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements, Korea Transport Institute, Seoul Development Institute, and various private companies like delivery services providers, map producers, and the taxi association. To manage overall pilot projects, the “Task Force Team for Road Name and Building Number Assignment” was set up under the Government Administration and Home Affairs Ministry. b. Participants in assignment of road names In principal, si․gun․gu* offices have assigned names to road in their respective jurisdictions. If a road is shared by 2 or more si․gun․gus, it is named by metropolitan city and provincial governments, and if a road is shared by 2 or more metropolitan cities or provinces, it is named by the Security and Public Administration Ministry. When assigning road names, the “road name address committee” must be set up in each local government first to review road names and gather residents’ opinions. Those committees were joined by relevant public officials, those well informed of history and geography of corresponding regions, experts in address and road transportation, and leaders of residents. * Si․gun․gu refers to low-level local governments or administrative districts smaller than metropolitan city or province. Si refers to city, gun means county, and gu is district. c. Participants in address conversion When expanding road name addresses across the nation, “the Address Conversion Task Force Team” and the “Private and Public Joint Committee on Address Conversion” were set up to support and promote address conversion. The Committee was participated by opinion leaders, experts from the organizations managing customers such as financial, distribution, and communications and broadcasting companies, and location information users such as police department, navigator providers, and communications companies, and policy supporting groups from government ministries.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Korea spent a combined $371.38 million* on the addressing system restructuring from 1997 through 2013 —$324.62 million on facilities, $24.17 million on building information system, and $22.59 million on promotion. * Amounts here were converted from Korean won to U.S. dollar based on the exchange rate of Dec. 16, 2013. a. Cost for facility project The 324.62 million dollars of the facility cost was mainly used for the survey of road and building status and building entrances, creation of digital maps, and installation of road nameplates and building number plates. The central government funded 30% of the cost, metropolitan and provincial governments 30 %, and local governments 40 %. In the facility project, the government have joined forces with digital map producers, program developers, and signage producers. In particular, since the facility project required large-scale resources input, it was implemented as part of the public job creation project. Therefore, this facility project helped ride out the financial crisis Korea faced in 1998. b. Cost for implementing information system With the expenses for implementation of relevant information systems, the “Combined Center for Road Name Addresses” was set up under the Ministry of Security and Public Administration and centers for the same purpose were established under metropolitan city and provincial governments. The funds were also used to develop and distribute road name address management systems to si․gun․gu nationwide. The money was also used to integrate data collected by si․gun․gu at the national level and provide them to the public through the Internet and mobile applications. The funds were required as well to maintain human resources to give counseling to companies on address conversion. The government has funded the entire cost of $24.17 million to maintain consistency at the national level. To implement information systems, the government joined hands with digital map producers, program developers, address cleansing companies, phone counselors, the Korea Cadastral Survey Corp., and the Korea Local Information Research and Development Institute. c. Promotional expenses Promotional expenses were mainly used for educational material and video clip production, TV and radio programs, advertising subtitles, promotional campaigns and events, promotional leaflet production, and surveys of road name address awareness. The central government funded $15.07 million and local governments $7.53 million. Out of $15.07 million, $3.46 million went to and executed by local governments. All promotional projects were contracted out to the Korea Press Foundation, which worked with video footage producers, public relations experts, education experts, designers, and event services providers. If local governments requested for financial assistance with state expenditures, the central government provided it through discussion with the National Assembly. d. Other expenses In addition, other expenses were required for companies to publish promotional leaflets and modify homepage and for individuals to change business cards and seals. Such costs were shouldered by these companies and individuals voluntarily.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
