Cooperative Promotion Department

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Bangkok is the capital of Thailand, with a population of 5,676,765 (as of February 2013). However, if Bangkok dwellers off the registration were included, that will make the number closer to 8,839,022, accounting for 14 percent of the total Thai population. Bangkok is composed of 50 districts with a growing trend. Hence, waste produced by Bangkok dwellers is the largest in comparison with other provinces. According to historical data, Bangkok wastegrew from 7,000 tons/day in 1994 to 9,340 tons/day in 2003. Nong Kham district is one of the districts with the largest dumping ground in Bangkok, accounting for 43 percent of the total waste produced in Bangkok, as much as 4,016 tons/day.The large volume of waste was more than the waste treatment factory capacity could process. This garbage was left outside the factory awaited processing. Nearly 3,000 tons/day of overflow garbage had accumulated into a huge mountain of garbage. It attractedlarge numbers of people from various regions of Thailand tolivearound the dumping ground and make a living by collecting and selling garbage with an income of 100 – 300 baht/day. Gradually, more and more garbage collectors continued to move in to build houses near the dumping ground. Later on, they called themselves Nong Kham Dumping Ground Community (NKDGC). It was a slum inhabited by people with no job or income whose hope was to make their daily living from collecting and selling garbage from the dumping ground. These people built their houses around the dumping ground. In fact, it was more of a simple shelter, a house built from used materials they found from the dumping ground. Their living conditions were unhygienic, too crowded, and without a proper sewage system. In 1990, some of these people trespassed onto public and privately owned land. In the community, children and young adults grew up playing around the dumping ground with stray dogs that wander around looking for kitchen waste. There was an outbreak of rabies. Two children died from infection and more than 40 garbage collectors were bitten by infected dogs. The nature of a garbage collecting job requires people to work days and nights, most people in the community drink and use drugs to keep them going. During 1996 – 2000, the country’s economy crashed.Drugs spread to NKDGC and about 25 percent of community members were arrested and sentenced to jail in drug related cases. Drugs have been threats to the country, family and community. Most children and young adults opted out of the school system to help their parents collect garbage. Moreover, people had health problems resulting from regular inhalation of and contact with garbage. Unhygienic housing was another cause of the problems. It had become a place for criminalgathering as well as petty crimes. This affected the neighboring communities. Public services were inaccessible due to budgetary limits and priorities where the registered population was the first priority. Therefore, the unregistered, trespassers of NKDGC were left out of basic public services.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Mr. BanjonSae Ung, a community leader brought the problems to public attention and contact various public and private organizations to collaborate in solving the community problems. The most immediate problem needed to be solved was the housing problem where capital was highly needed for construction of proper houses so they could live in a more hygienic and safer condition. However, they hit another problem because to secure loans, borrowers needed strong credit background but these people were immigrants without stable job or income and credit background. Therefore, they needed to establish a cooperative to act on their behalf and to manage the loans for government fund. These people under the lead of Mr. Banjong formed into a saving group with 116 initial members. Soon after, with the support from Cooperative Promotion Department, Bangkok Area One Office on knowledge transfer, capacity building, consultation and service, Nong Kham Dumping Ground Community Housing Cooperative Ltd. (NKDGCHC) was established to help solve community problems. Through cooperative, community borrowed housing loans from the Community Organization Development Institute under the Baan Man Kong program. The cooperative also managed the loan for CODI. With this program, 170 houses were built 160 of which were two-story and 10 were one-story. In addition, multi-purpose and cooperative office buildings were also built. Along with the housing construction, proper infrastructure such as road, water, sewage systems were also built. Working toward building a strong community where children and youth received better education, drug problems were eradicated, the development team understood that stable incomes and education were critical but success depended largely on community commitment. Thus, public space was open for the community to learn about their problem through discussion to analyze their problems at different levels from individual to community level and to plan their action step by step. The NKDGCHC in collaboration with public and private organizations have played an essential role in knowledge transfer and capacity building for community. NKDGC leaders gathered all community members who were affected to find solutions to the problems. He informed that he was once tried to introduce credit union principles to the community but it was not successful. Then, Cooperative Promotion Department - Bangkok Area One Office (CPD-BAOO) took the initiative to extend public services to these underprivileged people by providing knowledge on how cooperative models can help solve their problems and how to establish a cooperative. The first step was problem analysis where a participatory approach was exploited. CPD-BAOO worked closely with the community to identify problems and found that NKDGC was underprivileged and in urgent need of quality of life improvement. Their most pressing problems were that of being forced out from the area, unstable housing, health and hygiene, access to public services, civil rights and lack of credibility to get loans. These people were willing to form into a cooperative but still lacked management knowledge and skills. The Cooperative Promotion Department in collaboration with the Community Organization Development Institute aimed to solve housing problems in slum communities. Therefore a plan to solve problems for the NKDGC was laid out using the SPK framework where S – social, P- people and K-knowledge were key factors. 