Institute of Seismological Research

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
The Kachchh-Bhuj earthquake of 2001 of western India having magnitude 7.7, that took 14,000 human lives and damaged million houses was an eye opener not only to the scientific and management community but also for the common man at large as there was large scale destruction not only in Kachchh but also in other parts of the Gujarat state up to 300 km away from the epicentre. There is a long history of earthquake activity and loss of life and property, documented in the past due to similar type of earthquakes. Kachchh region in Gujarat had earlier experienced devastating earthquakes in 1819, 1842, and 1956, while, the North Gujarat experienced earthquakes near Mt. Abu (April, 1848) and the South Gujarat experienced earthquakes at Surat (August, 1636) and Bharuch (M 5.4, 1970). Seismic zones V, IV and III indicate possibility of earthquakes of magnitude 8, 7 and 6 respectively in Gujarat. Although it was known that Gujarat has earthquake hazard of magnitude 6 - 8, the responsible national agency operated only one seismic observatory at Bhuj in Gujarat which also got saturated. A few primitive analog seismographs were also working in Gujarat near dams. Though data of several seismic stations is required for timely and accurate earthquake report, there was no immediate plan of augmentation due to budget and manpower constraints. Because of this, no reliable information about occurrence of earthquake was available to the public during 2001 Bhuj earthquake. For 5 hours the epicentre was thought to be 250 km away at Ahmadabad, close to the seat of provincial government where 150 multi-story buildings had collapsed. Initial hours, crucial for relief, were lost due to non-clarity of epicentre. There was tremendous fear among people. They were not ready to sleep inside their houses for almost 2-3 months in winter. A need had been long felt for a dedicated Institute for Seismological Research in the country for a coordinated research in earthquake science. Different aspects were studied by different agencies without inter-agency cooperation due to which the earthquake research in India has been fragmented without any effort to understand the ways and means to safeguard against earthquakes. Moreover studies were confined to limited areas of interest to these agencies. No study was being done in Kachchh area though a strong earthquake was expected for many years prior to 2001. Nearly the similar situation exists now for Himalaya where a great earthquake is due that may cause world’s most deadly earthquake so far. No agency is putting serious effort to plan mitigation measures.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Instead of wallowing in the agony and helplessness that the 2001 calamity spewed across the state, the people here preferred to move quickly on the path of recovery and development. A massive rehabilitation and development work was undertaken. Through intense efforts of disaster management, the earthquake hit cities gradually recovered from the nature’s blow. Moreover since 2001, there has been rapid growth in population and economy which has led to unprecedented increase in infrastructure like vital buildings, ports, refineries, petrochemical plants, power plants which may be affected by major earthquakes in Gujarat resulting into significant increase in risk in lives and infrastructure. For sustainable growth and to safeguard the development from future earthquakes, the Government of Gujarat planned to have in-depth study of earthquakes and their hazard potential in different parts of the state. Comprehensive seismological research was the right step in this direction. It was imperative to seek a new technology, a scientific system, to understand the patterns of earthquakes, their intensity and the damage they can cause. And with these objectives in focus, the Institute of Seismological Research was established by Government of Gujarat under its Science and Technology Department. Envisioned is an institute that will evolve over several years through development of new research frontiers and associated interdisciplinary fields, coupled with the development of state-wide earthquake monitoring capacity. As there was no dedicated institution for seismological research, India could not be globally networked and share knowledge, computing power and research experience in the field of seismic science. With the initiative, the following issues are solved for societal benefit: -It has about 60 seismic stations in Gujarat and some in neighboring Maharashtra. & Madhya Pradesh. These observatories are equipped with state of the art seismographs. The seismic data from many of these observatories are received via VSAT at ISR data center which works round the clock. Information of earthquake epicenter and magnitude is sent to the concerned authorities, media and people through website, SMS and telephone within minutes of the arrival of seismic waves. -ISR Geophysical data centre through its website shares different types of data sets, information about current earthquakes and catalogues of earthquakes in different states. Several students from Gujarat and other states are using this data for their M.Sc. dissertation and PhD thesis. -Gujarat is the only state outside Himalayan region which has high seismic hazard of magnitude 6 to 8. Even then, earthquake resistant high-rise buildings can be constructed with only 5-7% extra cost. Hence, the areas of rapid growth in Gujarat need to have prior information about earthquake safety factor to be considered. For this