a. Assignment of road name addresses to each building allowed for easy finding of places Due to the initiative, all roads and buildings around the country have been given names and numbers, and corresponding road nameplates and building number plates have been installed. Previously, people should rely on realtors to find places, but this initiative has enabled them to locate places on their own. In the past, multiple signs had to be installed at every intersection to allow people to find business sites. The initiative, however, has created an infrastructure that can eliminate such ineffectiveness. b. Building of nationwide digital map shared by the people The initiative has significance in that it has brought about a system that allows for information sharing with companies and individuals for free by reflecting changes (creation and disappearance) in roads and buildings nationwide in the digital map (Road Name Address Basic Map) in real time (daily). This has enabled navigators and Web map services to guide people up to main entrances of buildings, raising the accuracy and precision of location services. This has also laid the groundwork for the development of the location-based industry by reducing the costs of digital map building. c. Addresses were cleansed in public ledgers and companies’ customer data. Under the parcel-based addressing system, numbers of land parcels that didn’t exist or didn’t have buildings were used as addresses. However, such addressing errors have been corrected by converting old addresses to new road name addresses by public organizations in their public ledgers and companies in their customer address data. d. Location Infrastructure was completed The country’s location infrastructure was completed by simultaneously adopting Detailed Address, the National Grid No. system and the National Basic Area system. Detailed addresses are assigned to internal units inside of a building. The National Grid No. system provides location information of places with no building, and the National Basic Area system supplements the concept of area in the road name addressing system.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
a. Application of national screening system through enactment By legislating road name address assignment procedures (Road Name Address Act), the government audit function and the National Assembly’s screening function have been utilized to monitor the initiative. Under the act, the Security and Public Administration Ministry has established comprehensive plans every 5 years, and such plans have been implemented after undergoing screening by “the Central Road Name Address Committee.” The committee is a private and public joint organization composed of about 20 members. Experts in the private sector account for more than 50% of the members. b. Quality analysis conducted at every policy turning point Whenever the major policy direction of the initiative changed, analysis of policy quality was carried out to review the completeness of the policy change. When the Road Name Address Act was enacted, the Prime Minister’s Office conducted the policy quality analysis in 2004, and when road name addresses began to be widely used, the Presidential Council on National Competitiveness conducted the policy quality analysis in 2010 to supplement the system. c. Each local government set up a committee on road name addresses Each metropolitan city, province, si․gun․gu set up a 15-member private-public joint committee on road name address to review assignment of road names and detailed plans. If a road runs in more than si․gun․gu, its metropolitan city or province assigned its name and if a road runs in more than one metropolitan city or province, the Security and Public Administration Ministry gave it a name. This was to allow for prediction of locations between regions. Moreover, the initiative has maintained a civic monitoring system by obligating local governments to gather opinions of their residents at each step of the initiative. d. A dedicated department was set up in the central government to provide supports The Security and Public Administration Ministry has set up a dedicated department to raise awareness of road name address. The department conducted surveys on awareness level every year (2005-2013) and promoted the new addressing system in areas with low awareness of the system e. Implementation and supervisioof information system were separately led by special organizations The implementation of information system was led by the Korea Local Information Research and Development Institute specializing in informatization for local governments. However, supervision of the implementation has been conducted by a separate organization. All this is to ensure the completeness of the initiative.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
a. Long-term review to devise an effective system To sufficiently reflect issues raised during devising a globally generalized addressing system, such as standard to select road sections and how to assign base numbers and select entrances, the initiative has analyzed addressing systems in more than 80 countries, and carried out 6 pilot projects to remedy shortcomings, requiring 9 years in bringing about the road name addressing system. b. Encourage participation of local governments through state expenditure To promote participation of local governments in implementing the new system, the central government has provided state expenditure to local governments (30% of the project costs was funded with state expenditures). Thanks to this financial support, the number of local governments participating in the initiative increased from 2 in 1997 to 4 in 1998, and in 2007, all si․gun․gu joined the initiative. c. Gathering of people’s opinions to raise public acceptance To raise public acceptance of the new addressing system, road names were assigned through deliberations by the private-public joint committees on road name address. When residents, who were belatedly informed of road names, raised objections to them that have already been confirmed, a relevant law was revised to extend the period of road name change applications (Sept. 29, 2011) and reflect their objections. Moreover, the time limit to simultaneous use of parcel-based addresses and road name ones in public law relation was extended from the end of 2011 