1) NKDGC – people in the community came together to form a saving group to raise funds as collateral for loans from the CODI. The formation of the saving group also helped prepare the community for the establishment of a cooperative. 2) Cooperative Promotion Department – Support for knowledge and information as well as for registration and establishment of Nong Kham Dumping Ground Community Housing Cooperative Limited (NKDGCHC). Promote the cooperative to follow cooperative values, ideals, and principles as a way to improve livelihood sustainably. 3) NKDGCHC Limited was a focal point for knowledge dissemination and coordination with various stakeholders for the implementation of the initiative. 4) Related government agencies and private organizations – provided support on training, loans and the problem-solving process. The strategy for initiative implementation was to utilize the cooperative as the focal point to coordinate with various stakeholders following three forces of SPK: 1) Build a better community and stable housing 2) Helpthe community to be self-reliant and sustainable 3) Educate and improve the community environment

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
NKDGC tried to solve the problems by themselves but failed because they lacked knowledge and an appropriate strategy. CPD-BAOO designed the SPK problem solving process by using the cooperative as a key actor implemented through a participatory process. The synergy of three approaches was employed: 1) Need of belonging to society (social), based on the subconscious that they are underprivileged for example; garbage collecting is considered a low level, undesirable job. They usually received improper treatment when contacting government agencies. Lack of credibility to back against loans, being forced out of the area, debt, health and hygiene problems and a lack of civil rights. These were internal drivers for change. 2) People – community members with their collective efforts, get together to learn about housing improvements, education and integrated problem solving. They formed a savings group to prepare themselves for the establishment of a cooperative. Later they registered a cooperative called Nong Kham Dumping Ground Community Housing Cooperative Limited and it acted as a focal point for coordination with various organizations to ask for assistance and support in terms of education and finance as well as to be a source for loans. 3) Knowledge – various organizations such as government agencies, private organizations, people networks supported education for the community.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The cooperative was utilized as a tool to improve the quality of life of the NKDGC by implementing the following steps: 1. Build a better community and stable housing It was not easy to bring change to a slum of 200 households. Trust was an underlying factor. Therefore from 2000 – 2003, Mr. Banjong Sae Ung, a change agent of the community stepped in to help them solve rabies epidemic by coordinating with Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Office and the media to provide assistance to the community until rabies was successfully eradicated from the area. Later, he contacted the Archdiocese of Bangkok and Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus of Bangkok to build a community center with help from the Sisters to take care of children and seniors. The drug problem was also reduced in 2001. The community committee in collaboration with various organizations helped drug addicts with a positive mindset and procedures and promoted community participation in reducing the drug problem. For the settlement of land and housing problems, community leaders worked closely with community members to build their understanding and confidence in participation in the program through the following steps: 1) Organizing a public space – community leaders organized public space to inform community members about the objectives and procedures of the Baan Man Kong program. The program was to improve housing for the poor in slum communities through participation of community members. It also aimed to establish a cooperative. 2) Providing education, instill a sense of ownership, collecting data, encouraging community members to learn about their problems. A participatory approach was employed to solve community problems. Allowing them to see positive changes to build confidence in their efforts. Providing information on alternatives. Arranged field visits to cooperatives in order to establish and try to solve housing problems to build participants’ confidence. 