purpose, ISR is carrying out Seismic Microzonation of different cities and provides knowledge for seismic safety factor to be considered for each region of Gujarat for different heights of buildings. ISR has completed seismic microzonation of Gandhidham-Kandla area and Dholera Special Investment Region between Ahmedabad and Bhavnagar along the Delhi-Mumbai Corridor where a no. of cities with high-rise buildings, industrial hubs, airport, railway station are planned. ISR has also completed seismotectonic study of the site for LNG storage tanks in Mundra. ISR has also been assigned the task of seismic hazard assessment of the upcoming Gujarat International Finance Tec-city which will have numerous buildings of 30 to 100 storeys. -An important finding is that the low-rise buildings of 3-7 stories need to have 60-70% higher seismic factor than that recommended in the National Code to avoid 2001 type disaster. -Though earthquake prediction is still a matter of research, assessment of long-term earthquake hazard will help builders, architects and engineers to design earthquake resistant buildings to save precious lives. In this regard ISR has prepared a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment map for the Bureau of Indian Standards. -ISR is providing seismic safety factors to be considered for Nuclear Power Plants designing by Nuclear Power Corporation. In addition, ISR will soon display GIS based intelligent hazard maps on its website giving out details of extent of damage that can happen in a given area for different magnitudes in different regions. The site would also impart information on safety measures to be adapted in particular area. -ISR has established three Multiparametric Geophysical Observatories in Kachchh for earthquake prediction research. Eleven types of precursory parameters are being observed with Broadband Seismographs, GPS, magnetometers, ground water level recorders, super conducting gravimeter, helium and radon detectors. -ISR is detecting even minute deformation of 1-2 mm/yr across geological faults in Gujarat through a network of 30 GPS stations. -Through paleoseismology and dating of sediments in the newly started Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Lab, dates of earthquakes in past 20,000 years are being determined to estimate recurrence rates of large earthquakes in order to assess earthquake hazard along different geological faults. ISR has compiled map of geological faults in Gujarat. Active faults in Kachchh have been mapped. -Though a major earthquake of magnitude 7.6 occurred near Bhachau in 2001, earthquakes of magnitude 6-7 along other nearby faults can’t be ruled out and are investigated since 2006. -ISR investigated the phenomenon of gas bubbling in Kachchh by isotope analysis and found that it is emanating from deep layers indicating possibility of gas reserves in Kachchh. -While focusing on the primary objective of studying earthquakes, tsunami and other seismic related phenomena, ISR very often comes into contact with many other significant aspects of research. Identification of paleochannels which could be the source of water for drinking & irrigation in Kutch and indication of possibility of gas reserves are such secondary findings of great commercial and industrial value. -Subsequently ISR was called upon to compile some important scientific and confidential data for the industry. ISR detected buried pipelines of ONGC in Ankaleshwar for planning of a new township by Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation. It has also estimated the thickness of limestone beds in Kutch for the benefit of miners. ISR has advised a few petrochemical companies about the fault lines coming on the way of new pipelines being laid by them. Not only this, but builders, industrialists as well as academicians from institutes such as Indian Concrete Institution, CEPT, Nirma University and certain Cement plants in the State take regular help of ISR for various seismic and academic works.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
A few primitive analog seismographs were working in the state of Gujarat in 2001 occupying about 500kmx500km area. Because of no reliable earthquake information rescue was delayed by hours. The Gujarat network of seismic stations now provides precise information within minutes. ISR has also provided major inputs for preparedness. One aspect is mapping of Geological faults and assessment of their long term seismic hazards. Besides intense aftershocks for years, several faults not only in 200kmx300km Kachchh area but 250km down south in Saurashtra peninsula also got activated with moderate earthquakes. Thus detection was possible due to new initiative of VSAT connected network of 70 seismograph stations was deployed. Auto-earthquake location program, installed for the first time in India provided information within minutes via SMS, dedicated phone lines, email and website to the concerned government officers, disaster management authorities, critical installations, media and public. With catalogues of precise earthquake information along with the monitoring of minute geodetic and geophysical parameters, paleoseismology, quantitative geomorphology active fault maps were prepared and continuously monitored to assess their time and space earthquake prognosis. Earthquake damage depends on ground condition and distance. Different heights of buildings are differently affected as per their natural periods resonating with different amplified frequencies of seismic waves. The effect could be different in different parts of cities as noticed in Ahmedabad during 2001. Hence, seismic