to the end of 2013 to communicate with the people. The government has also encouraged the private sector to use road name addresses instead of legally obligating them to do so. By doing so, awareness of road name address has been raised gradually. d. Run a control center to manage risks To manage risk factors stemming from address changes, the pan-government control center “Address Conversion Task Force Team” was run (2010-2011). Also, a private-public joint council on address conversion was set up and operated from 2012 to 2013 to promote participation from all walks of life. The council held 31 public meetings and supported 1,000 address conversion consultations to induce participation of businesses. e. Expanded participation through collective address conversion To increase participation of businesses and public organizations, the government allowed for collective conversion of addresses managed by them without applications by address owners.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
a. Find places more easily Use of systematic road name addresses, instead of confusing parcel-based addresses, has allowed people to easily find their destinations. Also, people become able to give clear explanation about their residences and business sites so that others can find them without difficulties. Even first-time visitors can identify their locations by relying on road nameplates and building number plates. ※ The level of awareness of road name addresses went up to 93.1%(Jun. 2013) and the road name address use ratio grew to 90.3% (Sept. 2013) b. Quicken emergency rescue and reduce logistics costs With finding locations getting easier, the quality of the people’s livelihood has improved. Responses to crime, disasters, and emergency events, have quickened, and the quality of financial, communications, and delivery services was upgraded. In 2006, Incheon Metropolitan Police Agency conducted a simulation for police crime response based on road name address. When road name addresses were used, the ratio of police car’s arrival to a crime scene within 5 minutes after crime report improved 7%, and the ratio of suspects caught red handed increased 13%. In addition, delivery men having worked 3 years or more in the same area saw delivery time decline by about 6.7% and those working less than 3 years by about 20% when they used road name addresses. Average delivery time reduction was estimated to be 9.3%. c. Reduce costs of the construction of digital infrastructure that ushers in smart society The introduction of road name addressing system has resulted in the development of location-based businesses such as digital map and navigator producers. Since road name addressing adopts the concept of dots and lines that fits for the digital era, it has promoted advancement of the industry utilizing location information. It has allowed the industry to utilize the road name address digital map in collecting and updating data, reducing costs and improving accuracy of navigation services. For example, navigators can give drivers a clear direction by changing the guidance “Turn left in 500 meters” to “Turn left to Sejong-daero in 500 meters.” Navigators that finished guidance near the destination can now guide drivers to the main entrance of the destination. d. Communication with International Society through addresses The use of globally accepted road name-based addresses has helped create a friendly national image. Thanks to the introduction of the road name addressing system, foreign tourists, foreign workers, and immigrants can easily find places if they use road name addresses. In addition, road names at nameplates were spelled out according to the Romanization rule, and English homepage on new addresses has been built. Moreover, through the unification into a standard addressing system helped Korea easily respond to ISO and UPU, contributing to the penetration of address-related industries, such as the location-based industry, into overseas markets. e. Promote regional features through addresses Around 160,000 road names across Korea contain each region’s history, tradition, and residents’ sentiment. For example, Chaekbang Golmok-gil (Bookstore Alley) in Bosu-dong, Busan is the place where more than 70 old bookstores are clustered; Hyangsu-gil (Nostalgia Road) in North Chungcheong Province is the background of Poet Jeong Ji-yong’s poem “Nostalgia.”; Konggyui Patgyui-gil in Gimje, North Jeolla Province is the birthplace of the folktale “Konggyui Patgyui.”; and Gulbi-ro in Yeonggwang, South Jeolla Province refers to a specialty fish caught in the area. Like this, one can be informed of regional features by simply looking at road names. Also, such characteristic road names play an important role in attracting tourists.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Address information is turning to a strategic national asset that can raise a country‘s value since it is able to promote the location-based industry, such as logistics businesses and navigation device providers. While reforming its addressing system, Korea has striven to share address assignment and management system, public service implementation technology, and operation know-how with other countries around the world. a. Share address reform know-how with international society On May 29, 2013, Korea held in Busan the International Address Workshop joined by 20 countries including Malaysia. In the event, Korean participants explained address reform experiences and discussed how to share them with international society. Korea also informed more than 70 countries, including Uzbekistan, of the country’s address reform in Feb. 7, 2012, and spread its address reform method to countries around the world through UPU White Paper (2012). Korea has also participated in ISO/TC 211, a geographic information plenary, seven times and included the country‘s example in the discussion on Address Standards ISO 19160 to spread it to countries around the world. In particular, Korea has been taking the lead in the area of “rendering on maps.