| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Addressing system restructuring in Korea was spearheaded to improve public convenience and enhance national competitiveness through advancement of the overall location infrastructure. To meet this goal, the Korean government has adopted a globally generalized addressing system and created a user-oriented address use environment.
a. Legal and institutional foundation was laid
To bring about a systematic and effective addressing system, various efforts have been made.
Procedures and standards to assign road names and building numbers were developed, and six pilot projects were carried out in Gangnam-gu in Seoul, Anyang-si, Ansan-si, Cheongju-si, and Gyeongju-si from 1997 through 2005. Also, the Road Name Address Act was enacted in Oct. 4, 2006 to lay the foundation for the new addressing system to be used in public law relation as well.
b. Necessary facilities were implemented
“The road name address facility project”
was implemented to survey roads and buildings across the nation, create digital maps, assign names to 160,000 roads and numbers to 5.63 million buildings, and install 350,000 road nameplates and 5.63 million building number plates. The project has also built a Webpage and mobile application and set up telephone numbers to allow people to search for their road name addresses at any time.
c. Preliminary guidance and nationwide notification were made
Before making public the new addressing system, village and town heads visited 2.6 million households from Oct. to Nov. 2010 to inform them of road name addresses and listen to their opinions to remedy any shortcoming of the system. Also, public officials visited about 3.4 million prospective main road name address users (owners or occupiers of buildings) from March to June in 2011 to give information on preliminary road name addresses. In addition, 5.63 million road name addresses were nationally notified in July 29, 2011 so as to make those addresses legally valid and enable them to be used in public law relation.
d. After address conversion in public ledgers, civil affairs document began containing road name addresses
After making road name addresses legally valid, the government applied the new addresses in systems used by public organizations and converted parcel-based addresses to road name addresses in 1,095 public ledgers. By doing so, road name addresses began to be included civil affairs documents such as resident registers, building registers and local tax bills from Oct. 31, 2012. With the help of manuals published for employees in public organizations, those organizations also started to use new addresses
e. Address conversion by companies
In particular, “the private and public joint committee on address conversion” was established to provide counseling on address conversion. The committee has provided 1,005 consultations and distributed 20,000 copies of user manuals. Thanks to this effort, car navigation service providers and map services in Internal portal sites have replaced old addresses with road name addresses. Those handling bulk mails, such as banks, communications companies, insurers, credit card companies, have converted their customer addresses to road name based ones. (32, or 80 %, out of 40 such leading companies have conducted address conversion).
f. Road name addressing culture expanded
Local governments that had completed the road name address facility project have been producing and distributing information leaflets on road name addresses and promoting the new system through TV, Internet portal sites, radio, free daily newspapers, and various training events. To raise awareness of children, in particular, road name addresses were incorporated in textbooks for 3rd and 4th graders and teacher’s manuals from 1st semester of 2008. From 2010, road name addresses began appearing in textbooks for middle school students.
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
a. Participants in establishment of the new addressing system
To analyze addressing systems used in different countries and implement the new system on a trial basis, various government and private organizations participated in the initiative at the stage of establishing road name assignment system. Those organizations are as follows: the National Competitiveness Enhancement Task Force Team, the Security and Public Administration Ministry, the Information and Communication Ministry, the Construction and Transportation Ministry, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements, Korea Transport Institute, Seoul Development Institute, and various private companies like delivery services providers, map producers, and the taxi association. To manage overall pilot projects, the “Task Force Team for Road Name and Building Number Assignment” was set up under the Government Administration and Home Affairs Ministry.
b. Participants in assignment of road names
In principal, si․gun․gu* offices have assigned names to road in their respective jurisdictions. If a road is shared by 2 or more si․gun․gus, it is named by metropolitan city and provincial governments, and if a road is shared by 2 or more metropolitan cities or provinces, it is named by the Security and Public Administration Ministry. When assigning road names, the “road name address committee” must be set up in each local government first to review road names and gather residents’ opinions. Those committees were joined by relevant public officials, those well informed of history and geography of corresponding regions, experts in address and road transportation, and leaders of residents.
