Conflict Resolution for Dealing with Floor Noises in Apartments by Resident Governance
1. Seoul Metropolitan Government

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Conflicts due to apartment floor noise As of May 2013, approximately 80% of Seoul citizens reside in apartments, including apartment buildings, multi-family housing units, etc. The lack of communication about noise level issues has lead to problems that go beyond emotional conflicts. There have been several incidents where these problems have escalated to severe heights, which include instances of violence and murder. One man killed his two neighbors who lived on the floor above him during Lunar New Year's in February 2013. He killed them because he felt their noise was too excessive. In a similar case, after three years of arguing over noise levels one person snapped and murdered their neighbor in an apartment in March 2010. There was also a case of arson caused by noise level disputes. Additionally, those who deal with daily floor noise disturbances, such as interruptions to their conversations and difficulty sleeping, having long-term lasting impacts both psychologically and physiologically. The number of floor noise reports filed at neighborhood centers, which were set up by the Ministry of Environment in March 2012, is increasing annually in Seoul, from 2,627 reports (March to December 2012) to 4,366 reports (January to October 2013). Inadequate solutions The “standard for the prevention of floor noise level problems in apartments” was initiated in April 2004, and the standard for heavyweight impact noise was put in place July 2005. According to the noise control standards prescribed by the WTO in 1999, the recommendation for noise levels during the day and at night in residential areas is 35dB and 30dB, respectively. In March 2013, the National Environmental Dispute Resolution Commission tightened the standard on mutually acceptable floor noise from 55dB to 40dB in the daytime and from 45dB to 35dB at night. The articles provided in the “Rules for the Management of Apartment Houses,” which is under the Housing Act, etc. are not legally binding, and do little to solve floor noise problems. In cases where neighbors are unable to find an agreement, it can be partially addressed via dispute mediation with the Environmental Dispute Resolution Commission or through litigation; both of which are inefficient methods. It is more desirable for those directly involved or for the community to find solutions to these issues directly, rather than rely on litigation or other solutions via a third party. Local community disappearing One of the reasons why floor noise levels cause severe conflicts could lie in the fact that residents have a high turnover rate. This is because few choose to stay in one place for long periods of time and thus communication between neighbors and the neighborhood community itself is fading. Without any efforts being put forth into restoring the neighborhood community, issues related to floor noise may trigger greater social problems. For floor noise conflict mediation, a standard for floor noise levels has been established and there is a counseling center for those dealing with excessive floor noise, but there are no laws that enforce their recommendations. This results in few real options for conflict resolution. Problems such as these create numerous conflicts, which many end up with someone taking extreme measures. Without the restoration of a community where neighbors are considerate and respectful of each other the problem cannot be fixed, as legal control or punitive measures are limited

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
In 2011, Seoul put citizens’ life quality and happiness as a top priority. It set the recovery of the neighborhood community at the center of its municipal administration, restored human relations for those marginalized by urbanization to revive the community, and increased the satisfaction of citizens via implementing community administration that citizens can participate in. A floor noise conflict can be regarded as a private issue, but a severe conflict can sever communication between neighbors, and damage an entire community. Therefore, a project was executed to help neighborhood communities recover. Two solutions: “solving issues as a community” and “offering technical guidelines” The Seoul Metropolitan Government conducted research on noise prevention and prospective improvement. It then presented a technical guideline that included a proposal to the central government to revise management regulations. It also closely collaborated with communities to help them come together in solving and reducing floor noise conflicts by recommending that residents’ employ a self-regulated system. Establishment of self-regulating resident rules, etc. through discussion and consensus The Enforcement Ordinance of the Housing Act does not prescribe a detailed standard or method regarding floor noise levels. In order to solve this problem, the city of Seoul encouraged the establishment of self-regulation by residents with reference floor noise prevention (draft) suggested by the Seoul Metropolitan Government. Furthermore, the city of Seoul also encourages positive discussions and forming a consensus between residents regarding floor noise conflicts. Housekeeping: refrain from doing laundry, cleaning, etc. from 11:00 PM to 8:00 AM Musical instruments and home electronics: refrain from using pianos, sound systems, TVs, etc. from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM Children: Keep children from running or slamming the door