microzonation of different cities has been undertaken. Seismic safety factors have been estimated for fast coming up industry, high-rise buildings, clusters of sky-scrapers, critical installations like nuclear power plants, petrochemical industry, LNG storage terminals etc. The data was freely shared with different stake holders, public and students for M. Tech. and PhD via website. Public awareness program was launched through media and mass contacts for constantly reminding the earthquake hazard and necessary earthquake resistant features required in multistory buildings in common man’s language so that the society demands them from builders. ISR has made academic collaboration with Indian Universities by getting External Ph.D centre status. Trough this, students are encouraged to join for Doctoral degree. ISR has made international collaborations; young scientists are frequently travelling abroad for collaboration projects and to participate in international seminars to make themselves aware of latest technological advancements in this field. ISR has conducted international symposia every year, participated by national and international experts, which facilitated ISR’s scientists to understand latest trends in seismology.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The overall strategy adopted is to conduct all seismological research and disseminate this knowledge to citizens of Gujarat and all across India. In a short span of about six years, this institute is developed as a Centre of Excellence in Earthquake Science. It has its own sprawling campus and has rich assemblage of laboratories and instruments. As has been expressed by several national and international experts, this Institute is bound to be developed as one of the best Centre in the world of Seismology due to all round facilities available and beautiful ambience of the campus and city. The Institute has now the strength of about 30 Scientists, 20 Research Scholars and 25 Technical Personnel working on various aspects of seismological research. The work of the Institute can be categorized into five areas: (i) Earthquake Monitoring, (ii) Study of Physics of the Earthquake Processes, (iii) Earthquake Hazard Assessment using Geophysical Surveys, GPS studies and paleoseismology, (iv) Earthquake Prediction Research and (v) Seismic Microzonation. Several new studies were started and significant findings from these studies will help in understanding physical processes of earthquake phenomenon and seismic hazard assessment in Gujarat. The brief description of major ongoing programs as follows: Seismological Monitoring: Gujarat seismic network of 60 Broadband Seismographs and 50 Strong Motion Accelerographs has been operated smoothly since 2006. Data of 39 broadband stations were processed in real-time through VSAT at ISR round the clock to determine the epicenter and magnitude of earthquakes within minutes of arrival of the seismic waves with the help of Auto location software and disseminating the earthquake information to administrators and decision maker for taking appropriate mitigation measures. Crustal Deformation Studies by GPS Measurements: Crustal deformation study is being carried out through GPS measurements in seismically active belts of Gujarat. Twenty-two permanent GPS stations were setup in Gujarat and eleven campaign mode GPS stations were deployed in the Kachchh region. InSAR studies continued in Kachchh and indicate significant uplift around the Kachchh Mainland Fault. Seismic Hazard Assessment: Macro Level: ISR is pursuing several major programs seismic hazard assessment Global Earthquake Model (With Italy + Germany), Seismic & Tsunami hazard using EU – India, e-Infrastructure (Grid & cloud computing), Probabilistic Seismic Hazard (PSH) Map of India, PSH and characteristic Frequency Maps & Design Basis spectrum for Gujarat, Vulnerability Assessment of installations in Coastal Gujarat. Seismic Hazard Assessment: Project Specific: Gujarat Infrastructure Finance Tech-City City, Sardar Patel Statue, LNG Storage Terminal (Mundra), Nuclear Power Plants, Multi storey V S Hospital, Ahmedabad Seismic Microzonation: ISR has done seismic microzonation studies at Gandhidham, Kandla and Anjar and is doing at Dholera Special Investment Region, Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Surat & Bharuch (with Geological Survey of India) Multi Parametric Geophysical Observatories (MPGOs): Three MPGOs were established in seismically active Kachchh region for earthquake prediction research. Twelve different geophysical parameters are monitored and precursory signals are observed in radon, ground water level, gravity and magnetic fields. Tsunami Modeling: Tsunami modeling of wave arrival time and amplitude in Arabian Sea from large earthquakes in Makran has been done with better bathymetry data and inundation maps prepared and an alert system has been developed. Geophysical Studies: Seismic, Gravity, Magnetotelluric, Resistivity, GPR and other Geophysical surveys were carried out for study of crustal structure and faults. 2D resistivity profile was taken in Kutch region. ISR has pioneered a technique of 3D fault mapping by Magneto Telluric investigation. Outreach Program: As per OUTREACH PROGRAM, ISR helped a number of Universities in India in many ways like training their students in geology, geophysics, geotechnical investigations in ISR’s rich labs and field surveys, delivering lectures in their special courses. We train some 50 students annually for dissertation work for durations of months to a year and in summer / winter training programs for which students come from all corners of the country. Many investigations were undertaken for matters of societal importance like: (i) Pilot Project on Extraction of Uranium from Nuclear Waste for Baba Atomic Research Centre using the magnetic separator in ISR and (ii) Investigation of the reporting of Cracks in houses in Faradi Village of Mandvi taluka in Kachchh by means of Rapid Visual Screening with Geological & GPS Survey.