* Si․gun․gu refers to low-level local governments or administrative districts smaller than metropolitan city or province. Si refers to city, gun means county, and gu is district.
c. Participants in address conversion
When expanding road name addresses across the nation, “the Address Conversion Task Force Team” and the “Private and Public Joint Committee on Address Conversion” were set up to support and promote address conversion. The
Committee was participated by opinion leaders, experts from the organizations managing customers such as financial, distribution, and communications and broadcasting companies, and location information users such as police department, navigator providers, and communications companies, and policy supporting groups from government ministries.
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Korea spent a combined $371.38 million* on the addressing system restructuring from 1997 through 2013 —$324.62 million on facilities, $24.17 million on building information system, and $22.59 million on promotion.
* Amounts here were converted from Korean won to U.S. dollar based on the exchange rate of Dec. 16, 2013.
a. Cost for facility project
The 324.62 million dollars of the facility cost was mainly used for the survey of road and building status and building entrances, creation of digital maps, and installation of road nameplates and building number plates. The central government funded 30% of the cost, metropolitan and provincial governments 30 %, and local governments 40 %. In the facility project, the government have joined forces with digital map producers, program developers, and signage producers.
In particular, since the facility project required large-scale resources input, it was implemented as part of the public job creation project. Therefore, this facility project helped ride out the financial crisis Korea faced in 1998.
b. Cost for implementing information system
With the expenses for implementation of relevant information systems, the “Combined Center for Road Name Addresses” was set up under the Ministry of Security and Public Administration and centers for the same purpose were established under metropolitan city and provincial governments. The funds were also used to develop and distribute road name address management systems to si․gun․gu nationwide. The money was also used to integrate data collected by si․gun․gu at the national level and provide them to the public through the Internet and mobile applications. The funds were required as well to maintain human resources to give counseling to companies on address conversion. The government has funded the entire cost of $24.17 million to maintain consistency at the national level. To implement information systems, the government joined hands with digital map producers, program developers, address cleansing companies, phone counselors, the Korea Cadastral Survey Corp., and the Korea Local Information Research and Development Institute.
c. Promotional expenses
Promotional expenses were mainly used for educational material and video clip production, TV and radio programs, advertising subtitles, promotional campaigns and events, promotional leaflet production, and surveys of road name address awareness. The central government funded $15.07 million and local governments $7.53 million. Out of $15.07 million, $3.46 million went to and executed by local governments. All promotional projects were contracted out to the Korea Press Foundation, which worked with video footage producers, public relations experts, education experts, designers, and event services providers.
If local governments requested for financial assistance with state expenditures, the central government provided it through discussion with the National Assembly.
d. Other expenses
In addition, other expenses were required for companies to publish promotional leaflets and modify homepage and for individuals to change business cards and seals. Such costs were shouldered by these companies and individuals voluntarily.
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
a. Assignment of road name addresses to each building allowed for easy finding of places
Due to the initiative, all roads and buildings around the country have been given names and numbers, and corresponding road nameplates and building number plates have been installed. Previously, people should rely on realtors to find places, but this initiative has enabled them to locate places on their own. In the past, multiple signs had to be installed at every intersection to allow people to find business sites. The initiative, however, has created an infrastructure that can eliminate such ineffectiveness.
b. Building of nationwide digital map shared by the people
The initiative has significance in that it has brought about a system that allows for information sharing with companies and individuals for free by reflecting changes (creation and disappearance) in roads and buildings nationwide in the digital map (Road Name Address Basic Map) in real time (daily). This has enabled navigators and Web map services to guide people up to main entrances of buildings, raising the accuracy and precision of location services. This has also laid the groundwork for the development of the location-based industry by reducing the costs of digital map building.
c. Addresses were cleansed in public ledgers and companies’ customer data.