from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM Shower: Refrain from showering or drainage from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM Fitness equipment: Refrain from using all fitness equipment from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM Pets: Try to minimize noise from pets from 8:00 PM to 8:00 AM Greeting: Creating a campaign of greeting neighbors first. Establishing a “Residents’ Committee for Mediating Floor Noise Levels” in apartment communities The residents committee for mediating floor noise is comprised of 10 to 15 individuals, who are directly involved in solving floor noise conflicts. They include the head of the apartment resident committee, the chief of the senior resident group, the head of the neighborhood community, community activists, a floor noise specialist, etc. This committee encourages residents to work together to solve floor noise issues in order to solve or prevent conflicts. The committee helps to resolve conflicts by: 1st noise report by resident ⇒ site survey ⇒ mediation meeting (1st recommendation for correction) ⇒ 2nd noise report by resident (2nd recommendation for correction and issuance of a warning notice) ⇒ execution of penalty ⇒ announcement and publication (upon non-performance) (by municipal environmental dispute resolution commission) ⇒ solution Connect with the 「APT Village Community Project」 To spread the use of self-regulating resident rules, a residents committee was developed and operated to mediate on floor noise conflicts in an established organization that is located within a neighborhood community or apartment complex. Regulation is enforced by establishing a resident communication board, self-regulating resident rules, a self-regulating mediation board, etc. and by developing an incentive system encouraging an apartment community to actively participate together. Establishment of a special organization for solving floor noise conflicts Currently, the neighborhood center, in the Ministry of Environment, handles complaints, but the response time often takes two or three months. Therefore, there is a need for a specific service focused on developing a floor noise task force to address these issues in a more efficient and specialized manner. In July 2013, the Seoul Metropolitan Government formed an exclusive team in charge of floor noise consultation, dispute mediation, and noise measurement and analysis. This team also promotes cooperative problem solving by mediating disputes between individuals from a third-party view and to smoothly solve floor noise conflicts through discussion.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
Paradigm shift towards community solutions Floor noise was formerly regarded as a private issue, and disputes occurred frequently. This resulted in making neighbors distrustful and often aggravated situations, instead of solving them. The Seoul Metropolitan Government issued “rules for prevention of floor noise level issues (draft)”, and suggested residents prepare “self-regulating resident rules” that suited their community. They also constituted the Residents’ Volunteer Committee for Floor Noise Mediation, to aid in resolving disputes through positive suggestions, etc. Thus encouraging the understanding that these conflicts are a community issue, and this has aided in restoring many communities. Establishing an exclusive team and preventive educational programs for elementary schools Previously, there was no department specifically in charge of the floor noise conflicts. However, the floor noise level team was established and they have been executing a variety of policies since July 2013. At the end of September, preventative educational materials and a preventative educational program were established for about 397,000 students, those in 1st to 3rd grade and toddlers at nursery schools. Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education executed the program in cooperation with the Seoul Nursery Educare Association. Furthermore, the Dobong-gu Sinhak Elementary School created an event where students write friendly postcards or letters while also working together with parents, through such events floor noise disputes decreased. Development of a neighbor communication board The Design Workshop for Citizen Service visited a selected model complex for two months. They developed a resident communication board through questionnaires, resident education, etc. Residents learned to solve neighborhood their problems by forming neighborhood relationships. The workshop also prepared a specific space to facilitate communication and build relations.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
In October 2012, the Seoul Metropolitan Government developed a solution for floor noise conflicts as part of the “Seoul Plan for Executing Joint Conflict Management.” In February 2013, the murder due to a floor noise conflict became a social issue, and thus the “Measure for Solving Floor Noise Disputes” was prepared in March 2013. With the community’s help, they created a satisfactory result by collecting citizens’ opinions. Establishing the Measure for Solving Floor Noise Disputes and holding a press conference: March 13, 2013 The Seoul Metropolitan Government held a press conference after they prepared the “Measure for Solving Floor Noise Level Disputes at Apartment Houses,” by actively supporting a variety of matters. Chiefly they focused on residents being able to voluntarily mediate disputes. A “Town Meeting” for solving floor noise conflicts: May 28, 2013 To prepare a solution for floor noise conflicts a variety of citizens gathered, from those personally