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Office of the Chief Minister of Gujarat provided liberal support and freedom for development of ISR. Department of Science and Technology, Government of Gujarat facilitated the administrative support. A network of twenty two seismic stations all over Gujarat was established with the financial support of Asian Development Bank (ADB) by Gujarat Engineering Research Institute (GERI). Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited operated a network of nine Seismic stations around Narmada Dam. All the seismological studies in Gujarat were brought under Institute of Seismological Researchspread over an area of 15 acres of land. The Institute was built and numbers of instruments were procured with the financial support of World Bank. Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA) played a major role in establishment of ISR. Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), ISRO and NPCIL of Government of India, Gujarat Industrial Development Board (GIDB), Gujarat Infrastructure Finance Tech-City (GIFT), Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation (GSPC), Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL) provided grants for several projects. National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad and Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad provided technical support for core competency and professional development. Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) has extended financial support for identification of geothermal source zones at five hot spring sites in Gujarat. ISR has following instruments/facilities (Instrument Name, Qty, Manufacturer) of worth more than 300 million Indian Rupees 1. Broad Band Seismographs (60 nos) (Guralp Systems, UK) 2. Strong Motion Accelerographs (50 nos) (Geosig Systems, Switzerland; Kinematrics, USA) 3. Global Positioning Systems (32 nos) (Leica Systems, Switzerland) 4. RTK enabled GPS system (1 no) (Leica Systems, Switzerland) 5. Total station (1 no) (Leica Systems, Switzerland) 6. Engineering Seismograph 48 channel (1 no) (Geometrics, USA) 7. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) 100/200 MH (1) (IRIS, France) 8. 5 Sec Seismometers (7 nos) (Leinnarrtz, USA) 9. Microtremor Recorder (7 nos) (Leas, France) 10. Resistivity Imaging System (1 no) (IRIS, France) 11. Arcgis software (1 no) (NIIT, India) 12. Magneto Telluric Unit (1 no) (Metronix, Germany) 13. Gravimeter (2 no) (Scintrics, USA) 14. Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometer (3 nos) (GEM Systems, Canada) 15. Time Domain E.M profiling system (1 no) (Zong Systems, USA) 16. Super Conducting Gravimeter (1 no) (GWR Instruments Inc, USA) 17. Digital Water Level Recorders (5 nos) (IRIS, France) 18. Electronic Auto Radon Monitor ( 5 nos) (Sarad Systems, Germany) 19. Tl/Osl Dating System ( 2 nos) (RISO laboratories, Denmark) 20. D/I Magnetometers (3 nos) (GEM Systems, Canada) 21. Borehole Strainmeters (3 nos) (GTSM Technologies, Australia) 22. Auto Location Software (1 no) (Nanometrics, Canada) 23. ULF Magnetometers (3 nos)(Institute of Space Research, Ukraine) 24. Overhauser Magnetometers (Gem Systems, Canada) ISR is one of its first kind of Institute in the country and hence heavy dependence is on equipment / tools / software purchased from abroad. Licensing of software applications is one major aspect. However, ISR intends to procure enterprise wide licenses with lifetime upgradations. Also, scientists are frequently travelling abroad to participate and make themselves aware of latest technological advancements in this field.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Generous World Bank Loan was provided for ISR buildings worth 220 million Indian Rupees and procurement of a number of instruments worth of 300 million Indian Rupees. Department of Science and Technology, Government of Gujarat is providing major fund for plan and non-plan heads of the institution. Majority of the expenditure is booked under this fund. ISR is also getting funds from various sponsored projects from various departments of Government of India and Government of Gujarat. ISR has few international projects from Taiwan, Germany and Italy. The Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority has provided 160 million Indian Rupees as corpus fund. With all these funding sources, ISR is able to manage its long term sustainability and its capacity building. ISR has recruited 12 Core Group Scientist positions on Permanent basis and 30 Scientist positions under Contract basis. About 20 scientific staff is recruited on sponsored projects. About 15-20 research scholars and 20 technical staff are part of support system. ISR is one of its kind Institute in the country putting efforts to establish and maintain an advanced infrastructure for seismic monitoring throughout Gujarat that operates with high performance standards, gathers critical technical data, and effectively provides information products and services to meet the Nation's needs. An Advanced Seismic Network consists of modern seismographs, communication networks, data processing centers, and well-trained personnel; such an integrated system would constantly record and