3) Collaborating with various partners –community leaders coordinated with the Community Organization Development Institute to provide information on the program and a low interest housing loans scheme. CPD-BAOO provided information on cooperative formation and establishment to help manage loans. Other organizations worked with the community in housing design and blueprints as well as infrastructure and an environment development plan. 2. Help community to be self-reliance and -sustainable From 2004 – 2005, NKDGC formed a savings group to build confidence and credibility for loans from the Community Organization Development Institute. Savings from the program will be used to build houses. The savings started in July 2004 with deposits of 500 baht/household/month. Initial participants in the saving program were116 households. The savings group learned about cooperative ideology, principles and values as well as management from CPD-BAOO. The group then registered as a Nong Kham Dumping Ground Community Housing Cooperative Limited with 121 initial members. Later, more people joined the cooperative to meet the target numbers. CPD-BAOO officials have provided consultation, adviceand coaching for the cooperative board of committee and staff on assembly meeting procedures, reporting as well as planning and monitoring and evaluation by the auditor who acts on behalf of cooperative members. Cooperative Auditing Department officials provided training on accounting principles and practices. 3. Educate and improve community environment From 2006 – 2009, the NKDGCHC borrowed from CODI and used it to buy land from private landowners, rented the present settlement land and improved infrastructure system. The cooperative worked with the community on allocation and management of land and housing including planning of layout and blueprint of houses. 170 houses were built which included 160 two-story houses and 10 one-story houses. They also built multi-purpose and cooperative office buildings. Community leaders coordinated with various organizations to educate and train community members. These organizations worked with community members and cooperative’s board of committee to set criteria for housing allocation and rules of the community. CPD-BAOO advised and coached the cooperative’s board of committee staff and auditors to build skills that can be worked systematically. Cooperative Auditing Department officials trained and advised them on accounting audit practice. From 2010 – present, the cooperative faced accounting problems with large numbers of members that missed their payment dues for many consecutive billing dates. CPD-BAOO worked with the cooperative’s board of committee and community to analyze the problem of the cooperative and households. They laid out a plan to apply the principles of Sufficiency Economy to cooperative operationsand life. The cooperative planned to promote the well being of its members through the Khaya Sang Baan program (Garbage for House Program) with financial support from the Cooperative Promotion Department. The program promotes savings, household accounting, building a standard childcare center, promoting health and hygiene of the community and prevention of drug use.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The stakeholders who are involved in the project can be separated into three groups of activities as follows: 1. The establishment of Nong Kham Dumping Ground Housing Co-operative, Ltd. • Garbage collectors gathered into a garbage community. The leader of the community plays a major role in pushing forward the development of this community and seeking cooperation from both inside and outside the community. • The Office of Co-operative Promotion in Bangkok Area 1, Cooperative Promotion Department transferred knowledge towards the cooperativethat is related to self-help, mutual help, and the operation of the cooperative, cooperative registration, cooperative regulation and capacity building of the board of directors. • The Office of Cooperative Auditing in Bangkok, Cooperative Auditing Department set the model of accounting records to prove transparency. 2. The housework • Planning to buy land, provide public utilities, build houses and solve related problems has been done with the cooperation of the board of directors, officers and members of Nong Kham Dumping Ground Housing Co-operative, Ltd. – and also NongKham community, Community Organizations Development Institute, The Office of Co-operative Promotion in Bangkok Area 1, mass media, educational institutes, and religious organization. • Community Organizations Development Institute is responsible for solving problems involved in housing for low-income people in urban areas and for building the secured community by giving subsidies or low-interest rate loans. • Southeast Asia University, The Congregation of the Sister of the Sacred Heart of Jesus of Bangkok, Diocesan Social Action Center, Khun Poom Foundation, and the mass media supported the design of a town map, public utility system, houses, social activities, etc. • Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Nongkhame District Office responded to form a society inside that area and to register Nongkhame community as a part of Bangkok where people in the community received a correct address number and the same rights as all other Bangkok people. 3. Career and community development • Increased income, reduced expenditure and expandedopportunities -The board of directors of Nong Kham Dumping Ground Housing Co-operative, Ltd. associated with other related organizations to make an occupational development plan. In addition, it acts as the center of the coordination with government organizations, private organizations, other organizations, and cooperative memberswith the purpose of community and occupational development. - The Office of Co-operative Promotion in Bangkok Area 1, Cooperative Promotion Department together with the cooperative makes the occupational development plan. This is to stabilize income for cooperative members and to increase the ability of members’ loan payments consistently. The plan involved knowledge sharing on waste separation, the Waste Building Houses project (Kaya Srang Baan project) and also developing the learning center of the community garbage management domestically and overseas. • Social and community development The integration among government sector, private sector and religious organizations is for solving the drug problem and solving child and youth problems to build a drug free community. Examples of organizations that are involved areNong Kham Police station, Nong Khang Phlu Police station, The Office of the Narcotics Control Board, Bansomdejchaopraya Rajabhat University, Healthcare Center 48, Thammasart University, The Congregation of the Sister of the Sacred Heart of Jesus of Bangkok, Saengtham College, Diocesan Social Action Center Bangkok, World Vision Foundation of Thailand, Wat Wonglaparam, Saint Louis Hospital Foundation, Asia University, Social Investment Fund, and Southeast Asia University.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