involved, to apartment management, to civil servants, to specialists, even nursery school teachers, etc. Together they sought problem-solving ideas by gathering opinions and perspectives on the policies that were to be implemented. Presentation of solutions and ideas from citizens: April 25 to May 24, 2013 Six prizes (three per event) were presented after citizens’ participation in a public contest for creating floor noise conflict solutions. Furthermore, the precinct was also given the authority to benchmark solutions and ideas. Floor noise levels sympathy expo: June 20 to June 23, 2013 (4 days) A floor noise conflict forum was held providing consultation, and to aid individuals involved to recognize and understand both sides. As such, the expo provided a space for experiencing floor noise and sharing experiences about the harm it inflicts. Use civic groups, etc. to establish and pilot self-regulating resident regulations and others: May to October 2013 The Seoul Metropolitan Government, in cooperation with the Seoul YWCA Neighborhood Dispute Mediation Center and the Women’s Peacemaking Association for Dispute Resolution, put together measures for solving floor noise issues and conducted a survey to residents of “Eunpyeong New Town Jegangmal Apartment Complex” and the “Galhyeon-dong Koron Haneulchae Apartment Complex” . The survey was conducted on 30 households of the Eunpyeong-gu Jegangmal Apartment Complex for three months. The survey results showed that 27 households had experienced floor noise issues. The Jegangmal Apartment Complex was considered quiet, but residents learned otherwise and held an education program for preventing or reducing floor noise. Consequently, they organized the “Love Neighborhood,” and the “resident’s voluntary committee for mediating floor noise levels". They established a “resident voluntary agreement for adhering to proper floor noise levels” with the consent of 276 of 330 households, and recovered a community spirit that showed consideration and respect. Talent and skills donation by the Living Culture Research Institute: July to October 2013 The Living Culture Research Institute held a briefing session and carried out a survey about floor noise on four complexes selected by the city of Seoul. Additionally, they supported the establishment of “self-regulating resident rules” appropriate for each complex, and a method for implementing and operating the residents’ mediation committee. Developing and using the Resident Communication Board: July to October 2013 The communication board previously installed was used primarily only to announce resident notices, administration information, etc. Therefore, creating two-way communication between residents was attempted, but was found to be difficult. Thus, the Seoul Metropolitan Government held workshops for residents of the Jegangmal Apartment Complex and Eunpyeong-gu New Town. Through the workshops they refined design, and installed a communication board, which contributed to solving floor noise conflicts. The Seoul Metropolitan Government and the Seoul Private Nursery Education Association entered an MOU: March 2013 - present Considering that 73.3% (March 15, 2012 to October 31, 2013) of floor noise results from children walking or running, 13,000 copies of a cartoon titled, “No worries about floor noise” were issued as floor noise education. A program for the prevention of floor noise was launched at elementary schools and kindergartens in Seoul via the cooperation of the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education, and thusly entered an “MOU for prevention and education of floor noise” with the Seoul Private Nursery Education Association. A preventative educational program was held for apartment security guards, resident representatives, property management employees, and others that had experienced resident complaints.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
. Build a public civil cooperation network with civic groups and floor noise specialization organizations On March 15, 2013, the Seoul Metropolitan Government decided develop a voluntary resident mediation model with the cooperation of the Seoul YMCA Neighborhood Conflict Mediation Center and the Women’s Peacemaking Association for Dispute Resolution. The Seoul YMCA Neighborhood Conflict Mediation Center held five resident meetings, heard cases from residents suffering from floor noise conflicts, both successful and non-successful cases , discussed resident communication and how to prevent or reduce disputes over floor noise levels, and conducted a survey. Afterwards, they provided customized education based around the residents’ needs. The Women’s Peacemaking Association for Dispute Resolution works to prevent issues with floor noise levels and solves problems by through surveys, educational programs, etc. The group targeted the Galhyeon-dong Koron Apartment Complex residents to create self-regulating resident rules and a voluntary resident mediation committee. Additionally, the Living Culture Research Institute donated their efforts and ran a test operation for four months from July to October in 2013. Running a preventative program at elementary and nursery schools in cooperation with the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education and the Seoul Private Nursery Education Association At the end of September, Seoul issued a manual for floor noise prevention, called, “'Loving your neighbors like your family, no more worries about floor noise!” targeting 1st to 3rd graders and nursery school toddlers, as they are the source of the majority of floor noise. The Seoul school inspector, elementary and nursery school teachers, etc. provided consultation support in reviewing the manual. With the cooperation of the Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education and the Private Nursery Education Association, 13,000 issues were distributed to elementary schools, kindergartens, and nursery schools. The goal was to educate elementary and nursery school teachers about the topic of floor noise prevention. Training session for apartment security, 1st floor noise coordinator The resident with floor noise conflicts typically report this to a security guard or a property management office. Therefore, an educational program regarding conflicts, or mediation was provided for security guards. The goal of the program was to encourage positive and early responses to floor noise complaints
