e-Government Standard Framework
Ministry of Security and Public administration

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
The Republic of Korea actively sought to improve the quality of public services in order to enhance citizen satisfaction. To achieve this, government services had to be easily and widely accessible to citizens, while providing a one-stop service. This would require vertical integration along with inter-organizational interoperability. In this regard, although the Korean government had achieved a high level of e-Government services based on vertically-integrated silo units (i.e. agencies, departments, ministries, etc.), horizontal information sharing was often inconsistent or even lacking. Ultimately, this silo-centric approach to IT investment came at the expense of "citizen-centric" services, and resulted in duplication of IT expenditures and inefficiency in building horizontally integrated services. Fundamentally, this was due to the lack of a consistent “software framework,” comprising of a particular set of rules, design patterns, interfaces, libraries of modules and tools to facilitate software development, maintenance and reuse, across the silos. As a result, the following problems occurred: Impediment to Holistic and Customer-Centered Government Services The Korean government promoted many e-Government projects and developed a significant number of e-Government applications. Many of these projects applied software frameworks which were delivered by specific vendors. Consequently, the e-Government applications were not interoperable due to differences across vendors’ proprietary frameworks. As such, the lack of a standardized framework caused problems when a holistic approach was applied in building customer-centered services because re-constructing integrated e-Government services required high costs and long period of time. Duplication of IT Expenditure Due to Framework Differences Since the 1990s, the Korean government strongly emphasized the importance of implementing e-Government and has invested approximately USD 2.8 billion annually. The most efficient way to manage the cost base in a whole of government approach would be to use common functions, such as a general log-in, statistics, bulletin board, etc., which would recur across all or many agencies. However, the dependence on proprietary frameworks by IT service vendors obstructs the reuse of common functions. An analysis highlighted that 15% of the functions were duplicated among 67 e-Government projects from 2004 to 2007. Unfair Competition Environment Due to Technical Barriers Software framework reduces development time and cost, but it requires substantial resources and technical skills to create. As such, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) not in possession of a software framework could not compete with established market players. At the same time, these dominant vendors utilized their frameworks as a means of customer lock-in. It became additional technical barrier to new competitors by making it nearly impossible for other companies to win follow-up maintenance tenders. These practices created an unfair competition environment within the public sector and caused a bad effect to the software ecosystem. This vicious cycle of unfairness severely impeded the growth of SMEs, and major Korean conglomerates - Samsung SDS, LG CNS and SK C&C – that owned proprietary frameworks had an 80% combined market share of e-Government projects by 2007.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
At the heart of the problems mentioned above lay an independent silo-based approach to IT investment and proprietary software frameworks. Hence, the main keys to solving these problems were to promote a whole-of-government approach and resolve vendor lock-in. As a chief coordinating body for e-Government, the Korean Ministry of Security and Public Administration (MOSPA) launched the “e-Government Standard Framework (eGovFrame) Project” in 2007 to address these issues. The core concept of this initiative was to develop a standardized software framework, and the four main objectives were to improve the quality of e-Government services, enhance the efficiency of ICT investments, embrace new technological changes and strengthen SME competitiveness. The primary target audiences of this project were government entities and public agencies, which were the main bodies to adopt software framework. Secondary target audiences were vendors that utilized the software framework. Final target audiences were end-users who would experience better service quality through the software framework. MOSPA, NIA and relevant stakeholders reached a consensus on a standardized framework. For each given vendor, a software development framework is an effective tool to achieve higher productivity and quality for developing e-Government systems. However, from a whole-of-government view, locking in government clients to a specific vendor breeds a cycle of problems. In light of this, the optimal solution to eliminate vendor dependency while still retaining a software framework’s strengths was to create a standardized software framework. To achieve this goal, MOSPA supervised this project and the National Information Society Agency (NIA) acted as the project management office (PMO). Specifically, MOSPA took a crucial leading role by forming a committee of consultants to engage stakeholders and conducting over twenty separate meetings to resolve differences among various groups. After much time and