analyze seismic data and provide timely and reliable information on earthquakes and other seismic disturbances. Gujarat has developed the capability of detecting, processing of earthquake parameters, and reporting of earthquakes within 10-15 minutes, even for small earthquakes anywhere in Gujarat state. Also, Online network, analysis methodology and the auto location software detects earthquake waves, the seismic data is saved at database and locates the earthquake within 3-4 minutes and also disseminates the information about earthquake parameters via SMS, email, fax automatically along with web site updating. Moreover, computerization has led to standardized, comprehensive, and modern seismic monitoring and data analysis system, providing high-quality data and information for accurate and timely notification on earthquakes and their impacts, as well as data for tsunami warning, earthquake hazard, loss assessments, and basic and applied research in seismology and engineering. Tsunamis alerts can also be generated. Basic research areas Basic research in the solid earth sciences related to hazard reduction comprises the fields of Seismology, Geology, Tectonophysics, and Marine Geology and Geophysics. Applied research areas Applied research related to earthquake hazard reduction comprises the fields of earthquake engineering, engineering seismology, soil and geotechnical engineering. Laboratories and technical facilities Some of the laboratories are linked to operation of geophysical networks and other facilities. In addition to experimental capabilities, some laboratories are designated for data analysis and information assimilation and dissemination. Research laboratories Typical research laboratories are Geotechnical laboratory and Optically stimulated luminescence Laboratory. Geophysical networks The ISR operate both seismological and geodetic networks. The seismological network should comprise broad band seismographs and strong motion instruments, telemetered in real time. The geodetic network comprise co-located Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, telemetered in real time. Data archive and analysis laboratories Data streams from the geophysical networks (and other complementary observational networks) are collected by a data analysis laboratory comprising data collection, quality control, data basing, and archiving hardware and software. Routine processing on the data streams for first tier data products should be automated, with periodic review by staff analysts. Data products and visualization laboratory Higher-order analysis of geophysical data, and integration of complementary data sets by the ISR and its partners, is the focus of a data products laboratory. This laboratory may also contain computer visualization hardware and software to promote the more effective use of derived data and information products. Education and Outreach Education and outreach functions support the ISR objectives of training a technical workforce, raising awareness of hazard and risk in the populace and among decision makers and policy makers, and providing risk management decision support for government, public and private partners. Education and outreach through formal degree programs, some of which are linked to Indian universities and other educational institutions, as well as informal, such as stall exhibits, training at various institutes/organizations, participation in workshops and scientific/technical publications. ISR is one of its first kind of Institute in the country and purchased equipment / tools / software from abroad. Developing such unique laboratories with sophisticated instruments, expert man power, sustaining such facilities for longer time and delivering productive outcome is tough job. ISR has made all these facilities through sponsored projects and support of various organisations.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Citizens and Users (disaster management people) used to get the information on relevant earthquake parameters after many hours of its occurrence. Now all the information related to earthquakes is available in minutes by SMS, email and Fax. There is no chance of false information or misinformation about earthquakes. The public fear is allayed immediately. The information regarding the possible damaged areas and affected population is provided. The online web site data and expertise gained by ISR is being used by many students for their PhD, for designing of the earthquake resistant structures/high rise buildings like Gujarat Infrastructure Finance Tech-City, a multi storey VS-Hospital, proposed Sardar Patel Statue (tallest in the World), LNG Terminal (Mundra) and Nuclear Power Plants. Also, Special Investment regions and cities like Gandhidham, Kandla, Anjar, Dholera, Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Surat & Bharuch make use of this data. Seismicity reporting within 10 minutes:-From the dense seismic network of ISR it is possible to locate and report the earthquake epicentral parameters (magnitude, origin time, latitude, longitude) within 10 minutes of arrival of seismic waves at central station. If accurate epicentral parameters are known immediately to decision makers, they may start the emergency response exercises straight away in order to minimize the impact of earthquake on life and property. An effort for earthquake early warning is under way, through this system, earthquake alerts can be issued in seconds to safeguard life and property. Availability of information about earthquake parameters helps public in understanding the real hazard and reduces unnecessary panic. The