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Financial resources: budget reduction through civil-public governance This project, which was executed to deal with the serious social issue of floor noise levels, was carried out without a budget in March 2013. However, 38 million KRW was received in the form of talent donation from civic groups and agencies that specialize in floor noise levels. Furthermore, two civic groups donated their budgets (18 million KRW) and the Living Culture Research Institute made a talent donation (20 million KRW) Technical resources: consultation development by civil resource specialists In order to implement this project effectively, the acquisition of an agency specializing in floor noise levels was of the upmost importance. Therefore, the project offered a resident education program and special consultation regarding self-regulating resident rules for model complex residents; all of which was carried out by establishing governance between civic groups and specialized civil agencies. The Seoul Metropolitan Bureau of Childbirth and the Childcare Division entered into an MOU for “floor noise prevention education” with Seoul National and the Public and Private Nursery Education Association, and supported floor noise prevention programs for nursery school toddlers. In close cooperation with apartments in 25 precincts, it helped apartment complex residents voluntarily establish self-regulating resident rules, self-regulating mediation boards, and more. Human resources: civil specialists to propose a voluntary resident mediation model The director of the Living Culture Research Institute supported four model complexes by offering a survey, briefing sessions, drafting of resident rules, and forming and operating a self-regulating mediation board, and he also contributed to the formation of a neighborhood community. The Seoul YMCA Neighborhood Conflict Mediation Center dispatched a specialist to a model apartment, led the creation of a neighborhood community by holding a residents’ meeting and a resident education session, and offered consultation for the establishment of self-regulating resident rules (draft), and the formation of a self-regulating mediation board. They also held an agreement ceremony with Jegangmal Apartment Complex residents. 13 students, public officers, citizens, service design consultants, etc. joined a citizen service design workshop, conducted a field survey and resident education, and developed a resident communication board that took residents’ opinions into consideration.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Executing the voluntary resident agreement through community action The precinct voluntarily joined in developing a foundation for residents to take issues with floor noise levels into their own hands. Since that time a measure for solving floor noise level issues was publicized in March 2013. The project for the prevention of floor noise was executed in the precinct office from May to September 2013, where 251 self-regulating resident rules were established, 267 self-regulating mediation boards were formed, 87 resolved cases were collected, and 2,180 communication boards were installed in 349 apartment complexes. The campaign of “sending a postcard to neighbors” started from the Banghak-dong volunteer center in Seoul where Sinhak Elementary School students participated by sending a total of 1,100 letters or postcards (for 5 months) to elderly residents of Shindongah Apartment Complex. Senior citizens in the neighborhood responded with a letter or postcard and as such the number of complaints were reduced to 1/3 during that period (74 cases → 24 cases). It was confirmed that the final solution for floor noise level disputes consists of communication and consideration between neighbors, and not anger-fueled complaints. Design service specialists, citizens, students, and public officers opened an 8-week workshops (July 4 to September 6, 2013) to provide details related to a bulletin that was posted in each apartment. The administrative service was then enhanced by gathering opinions from residents dwelling in these apartments. This was carried out via the communication board and service design techniques were also applied to develop a resident communication board. Using civic groups and agencies that specialize in regulating floor noise levels to pilot self-regulating resident rules, etc. By using civic groups, such as the Seoul YMCA Neighborhood Conflict Mediation Center and Women’s Peacemaking Association for Dispute Resolution, a poll on floor noise and self-regulating resident rules was developed for the Eunpyeong New Town, Jegangmal Apartment Complex, and the Galhyeon-dong Koron Apartment Complex. The first residents’ committee for mediating disputes over floor noise levels put a lot of effort into their resident education and prevention activities (monthly resident meeting, advertising materials and broadcasting, and activation program operation). The Living Culture Research Institute supported a survey targeting four apartment complexes, a briefing session, a voluntary resident agreement, and the formation and operation of a floor noise mediation committee.