effort, MOSPA reached a consensus on establishing a standardized framework called eGovFrame. MOSPA used eGovFrame as a key focal point to smoothly foster dialogue across government, vendors and developers, who collectively became the project stakeholders. This allowed the project to effectively address the initial problems as follows: eGovFrame successfully established a cross-government platform for a holistic e-government. eGovFrame comprises a standardized set of software tools for developing and running e-Government applications, with standardized templates and interfaces for various e-Government services across the board. The easy implementation of linkages among e-Government systems increases customer satisfaction by offering simple one-stop services which had been previously fragmented, and difficult to implement before. eGovFrame enhanced interoperability and reusability of e-Government services. One of the recurrent problems of proprietary software frameworks was that applications for e-service common to all or many agencies were developed redundantly. This was mainly because the silo-based approach led to an independent investment in each different black box-type framework, limiting interoperability and reusability of e-Government applications. An open source eGovFrame allowed for enhanced interoperability and reusability, thereby reducing duplication of efforts and costs. Open source eGovFrame created a level playing field for all IT competitors. MOSPA adopted an open source policy for its final output - making all framework outputs available to anyone via an eGovFrame portal site (www.egovframe.go.kr) under the open source software (OSS)license. Given that smaller software companies rarely have their own individual software frameworks due to high development costs, access to the ready-made eGovFrame leveled the playing field by providing an equal chance to bid for e-Government projects and enabling these companies to deliver high quality solutions. As such, the open source policy alleviated the unfair competition environment by effectively removing an existing technical barrier.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
Most organizations are reluctant to adopt OSS because they are concerned about reliability and maintenance difficulties. In light of this, MOSPA devoted much of its efforts on creating innovative solutions to overcome these concerns. A distinctive feature of MOSPA’s initiative is its openness, which led to the success of eGovFrame. Namely, MOSPA implemented the “open innovation strategy” which is composed of four phases; (i) Open Sourcing, (ii) Open Processes, (iii) Open Outputs and (iv) Open Ecosystem throughout the eGovFrame project. (i)Open Sourcing: Globally proven open source software was reviewed and 40 kinds of software were eventually selected to ensure reliability and vendor neutrality. (ii)Open Processes: Development processes of eGovFrame were open to reflect comments and inputs from over 500 stakeholders. More than twenty joint meetings were held to foster understanding and consensus among stakeholders. (iii)Open Outputs: Final result of eGovFrame adopted a policy of free open source license with no restrictions on use. (iv)Open Ecosystem: A dedicated eGovFrame Center (the Private-Public Cooperation Center) and Open Community were established for ongoing maintenance and gradual evolution. Through Open Community, of which total membership reached over 9,000, developers and programmers voluntarily share their knowledge and promote use of eGovFrame.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Widespread adoption of eGovFrame will help create e-Government system that is more robust, consistent, efficient and interoperable. To achieve this, MOSPA focused on the following four points. Design a technically superior software framework. To standardize eGovframe, an environment and functionality analysis of five companies’ proprietary frameworks was carried out and 500 key stakeholders were subsequently surveyed and interviewed. As a result, four environments consisting of 13 service groups and 54 service functionalities were identified. First, a well-known and proven OSS for eGovframe was selected based on an analysis of stakeholder views for each service group. Then, all OSS candidates were comprehensively tested and analyzed per international software evaluation process model (ISO 14598) and practical software evaluation process (PECA). Based on the results of the physical and logical testing, 40 OSS were selected for composing eGovframe. Also, in order to identify particular components which were commonly used government-wide, 67 e-Government projects from 2004 to 2007 were analyzed. During the process, 31,114 functionalities were reviewed with criteria which included high ratio of redundant development, reusability among government systems, and standard adoptability. After several rounds of workshops and thorough in-depth discussions, 219 common components with their corresponding categories and priorities were identified. By incorporating the best aspects of a wide variety of sources, the e-Government framework was born. Build a support system for eGovFrame as public and partnership. To mitigate stakeholders’ concerns about how eGovFrame can be maintained and continuously enhanced, MOSPA established the eGovFrame Center at NIA. The Center takes the lead in incremental advancement and standardization to build and manage national e-Government systems. The main services that the Center provides are technical