6.1. A secured house construction. Financial aspect - the first fund was collected from NongKham garbage community savings group. This group collected money from 116 household members at 500 baht a month. The collection reached an amount of 10% of 23 million baht, which was borrow from the Community Organizations Development Institute with an interest rate of 2%, with the purpose of providing collateral. The purposes of this loan are divided into twosections; 1) buy land and 2) build members’ houses. Human resource aspect - the Office of Co-operative Promotion in Bangkok Area 1 supports the extension staff for cooperative establishment and consultation. The Office of Cooperative Auditing in Bangkok provides the accounting advice staff, auditing software and also does the auditing. The Community Organizations Development Institute provides the loan analysis staff and advises the cooperative administration. Community members intend to act up to the plan by the division of labor technique. 6.2 The supportive to strengthen the cooperative and the community. Financial and human resource respect - The support of funds and personnel to the community leads to the self-reliance of the community. The government and private institutes spent their general budget and allowed their permanent staff to give advice, to visit, to monitor and evaluate, and to solve the community’s problems while the cooperative and the community will bring that advice into practice with their own budget. Their operations and problem solving is based on the participation principle which is the fundamental of the international cooperative principle. It leads to transparency and accountability. Punctuality of members’ debt payment is a long term problem of the community and cooperative. They must pursue members to pay back. Consequently, the Cooperative Promotion Department gives a grant used for career creation and problem solving. Technical aspect –The Cooperative Promotion Department supports the community through a cooperative members’ database created by using a basic data survey. This information was used in planning, cooperative establishment, loan analyzing of the Community Organizations Development Institute. Furthermore, it also supported an accounting program and account recording system by the Cooperative Auditing Department. 6.3 Community environmental recreation. Financial aspect - the Community Organizations Development Institute funds Public utility construction of the community. Technical aspect - The town plan designer and the university, the district office and other alliances support house builder. Focusing on community participation conforms to community’s needs and their livelihood. As a result, the budget of house building has not exceeded estimation.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
1.) 170 households of garbage collectors own their houses and land by law and receive their own address number being a part of the Bangkok community properly. They can live in a sanitary environment, have a more pleasant standard of living, have better convenience, and have access to a nearby community center, cooperative office and healthcare center. 2.) the cooperative is the financial center of the community providinga savings service, credit service, welfare, and social activities for the community’s members. Now, the cooperative has a robust revolving fund. 3.) the community has a number of development plans in order to improve the quality of life of community members. Examples are the Baan Mankong project, the cooperative program, the children and youth development program, career development program that can increase income and reduce expenditure, including a drug enforcement program. 4.) the community becomes a learning center for the public,both Thai and foreign. The study involves the extent of waste separation, the operation of the Baan Mankong project, and the problem solving related to drug problems.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
8.1. the step of the project monitoring is divided into three stages as follows: 1.) Initial stage – was worked together with community leaders to monitor the procedure of knowledge sharing and understanding of the community regarding the creation of a more pleasant and secure community. The activities are such as organizing community meetings, giving knowledge and building the community’s consciousness to be aware of community problem. In addition, it also coordinated with the Community Organizations Development Institute to make community members recognize loan management by the cooperative. 