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Applying incentives in connection with the apartment community project The voluntary resident solutions for solving floor noise level issues were suggested throughout 25neighborhoods, and the number of the apartment complexes that are making their own self-regulating resident rules are increasing. In addition, precincts were evaluated by applying incentives for the establishment of self-regulating resident rules, resident communication boards, etc. This took place in connection with the apartment project in 2013 that was carried out in order to revitalize a resident-led community. Monitoring through civic groups and specialized civil agencies With the help of civic groups (the Seoul YMCA Neighborhood Conflict Mediation Center), a specialized civil agency (the Living Culture Research Institute), and the participation of individual residents at six apartment complexes, the Seoul Metropolitan Government created “self-regulating resident rules,” and executed the policy by forming a voluntary resident mediation committee that will administer the rules. In 2013, the Dobong-gu Shindongah Apartment Complex started the “writing a letter to your neighbors campaign” as a community project to solve its floor noise level problems and incidences of such issues drastically decreased from 74 cases in May 2013 to 21 cases in September of the same year.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Finding solutions by attracting participation from apartment complexes that lack a sense of community Many problems occurred in thinking over and solving community issues together. This was due to communication barriers between residents and low participation rates in community programs. However, the Seoul Metropolitan Government offered an incentive for the establishment of self-regulating resident rules, the formation of voluntary resident mediation committees, etc., to solve issues with floor noise levels in connection with building a community. In addition, the district office actively led residents to push for and spread it voluntarily. Budget shortage The project was executed without the security of a budget. Therefore, executing it proved problematic given the need for funding. On October 19, 2013, the Seoul YMCA Neighborhood Conflict Mediation Center, which is a civic group, provided a floor noise education program for apartment residents, drafted self-regulating resident rules, established a resident committee for voluntary mediation, and held an agreement ceremony with residents. The Living Culture Research Institute donated its talents for four apartment complexes selected by the Seoul Metropolitan Government and supported floor noise resident presentations, self-regulating resident rules, surveys, and the formation and operation of a resident committee for voluntary mediation. Residents’ low participation rates in the neighborhood community project and the shortage of floor noise level regulation activists Residents’ low participation rates in the neighborhood project delayed the formation of a community, and it was hard to find civil specialists who could mediate floor noise level disputes between parties. Therefore, it was executed by using civic groups and floor noise specialization agencies. Finally, it all came together with the help of a community planner, as it facilitated the formation of a community and established a task force team and a support system that included various specialists.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The opportunity to develop as a community that promotes communication and consideration between neighbors The self-regulating mediation board was established to mediate floor noise disputes in connection with stimulating apartment communities for the purpose of solving floor noise disputes. Residents began to meet each other, discuss community problems, establish self-regulating resident rules, attempt to voluntarily solve the problems in the apartment complex, and to encourage communication between new residents. One example of their results is seen in how they transformed a communication board that used to simply be a notice board into a new space where neighbors would share their stories. As such, these comprehensive efforts relieved many conflicts. Creating a communication space by installing a resident communication board The resident bulletin board was created in order to share opinions with neighbors, communicate and respond to one another’s thoughts, and to provide a welcoming and warm space to share with neighbors. The Jegangmal Apartment Complex launched a program for expanding resident communication and community (forest stories, eco-classroom fairy tale readings, love for yoga, etc.). It was an opportunity for neighbors to share both their joys and concerns with each other and for this community to become more active by creating self-regulating resident rules, etc.