support, training, consultation, and interoperability verification. The eGovFrame Center website (http://www.egovframe.go.kr) provides information on the eGovFrame structure, architecture, wiki guides, updated version, resources, FAQ, and etc. In addition, the eGovFrame Open Community was later organized to enhance voluntary participation from diverse outside developers to resolve issues, share technical know-how and ultimately, add new and improved functionality to the framework. In essence, the eGov Open Community contributes to the expansion and enhancement of eGovFrame under the direction of the Center. Set up long term initiative for developing eGovFrame. To ensure that eGovframe was well implemented in a methodical and efficient manner, MOSPA and NIA established a three-year plan (2008-2010) to develop eGovFrame. Specifically, the plan called for the release of the run time environment in 2008, development environment in 2009 and operation environment in 2010, which would ultimately cover the complete life cycle of the system development. In addition, MOSPA and NIA developed 142 common components in 2008, 30 in 2009, and 47 in 2010 to eliminate redundant development of functions such as authentication, access, logging and bulletin boards. Implement and Promote eGovFrame, starting with government pilot projects. To overcome the concern that usage of OSS may not be stable or adequately supported, MOSPA selected seven candidate pilot projects to verify its stability and identify success cases. In the end, the success of these pilot projects helped overcome any concerns and/or resistance to the adoption of eGovFrame within the public sector. A guide for full system replacement or building on top of legacy systems using the eGovFrame was distributed to promote stability in operating the software framework. For instance, a central system named “Minwon 24” provided a one-stop online service for citizens by integrating more than 700 other public service systems, and as a result, this helped to successfully incorporate eGovframe during its redevelopment project. Eventually, the widespread expansion of these successful cases encouraged the adoption of eGovFrame in public and private sectors.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
eGovFrame has been developed over the past six years through the participation of an array of stakeholders. Over 500 stakeholders were identified and actively engaged in the project. To manage the process, they were separately categorized into the following groups, each with their own concerns and goals: Managing Partners – MOSPA and NIA, which established, maintained and oversaw eGovFrame MOSPA proposed and planned the standardization of software framework. During the planning process, internally, opinions were gathered from various agencies that implemented e-Government services and externally, outside opinions and advice were gathered through public hearings, interviews and surveys. Even after its release, NIA provides governance over the Open Community which continues contributing to the maintenance and improvement of eGovFrame. Vendors – Small and large software companies that build e-Government solutions, and would be expected to use eGovFrame in their future builds Small and large vendors expressed concern over the potential negative impact on their competitive standing in the market, even as they potentially stood to gain from the increased efficiency offered by eGovFrame. To address their concerns and goals, they were actively engaged throughout the planning and development stages. Customers – Government bodies commissioning e-Government projects, previously on separate silos and in the future using eGovFrame The government and the public stood to benefit from the increased interoperability across e-Government systems and reduced cost of future projects using the framework. Their primary concern was whether the framework would be of adequate quality and continue to receive adequate support for maintenance and improvement. Experts – Software developers unfamiliar with OSS To overcome their concerns, NIA directed eGovFrame in the manner of an OSS project, and provided extensive training and regular seminars throughout the project and afterwards. The Open Community was created to foster a culture of Open Source, which in turn instilled trust in OSS.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
To build eGovFrame, MOSPA mobilized four types of resources – financial, technical, OSS and human –from both the public and private sectors. Financial Investment: Starting in 2007, MOSPA allocated a portion of its regular e-Government project budget towards the building of eGovFrame. The first stage called the Information Strategy Planning (ISP) estimated a total expenditure of USD 17 million over a span of six years. Upon completion, MOSPA continued to invest approximately USD 1 million each year to maintain the framework and support its dissemination in developing countries. By contrast, a comparable proprietary framework in the private sector would cost USD 14 to 17 million to develop and USD 2.8 to 3.8 million per year to maintain. These numbers indicate that there is higher efficiency and return on investment (ROI) for the Korean government. Technical Expertise: In building eGovFrame, the requirements and existing proprietary frameworks of five companies of varying size were analyzed and compared. Also the varied inputs from over 500 stakeholder gathered through the open process provided a flexible and representative common baseline