2.) Stabilizing stage – this step is based on the idea of community self-reliance. It was done by establishing the cooperative, loaning the housing credit of the Community Organizations Development Institute under its determined regulations and mutual savings to be used as collateral, planning to buy land, building public utilities and designing houses, and paying cooperative loans on a due date, and problem solving. The cooperative board of directors, the community, the Community Organizations Development Institute, The Office of Co-operative Promotion in Bangkok Area 1, mess media, academic institutes and religious organizations, operated the progress monitoring based on the operation plan. 3.) Development stage – This stage is to monitor the cooperative environment and community recreations and the occupational development to ensure members stable income and ability to repay debt. This stage also makes sure that children and women in the community are safe from epidemics and are drug free, have a high quality of life, and have proper sanitation. The Office of Co-operative Promotion in Bangkok Area 1 associated with related organizations monitored occasionally by using important measures such as monthly cooperative board of directors meetings. This allows a number of staff in all sectors to participate. The staff of the Office of Co-operative Promotion in Bangkok Area 1 gathered cooperative information and its financial performance in order to analyze, plan, and give advice. In addition, they also heard opinionsfrom cooperative members and made anannual survey to collect members’ opinions. 8.2 An evaluation The evaluation, according to the determined plan and strategy, will be done once a year and will lead to the following: -The standard of living of garbage collectorshas increased consistently. Houses are built on time. Helpprovided bythe cooperative board of directors on cooperative administration resulted in punctually settling debts to the Community Organizations Development Institute. In case of members’ inconsistent debt payment, the cooperative will make a long-term plan by increasing members’ income to resolve problems such as the Waste Building Houses project (Kaya Srang Baan project). -Community environmental recreation is evaluated through problem solving on the drug problem with a strategy on ‘Palliate Praise and Protect’. This strategy aims to protect the community from illegal drugs and crime. The admission of children and youth to school has increased. Women are treated properly. Each family in the community lives in a sanitary environment. To reduce the problem of gambling and alcohol addiction, there are projects such as “Mom stop playing lotto and Dad stop drinking alcohol project”. -The operation of the cooperative is evaluated by cooperative mechanismssuch as cooperative inspectors who are representatives of the cooperative members elected from the general meeting, and are responsible for monthly auditing and evaluation of the administration of the board of directors and management division. Another evaluator, the government organization are the Cooperative Auditing Department and Cooperative Promotion Department. The Cooperative Auditing Department evaluates cooperative performance through an annual report. The Cooperative Promotion Department evaluates underlined methods and strategies under the SPK framework and assesses the cooperative strength through a Cooperative Standardized Indicator done by the cooperative extension officer. In 2012, the cooperative was awarded the best cooperative standard.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Nong Kham’s Dumping Ground Community Housing Cooperative Ltd. had problems with repayment of loans with about 20% of members having some loan outstanding. The problem arose from the fact that community members have a lack of stable income sources, lack of financial disciplines, lack of compliance of the cooperative by-laws and agreements. Solutions were to have the cooperative repay loans for the members by the cooperative’s capital reserve, promote savings in form of shares, members’ savings, promote members to increase their income. In addition, the cooperative initiated a garbage building home program where participants worked 2 hours/day to purchase a house. Cooperative and community leaders worked closely with members and their families. For example: Family A missed their payment dues for 3 consecutive months without any appropriate reason. According to cooperative by-laws, it was written off for the book. However, Mr. A tried to improve and participate in voluntary work on sorting of recycled garbage. In early stages, the committee paid Mr. A ฿50 a day and if Mr. A continued to deliver quality work diligently, the cooperative would hired Mr. A as a pay rolled worker and raised his wages to an appropriate rate based on the labor law as well as reinstate him to continue to participate in the Housing program . Family B, head of the household was paralyzed and could not work, the mother was a single source of income. Their firstborn son was in jail on a drug related charge, their 2nd son was just released from jail from a similar case. Their youngest daughter was a good high school student but the family could not support her education. The income made by the mother from her daily work was insufficient to pay for the whole family’s necessary expenses. Mr. Banjong, a cooperative/community leader advised the family’s first born son to drive a bus to help increase family income. In coordination with the local church for their daughter’s scholarship, he advised them on how to gain access to healthcare for the head of the household. He also took the family to visit their first son in jail as well as provided moral support. In addition, he advised the first son to change his behavior and improve himself.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