Under the parcel-based addressing system, numbers of land parcels that didn’t exist or didn’t have buildings were used as addresses. However, such addressing errors have been corrected by converting old addresses to new road name addresses by public organizations in their public ledgers and companies in their customer address data.
d. Location Infrastructure was completed
The country’s location infrastructure was completed by simultaneously adopting Detailed Address, the National Grid No. system and the National Basic Area system. Detailed addresses are assigned to internal units inside of a building. The National Grid No. system provides location information of places with no building, and the National Basic Area system supplements the concept of area in the road name addressing system.
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
a. Application of national screening system through enactment
By legislating road name address assignment procedures (Road Name Address Act), the government audit function and the National Assembly’s screening function have been utilized to monitor the initiative. Under the act, the Security and Public Administration Ministry has established comprehensive plans every 5 years, and such plans have been implemented after undergoing screening by “the Central Road Name Address Committee.” The committee is a private and public joint organization composed of about 20 members. Experts in the private sector account for more than 50% of the members.
b. Quality analysis conducted at every policy turning point
Whenever the major policy direction of the initiative changed, analysis of policy quality was carried out to review the completeness of the policy change. When the Road Name Address Act was enacted, the Prime Minister’s Office conducted the policy quality analysis in 2004, and when road name addresses began to be widely used, the Presidential Council on National Competitiveness conducted the policy quality analysis in 2010 to supplement the system.
c. Each local government set up a committee on road name addresses
Each metropolitan city, province, si․gun․gu set up a 15-member private-public joint committee on road name address to review assignment of road names and detailed plans. If a road runs in more than si․gun․gu, its metropolitan city or province assigned its name and if a road runs in more than one metropolitan city or province, the Security and Public Administration Ministry gave it a name. This was to allow for prediction of locations between regions.
Moreover, the initiative has maintained a civic monitoring system by obligating local governments to gather opinions of their residents at each step of the initiative.
d. A dedicated department was set up in the central government to provide supports
The Security and Public Administration Ministry has set up a dedicated department to raise awareness of road name address. The department conducted surveys on awareness level every year (2005-2013) and promoted the new addressing system in areas with low awareness of the system
e. Implementation and supervisioof information system were separately led by special organizations
The implementation of information system was led by the Korea Local Information Research and Development Institute specializing in informatization for local governments. However, supervision of the implementation has been conducted by a separate organization. All this is to ensure the completeness of the initiative.
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
a. Long-term review to devise an effective system
To sufficiently reflect issues raised during devising a globally generalized addressing system, such as standard to select road sections and how to assign base numbers and select entrances, the initiative has analyzed addressing systems in more than 80 countries, and carried out 6 pilot projects to remedy shortcomings, requiring 9 years in bringing about the road name addressing system.
b. Encourage participation of local governments through state expenditure
To promote participation of local governments in implementing the new system, the central government has provided state expenditure to local governments (30% of the project costs was funded with state expenditures). Thanks to this financial support, the number of local governments participating in the initiative increased from 2 in 1997 to 4 in 1998, and in 2007, all si․gun․gu joined the initiative.
c. Gathering of people’s opinions to raise public acceptance
To raise public acceptance of the new addressing system, road names were assigned through deliberations by the private-public joint committees on road name address. When residents, who were belatedly informed of road names, raised objections to them that have already been confirmed, a relevant law was revised to extend the period of road name change applications (Sept. 29, 2011) and reflect their objections.
Moreover, the time limit to simultaneous use of parcel-based addresses and road name ones in public law relation was extended from the end of 2011 to the end of 2013 to communicate with the people. The government has also encouraged the private sector to use road name addresses instead of legally obligating them to do so. By doing so, awareness of road name address has been raised gradually.
d. Run a control center to manage risks
To manage risk factors stemming from address changes, the pan-government control center “Address Conversion Task Force Team” was run (2010-2011). Also, a private-public joint council on address conversion was set up and operated from 2012 to 2013 to promote participation from all walks of life. The council held 31 public meetings and supported 1,000 address conversion consultations to induce participation of businesses.
e. Expanded participation through collective address conversion
To increase participation of businesses and public organizations, the government allowed for collective conversion of addresses managed by them without applications by address owners.