to reach a consensus. In addition, MOSPA launched the eGovFrame Open Community, which accumulated the knowledge of the developer community into a centralized repository of code, documentation, use cases, seminars and forums. Open Source Software(OSS): To reduce the dependency on major IT companies, a well-known and proven OSS was selected. Any OSS which was relevant to eGovFrame was listed and existing proprietary frameworks were analyzed under the direction of MOSPA. This resulted in a list of 1,300 OSS. Upon completion of the OSS evaluation process in collaboration with 11 companies of varying sizes, 175 OSS were eventually evaluated against requirements that mainly focused on the constraints for integration and interfaces of eGovFrame in the first logical test. 85 OSS, derived from the first logical test, were evaluated for the basic function and non-functional requirements. As a result, 40 OSS were ultimately selected for composing eGovFrame. Collaborative Human Leadership and Talent: Adoption of the framework by vendors and clients was entirely voluntary. Therefore, strong and effective leadership by MOSPA was essential to build trust within the community at large. MOSPA responded to this challenge by demonstrating its leadership through training, guidance, knowledge sharing and demonstration of successful cases. At the same time, broad participation by the eGovFrame open community was strongly encouraged, which has led to over 9,000 developers at present, and this further exemplified the successful efforts demonstrated by the centralized leadership at MOSPA. This model of centralized governance and distributed execution has been the basis for many of the most successful open source projects such as Linux. As a result, it was possible to voluntarily monitor and check the implementation and operational progress of information systems, enabling the continuous upgrade of the eGovFrame. Furthermore, MOSPA continues to identify and leverage developer talent by annually hosting community-wide contests such as the largely successful Super Developer Korea contest of eGovFrame.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Built through public and private partnership, e-Government is being adopted nationwide. Our most successful outputs are listed below. Single Open Standard Platform Promoted Nationwide: Since its launch in 2009, 433 e-Government systems (USD 1.2 billion in size) have been implemented and applied to 77.1% of the government service reference model of Enterprise Architecture in Korea. Of these projects, 185 were for central government, 169 were for public institutions and 76 were for for local government. The framework has been designated and is currently being used as the common standard for the development and operation of various information systems used by the central government and other public institutions, without being limited to a specific system from certain agencies. In fact, this platform has recorded over 300,000 downloads, which is the highest number of downloads for local open source software, and is gaining prominence within the private sector as well, such as Meritz(financial industry), Lotte(retail industry), Hyundai(automobile industry), etc. Since e-Government can also be applied to foreign government systems, it is currently being applied as the implementation and operation software platform for eleven IT projects in seven different countries. Strengthening Capacity and Raising Competitiveness of SMEs: From 2009, free training courses to SME developers have been provided to strengthen the capacity of SMEs. To date, 2,692 SME developers have completed technical training and 7,692 people have participated in framework dissemination seminars. Currently, 9,410 developers from the private sector are using the Open Community to strengthen their development capacity as well as to exchange technology and information. Moreover, over 150 SMEs are reducing their redundant R&D cost for IT projects. Based on cost reduction and strengthened capacity, from 433 e-Government systems (USD 1.2 billion in size) implemented based on the standardized framework, SMEs have won 75% of these projects, increasing their participation. Fostering and Building Open Innovation Ecosystem by Voluntary Contribution: eGovCenter provides free training and seminars to SMEs to keep abreast of the latest technologies – over 2,500 people earned certificates of eGovFrame training. Many of these developers go on to join the Open Community in order to contribute back to the eGovFrame project – making a stark jump from 1,000 members in 2010 to 9,410 members in 2013. Not only are new technology and information being shared, but the open innovation development model is establishing itself and will bring about voluntary contribution of functional improvements.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