1) Garbage collectors gained access to economic and social resources as well as register for a housing number. 2) Livable community – previously houses were built in a simple form with zinc roofing and used recycled materials gathered from the dumping ground. After the initiatives were implemented, 68 percent of the houses were improved to a 2-story house, 6 percent were concrete houses, 36 percent were non-concrete houses, and 1 percent was other. Road conditions were previously bad and untidy because community buildings extruded to the sidewalk and there was improper placement of household materials on the roadside. The road for the community became a source for flies, cockroaches, and disease breeding. Now, it has been improved to a two-lane steel reinforced concrete road. 3) Infection eradication – rabies outbursts were eradicated with the introduction of a rabies vaccine. 4) Sustainable anti-drug approach – An integrated approach to problem solving with a focus on love and empathy. Respect for human dignity of the target group, encouraging participation from them and providing them with opportunities for improvement. It was a peaceful approach where Mr. Banjong Sae Ung, a NKDGC leader was recognized for his contribution in 2010 from the Department of Narcotic Prevention and Eradication. Due to the success of the initiative, there were many organizations that followed the NKDGC model. 5) Children and young adults received better and higher quality education – previously, only 56 percent of community members graduated primary school, and 14 percent were uneducated. Once the initiative was implemented, numbers of uneducated community members reduced to 7.3 percent, 82.8 percent were educated, with 56.9 percent receiving the highest education of primary level, 40.7 percent graduated high school, 3.5 percent graduated vocational school and 8.7 percent graduated higher vocational school, 1.9 percent graduated with a Bachelor degree, and 0.9 percent graduated Master’s degree. 6) Stable career and income – previously 80 percent of them earned their living from garbage collecting, presently, 24.9 percent worked for a daily wage, 12.2 percent worked in a civil service career, 1.2 percent worked in a state-owned company and 4.9 percent still collected garbage for a living. When considering community household income, it was found that 17.4 percent received a higher income of between 6,000 – 9,000 Baht and 15.3 percent have an income of between 9,000 – 12,000 Baht. 7) Gained better access to public healthcare service – previously people used to buy non-prescribed medicine when they were sick. Presently, 58.9 percent of them had access to hospital treatment, 5.2 percent had access to the healthcare center and 4.2 percent received medical treatment from the mobile healthcare service of Saint Louis Hospital. 8) Neighboring communities followed the footsteps of NKDGC to improve living conditionsfor their communities. 9) Related organizations can work effectively based on the implementation plan, because of cooperation from the community. The cooperative had a practical concrete plan. The integration approach allowed various organizations to pool resources resulting in the saving of budget.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The initiative’s objectives were to utilize the cooperative to improve the livelihood of NKDGC’s members resulting in sustainable management processes. Guidelines to implement the Ban Man Kong program (Stable house program) were based on the analysis of situation and problems by the participatory approach. It was a community-centered process from public hearings, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes. For the past seven years, community members could repay their loans to the Community Organization Development Institute for 11 million baht from the initial loan of 23 million baht. In addition, each participant had only a 90,000 baht loan due for a 2-story house and 40,000 baht for a one-story house. Presently, cooperative performance is growing strong with positive capital flow and with good governance. The Cooperative Promotion Department provided the community with cooperative by-laws and cooperative establishment regulations.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Lessons learned from the NKDGC initiative suggested that the necessity of housing for livelihood was a critical driver for quality of life improvement of the community. In this case, the policy employed for problem solving was different from previous ones. It allowed for community participation and they also acted as key actors in the implementation of the program including housing design. Since the cooperative managed the construction of the houses, they could control construction budgets and levels of debt of the members. This was achieved through the proactive approach of the cooperative’s board of committee with close and regular communication with the community. Members actively participated in the program and learned a lot regarding working procedures. Cooperative leaders and the board of committee worked in the community’s best interests as their ultimate objectives and also took household and individual factors into account for problem solving. The initiative appropriately integrated between community, family and case works. Despite a lack of professional training, community leaders learned, trained, and practiced to solve problems. Implementation and work process design to meet the need of the target and concise objectives were keys of successful cooperation from various factors. From the evaluation and analysis of members’ assets and debts for the past seven years, it was found that program participants could repay CODI’s loan for 11 million baht from 23 million baht loan. When considering the outstanding loans of individual members, only 90,000 baht/member was outstanding on a loan for a two-story house and 40,000 baht/individual for a one-story house. The performance of NKDGCHC currently has positive cash flow and strong financial health. The quality of life improvement of NKDGC not only provided infrastructure and housing, but also improved living conditionsfor community members as well. This would help them live happily as individuals and as community members through self-help and mutual help principles.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Cooperative Promotion Department
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Mrs. Sureeruch Auansakul
Title:   Director  
Telephone/ Fax:   +(66) 2 628 5143/+(66) 2 628 5143
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   sureerach@cpd.go.th  
Address:   12 Krungkasem Road.
Postal Code:   10200
City:   Pra Nakhon District
State/Province:   Bangkok

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