“ b. Utilize Korea’s addressing system by international society Some countries around the world are still using unsystematic and unstable addressing systems. Some use post-office boxes as their addresses (e.g. P.B. 402). The method explaining a location is also used. (e.g. the white house in the second block behind the 2 storied building housing McDonald’s). Though road name addresses are being used, no sequence is found in building numbers or there are roads with no names in some countries. If Korea’s road name assignment method, sign design, information system operation method, and information map creation know-how are shared with such countries, they will be able to reform their addressing systems more efficiently. In addition, if Korea’s location infrastructure consisting of Detailed Address, National Grid Number, and National Basic Area will give a good example to those countries that try to advance their addressing system. It can be a good example since it has been built based on the analyses of addressing systems around the world. Korea’s new addressing system has an distinct advantage in that it can continuously evolve through a relevant information system that has also been established in order to update new road names and building numbers in real time. Countries around the globe excluding Japan already have their respective addressing systems based on road names and building numbers. But, they will need a model for systematic maintenance and management.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Korea has adopted road name addresses based on dot and line through the road name address initiative, resulting in the possession of location information made up of dot, line and plane. The advancement of location infrastructure will facilitate activities in Korea of foreign visitors as well as foreign companies operating in the country. Updating of location infrastructure means that registration units allowing for integrated management of various location data has taken concrete shape. Address information is turning to a strategic national asset that can raise a country‘s value since it is able to promote the location-based industry, such as logistics businesses and navigation device providers. Therefore, businesses utilizing digital maps will expand in both private and public sectors. In public administration, the initiative has enabled systematic and connected analyses of crime and disaster occurrences. This has resulted in the creation of safety maps for citizens and promoted public safety by installing additional safety facilities, such as security lights, and strengthening patrols. Road name addresses have also been used in various administrative activities, such as the management of public and state property, resulting in improvement of utilization of administrative information, including location data, and effectiveness of administrative activities. In the private sector, free offering of the road name address digital map through the Internet has reduced the costs of digital map building and updates for the location-based industry. This has provided the foundation for the industry’s development. With need for international address standard increasing in international society, International Address Standard (ISO 19160- ISO/TC 211) and International Mail Standard (UPU S42) are in progress. Korea is also communicating with the world with, for instance, free trade agreements. Against this backdrop, introduction of road name address has helped facilitate communication with international society. The biggest issue in adopting the road name addressing system is whether new addresses that maintain regional history and uniqueness and help easily find places can meet the challenge of changing the people’s address use habits. Korean people have various outlets to express their opinions. Village communities (dong and lee) are running and the Internet and social network services are in widespread use. In this situation, drawing agreement and cooperation from businesses and ordinary people was not an easy task. To fulfill this task, the initiative promoted the participation of local governments and encouraged public organizations to take the initiative and set the example. At the same time, the initiative has always open to people’s voices. Opinion collection was mandatory at every step, and the relevant law was revised to reflect people’s different opinions raised even after related decision had already been made. In addition, efforts have been made to give the feeling of safety to the people. Monitoring have continuously carried out on the impact of the addressing reform on public service providers closely related to people’s safety, such as police and fire fighting stations. All this has played major roles in introducing the new addressing system. The initiative encountered minor problems when various opinions were not gathered or when risk factors were left unattended, no matter how trivial they might be. This is the valuable lesson learnt during the implementation of the initiative. If Korea’s location infrastructure building experience is spread to other countries, Korea can also share such know-how as well.

Contact Information

Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   Jae-Ho Park
Title:   Officer  
Telephone/ Fax:   +82-2-2100-4055
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   #1413, 209 Sejong-daero, Jongno-gu
Postal Code:   110-760
City:   Seoul

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