eGovFrame is led by the MOSPA which is a government CIO entity. The MOSPA collaborates with other ministries to deploy a nationwide e-Government system, including the shared use of administrative information and the realization of seamless e-Government service. To promote and support eGovFrame, MOSPA appointed the NIA to steer eGovFrame project towards success. The NIA established the eGovFrame Center to promote and support eGovFrame; all relevant information gathered is evaluated and analyzed, of which results are reflected in the relevant projects. Moreover, to facilitate and promote timely monitoring and evaluation, various activities have been incorporated into a performance evaluation system for e-Government support projects run by the government for more comprehensive management. The eGovFrame Center performs comprehensive monitoring and evaluation. Because the standard framework is OSS that can be downloaded and used by anyone, its use and performance is not easy to evaluate on a nationwide scale. To effectively deal with this issue, the eGovFrame Center is responsible for (i) monitoring and evaluating the level of satisfaction of all affected participants, (ii) carrying out developer training satisfaction surveys and (iii) providing performance feedback through presentations of “best practices” and gathering of participant opinions. The eGovFrame portal surveys its users for satisfaction, identifying the needs and ways to improve the framework. Surveys are also administered after technical training is provided to the main users of the framework, which are the developers. In this regard, requirements demanded by actual users are eventually reflected in the framework. As of 2011, NIA periodically presents best practices, implementation strategies and successful project case studies to the public sector, private enterprises and research institutions. Reaching over 500 participants every year, these presentations have alleviated any anxiety presented over the framework and have shaped the consensus for the profound need and effectiveness of eGovFrame in strengthening the competitiveness of SMEs. In fact, there continues to be much demand for the diverse and systematic technical support and further training opportunities. The Korean government performs monitoring and evaluation through the e-Government Projects. This project was planned and implemented as part of the e-Government Support Project operated by the government; as such, monitoring and evaluations are performed through the performance evaluation system of the e-Government projects. Four indicators from the standard framework are: (i) appropriateness of project management, (ii) user satisfaction, (iii) number of eGovFrame open source download and (iv) number of systems and projects using the standard framework.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
To standardize the software framework, the main obstacle was gaining consensus across such a wide range of stakeholders and stubborn resistance to OSS. Concerns over Quality and Stability by Government Clients: Government cited concerns about adopting OSS which could not be trusted. To build confidence, MOSPA applied eGovFrame initially to 7 pilot projects, which proved the framework’s superior quality upon successful completion. Additionally, these concerns were countered by the government’s establishment of the eGovFrame center to provide technical support and direct onsite support including continuous upgrades. Conflicting Market Interests of Vendors: Both large and small vendors expressed great apprehension over the loss of market share. To solve this, MOSPA established an open and transparent process, consisting of continuous communication and feedback throughout different channels such as surveys, public hearings and interviews. The aim was to better understand and address the key issues and concerns, as well as to emphasize the collective benefits of eGovFrame. MOSPA then set up an open “ecosystem”, consisting of seminars and workshops, as a forum to address these concerns and explain the benefits. They spent much time on developing the proper architecture and analyzing IT companies’ frameworks. Because the framework addressed stakeholders’ concerns and enhanced their collective benefits, they found it hard to ignore the framework and finally could be motivated to get involved in it. Developer Resistance to OSS: Developers were concerned about quality and legality of OSS usage. In response, NIA ensured that proper training and regular seminar were provided and changes to OSS could be made by only authorized persons. In this regard, the eGovFrame community has a formal structure with four levels of membership: project management committee, committer, developer, group/user group with oversight from the Supreme council. Any important change to eGovframe is subject to rigorous peer review and version-management procedures.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
eGovFrame provides the necessary base environment that is standardized and reusable for implementing and operating information systems. It has become possible for both the public and private sector to use this framework to implement diverse information systems while eliminating technology dependency and increasing the efficiency of operation management for information systems. By accessing a standardized framework and securing its technology, SMEs were able to take advantage of further business opportunities. Moreover, it allowed developers to invest their valuable time on focusing on higher value work, rather than redeveloping already common functions. Further details on the key benefits from this initiative are as follows. Better Uniformity and Quality for End Users: eGovFrame ensures that common components are uniform across all government silos for a consistent user experience. In addition, because the framework enables better interoperability, the level of integration across silos is improved. Finally, because project efficiency is improved, the overall quality of government services per unit cost is increased. The result is improved user experience across the board. Improved Delivery of Public Service: eGovFrame has been utilized in