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The possibility of preventing floor noises with a limited budget Residents’ voluntary participation enables increased communication between neighbors without creating any kind of financial burden via the resident communication board. It can prevent unseen conflicts and social losses by resolving major and minor conflicts between neighbors and by transforming the existing individualistic mentality to a broader, more community-centered consciousness. This can promote the sense of a strong community spirit and can contribute to national development and integration by creating a new and progressive space for neighborhood communication. Persistent apartment floor noise issues are due to urbanization When countries are urbanized, high-density apartments are constructed to utilize small land areas due to the increasing population and housing shortage. Apartments are constructed with a wall that lies between neighbors places, and various noises from children running around, musical instruments, loud conversations (quarrels, etc.), and plumbing systems (toilet, shower, etc.) are generated in the life of the ever increasing apartment houses. Moreover, as cities become more urbanized, there will be more disputes over floor noise. Benchmarking by Incheon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Daejon Metropolitan City, etc. Seven key measures for solving floor noise disputes were announced at a press conference on March 13, 2013, and news of the “floor noise prevention rules” (draft) and voluntary resident mediation system were disseminated via numerous newspapers so that other local governments would become aware of how serious the issue of floor noise in apartment complexes has become. Metropolitan councils, such as Incheon-si, Gyeonggi-do, and Daejeon Metropolitan City benchmarked those suggested by Seoul and are working to introduce the system to their areas. Thus, 25 precincts in Seoul and other cities and provinces that have large populations of apartment households have begun to place an emphasis on solving conflicts by creating specialized lectures and organizational task forces.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The necessity for keeping a living space comfortable Everyone desires to enjoy a calm and comfortable life at home. With more things happening in the world, more and more simply desire to just be able relax at home. In addition, in the era of drastic urban population concentrations and at the same time seeking convenience, the explosive surge of residents living in apartments began to cause unexpected conflicts. Neighborhood conflict and noise disputes have recently resulted in violence, arson, and even murder, and pleasant situations with “good neighbors” have all but disappeared. Accordingly, we need to take up the task of making friends with our neighbors and not increasing animosity between one another. We need to do so by activating a strong community and by creating close-knit neighborhoods to resolve the aforementioned problems. A neighborhood community formed in an apartment complex without neighbors People don’t care about who their neighbors are and what's happening in their own apartment buildings, for we are living in a dreary city where there is little to no communication and our humanity is lost. These things have seemed to be the case, but in 2012, the Seoul Metropolitan Government began to push in earnest for the creation of a community restoration project. A community where neighbors live together was recovered through activities such as vegetable gardening, talent donation, active exchanges taking place between residences, restoring neighbor relationships, etc., and thus they lowered the walls between themselves to make the city a better place to live. To solve the serious social issue of floor noise disputes that have sometimes led to the murdering of one’s neighbors, as seen with the case in February 2013, a measure for floor noise regulation was arranged in association with the apartment community. The residents living in apartments felt the need to resolve the issue of floor noise disputes. As a result, they are significantly contributing to making their community an increasingly positive place to live through engaging in mutual cooperation activities. Budget savings through public civil governance policy The measure arranged by the Seoul Metropolitan Government for solving disputes over floor noise, which included the preparation of self-regulating resident rules etc. that were in accordance with the characteristics of apartment complexes in various precincts was on track, but few had any actual experience in solving these issues. Additionally, support from floor noise specialists and a specialized organization was needed. With the construction and test operation of governance between civic groups and a specialized floor noise organization, pre-monitoring became available. A resident communication board was developed by seeking the creation of a service design workshop, which consisted of design consultants, students, public officers, citizens, etc. A resident communication board was installed in the apartment elevator, which began to facilitate communication between neighbors living on different floors. Moreover, the sense of community spirit that is connected to living together increased and preventative measures for conflict management were implemented. As a result, due to considerable voluntary contributions the budget had significant savings.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   1. Seoul Metropolitan Government
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   yong-seok Kim
Title:   Manager of Dispute Resolution Division  
Telephone/ Fax:   82-2-2133-6354
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   110, Sejong-daero, Jung-gu, Seoul, 100-744, Korea
Postal Code:   100-744
City:   Seoul

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