mission-critical government services such as e-Tax, e-Learning, e-Insurance, etc. Other public services such as Resident Services Integration, Hospital Strategy Management System, Drug Utilization Review System, National Employment Service System, and Comprehensive Support System for lost child, etc. have also benefited from the application of eGovFrame. Many more services have adopted eGovFrame to provide improved public services to the weaker and vulnerable populations. Higher Efficiency: Information systems need diverse common functions such as message boards and user authentication. Redundant development of these common functions for every information system incurs unnecessary expense. Moreover, inconsistencies across implementations can incur additional costs. In response, eGovFrame provides 219 types of reusable common components and also raises the efficiency of investment by allowing these functions to be reused after customization. A 2010 analysis sampling of 11 projects using eGovFrame estimated productivity gains at USD 1.2 million. Interoperability and Reduced Vendor Lock-In: Compatibility and information-sharing standards ensure that systems are better integrated, easier to maintain and more flexible. In the past, linking different government systems often caused interoperability problems. By providing connection modules and a compatibility support standard, system interoperability is raised significantly for systems that are developed separately and which otherwise would have had difficulty linking to each other. Also, when information systems are implemented using the open source based standard framework with architecture based on the standardized platform, the developers can more easily understand the function and composition of the information system. eGovFrame is a successful case of adopting an open standard in software, allowing the elimination of technology dependencies from the system provider by leveraging OSS. SME Competitiveness: Prior to eGovFrame, large vendors dominated government contracts, which placed SMEs in a minority market position. While large enterprises spend about USD 2.8 million annually on R&D and maintenance for development platforms, SMEs typically do not have the technology or resources to develop and maintain such software frameworks. However, by providing eGovFrame for free, the Korean government has helped SMEs develop the capacity to compete with large enterprises within a shorter time. In addition, a maintenance vendor that was not involved in the original development can better grasp the architecture, thereby reducing vendor lock-in on maintenance and providing SMEs with more opportunities. Fostering the OSS Mindset Judging by its record number of downloads (over 300,000), eGovFrame is among the most successful OSS projects in Korea. Its expanding community of 9,410 developers and over 2,500 certified members allows new information and knowledge to flow to government IT and projects. Future extensions: The eGovFrame concept can be readily extended to other platforms beyond websites. For example, discussions on new technology developments have already identified the need for mobile e-Government services. Fortunately, eGovFrame can be easily extended to this new domain without the need to expend unnecessary costs and time in building a completely new framework and community. Facilitating fair competition environment: In 2012, eGovFrame was recognized among 100 public agencies as one of the best practices to achieve a fair competition environment in Korea. By introducing this project at public organizations workshops and seminars, Korea has embarked on a new stage towards a fairer and more open market.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
To sustain the eGovFramee, MOSPA designated NIA to supervise two main bodies - the eGovFrame Center and Open Community. Remarkably so, the Korean eGovFrame model has also garnered considerable international interest as a benchmark case. In sum, the eGovFrame initiative is sustainable given the already existing monitoring bodies, and can be easily transferable which is already recognized worldwide. Robust governance ensures sustainable eGovFrame. The eGovFrame Center and Open Community jointly sustain eGovFrame. Whereas the Center focuses more on the actual maintenance of eGovFrame, Open Community promotes the evolvement of eGovFrame through the voluntary sharing of knowledge. Any improvements to the framework through Open Community can be fed back into the eGovFrame code base. Therefore, the OSS benefits from the rest of government and other eGovFrame applied projects that use it. In light of this governance structure, it can be said that the more eGovFrame is used within projects, the more it will benefit from free enhancements written over the course of these other projects. eGovFrame extends its domain of application, embracing emerging technologies. A challenge for eGovFrame is surviving in the backdrop of rapid technological changes. Continuous adoption of new technologies is required to stay relevant. In 2011, NIA incorporated mobile development architecture compatible with the existing eGovFrame architecture and added new common components to be applied. Moreover, NIA is currently seeking new ways for eGovFrame to evolve into platform-as-a-service for cloud computing services. eGovFrame has been transferred to eleven projects in seven countries totaling USD 3.7 million in size. Source code and user guides are available in the English website dedicated to the eGovFrame (http://eng.egovframe.go.kr). Moreover, free and easily understandable eGovFrame training courses are provided in English. In practice worldwide, the eGovFrame has already been applied to an administration system of the University of Sofia in Bulgaria, the Ecuador Customs Service, the water supply system of the National Resources and Environment Ministry, Administration Integrated Information System of DaNang City, Competition Authority Integrated Information System and a portal site of Hanoi City in Vietnam, a state registration in Mongolia, and the e-Procurement System of the National Observatory of Public Procurement in Tunisia, Customs Administration System in Tanzania, and Customs Administration Modernization Project in Nepal. eGovFrame has won global recognition for its excellence. eGovFrame has been recognized by organizations both locally and internationally, as illustrated by the awarding of the 2009 Award for Software Technology and 2010 Open Software Utilization Award in Korea, as well as awarding of the FutureGov Award in 2011 in Singapore. Additionally, in 2012, UNCTAD published the Information Economy Report, introducing eGovFrame as a successful case. MOSPA actively promoted sharing the technology and know-how with other countries. MOSPA and NIA have actively cooperated with other countries. NIA concluded MOUs with Hanoi, Danang, and a public IT policy institute, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV) in Mexico to foster cooperation in implementing the eGovFrame model. CINVESTAV recently opened an eGovFrame portal site (http://egovframe.cinvestav.mx/) and is planning to operate a local eGovFrame Center.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Governments are generally reluctant to open their internal decision-making processes to the public. eGovFrame clearly illustrates how the government’s trust in citizens can establish effective collaboration between the government and the public by sharing a common mindset for ecosystemic cohesiveness. Initially, the government was concerned about making software source codes available to the public. Moreover, OSS communities in Korea were not mature at the time. However, the usage of eGovFrame was greater than expected, and citizens came to place their trust in the durability of the eGovFrame project and eventually joined the eGovFrame OSS community, fostering a mindset that embraces OSS. The expanding community further enabled new information and knowledge to flow to government IT projects, enabling a positive cycle of returns. Lessons learned from this project are as follows. Governance without legislation and regulation is possible through dialogue and consensus A distinctive feature of eGovFrame is that it has settled as a de facto standard without legal enforcement. Rather, open governance with leadership from the supervising body was instrumental in its success. From the very beginning, MOSPA gathered together all possible stakeholders, ran continuous meetings and coordinated diverse interests, until a final consensus regarding the ideal standardized framework was reached. This set the foundation and played a key role in engaging other ministries and public organizations to adopt eGovFrame as their software framework. Cooperation between private and public sectors creates a synergy Ensuring high-performing eGovFrame was essential for it to work as a stable technological platform of e-Government. The high quality of eGovFrame was achieved by the collaboration of experts in this field, including but not limited to professors, private enterprises and public officials who have collaborated throughout this process of brainstorming, analyzing, developing and producing the final output. The collaboration allowed for the ultimate achievement of the technological superiority of eGovFrame. In essence, the completion of eGovFrame fully illustrates the power of collective intelligence. Open source can compete with proprietary software eGovFrame is open source software that can be used by anyone and it is not tied to an exclusive technology base. Moreover, it is fundamentally based on globally recognized open source software. It is true that there were some initial doubts about the viability of open source. Yet, a series of successful cases of eGovFrame-adopted projects showcased its technological superiority, leading to additional adoptions. This lifecycle of eGovFrame has now come to set precedence as a successful case of open source software. All around the world, governments at national, state and local levels face heavy pressure to do “more with less,” but the bleak reality of e-Government for many countries has instead been a duplication of ICT expenditure and further wasted resources. In light of this, Korea respectfully proposes that eGovFrame be used by the world to do “more with less” and to improve service quality across the whole of government. Korea would also like to recommend an active review of implementing an open innovation model that would achieve successful collaboration between the private and public sectors.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Ministry of Security and Public administration
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   Sang_yul Jeon
Title:   Deputy Director  
Telephone/ Fax:   82-2-2131-0260/82-2-2131-0409
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   sf@nia.or.kr  
Address:   209 Sejong-daero, Jongno-gu
Postal Code:   110-760
City:   Seoul
State/Province:   Seoul

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