availability of catalogs of earthquakes on website has enabled several students in carrying out PhD research and M. Tech. dissertation. Catalogs of earthquakes and focal mechanisms are used to assess seismic hazard for critical facilities, multistory buildings and different cities leading to earthquake risk reduction. Intensity based shake map:-The Intensity based shake maps up to village level are generated and sent to disaster management team. These maps show the likely affected towns, villages within 5 km, 10 km, 20 km, and 50 km radius of epicenter. Accordingly quick decisions for relief can be taken. Tsunami Alert:--Gujarat state is having nearly 1600km coast line and a number of people and ports are vulnerable to Tsunami. Seismicity monitoring work by ISR is done round the clock whole year. Tsunamigenic earthquakes are located and reported within 10 minutes, and accordingly Tsunami alerts are generated. Modelling of Tsunami has been done for West Coast of India if an earthquake happens along Makran. A large tsunami happened in 1945 by such an earthquake. At different places along Gujarat coast, the arrival time of Tsunami wave, height of Tsunami wave and the distance of flooding have been calculated. If the earthquake happens along Pakistan coast, the travel time is 2 hours and if in Iran then 3 hours. Tsunami height at Dwarka and Jakhau etc. is about 3 meter. The list of tsunami arrival time and amplitude at different places has been put in website. Round the clock watch is kept for any great earthquake occurring along Makran for tsunami warning. Facility for tsunami alert for west coast region of India has been installed. Seismic Hazard and Seismic Microzonation Program:- The vulnerability of buildings, lifelines, public works, and industrial and emergency facilities can be reduced through proper earthquake-resistant design and construction practices. The economy and efficacy of such procedures can be substantially increased through research and development. ISR has developed the seismic hazard map for the Gujarat state. Also seismic microzonation of major cities of state and special investment region (SIR) ofDholera is being carried out by ISR. Anyone planning for new buildings and structures in state may use the results of these programs to make earthquake resistant buildings to save human lives and minimize the impact on economy. Earthquake Prediction Program:- Efforts are being made to have a model that could pick the precursory signals before an earthquake like change in water level, Radon gas emission, change in gravity and magnetic field etc., to predict accurately the time, place, magnitude, of earthquakes in Kachchh region of Gujarat. Active fault study:-The geological study of active faults can reveal when in recent past and how frequently major earthquakes have occurred and how much risk they pose. Such long-term seismic risk assessments are needed in virtually every aspect of earthquake hazards management, whether emergency planning, public regulation, detailed building design, and investment decision. ISR has already delineated the active faults in Kachchh region of Gujarat and doing this type of study for other parts of Gujarat. The output will help in seismic hazard and microzonation work. -Preparation of Earthquake hazard map for Bureau of Indian Standards which will help all the citizens of India in adopting optimum seismic coefficients for earthquake resistant designing of buildings. -Hazard assessment for nuclear power plant sites of NPCIL to make them safe from earthquakes and tsunami. -ISR is training Govt. officers and college teachers about earthquake safety factors and disaster management. -The Institute is helping in framing municipal laws to enforce earthquake safety norms for Gujarat. Based on recent results, hazard in different parts of the state are assigned. Cities are given importance factors and structural engineers are to be given categories 1 to 5. Depending upon the importance factor of the city and height of the building an independent structural engineer of a particular assigned grade has to be engaged. Certificates of satisfactory implementation of design criteria are to be ensured on different stages of construction. Responsibility will be fixed in case of failure due to an earthquake.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The general superintendence, management and control of the affairs of the Institute shall vest in the Governing Council under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Chief Minister. All policy level affairs and major issues for the development of ISR shall vest in the Executive Committee under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Chief Secretary, Government of Gujarat. Secretary, Science and Technology Department, Government of Gujarat is empowered to take all the decisions administrative and development of the institute as Chairman of Implementation Committee of ISR. Director General, ISR is the Chief Executive Officer of the Institute. He is responsible for the administration of the affairs of the Institute as well as of the conduct of the other Officers and staff, under the overall supervision, direction and control of the Governing Council and the Executive Committee. Under the Head of Director General there are five directors i.e., Director1: Observational Seismology, Director2: Physics of Earthquake Process, Director 3: Crustal Deformations, Active Tectonics, Earthquake Precursory studies, Director 4: Geophysics, Director 5: Earthquake Hazard Assessment and Microzonation. Various Scientists, Research Scholars and technical staff work under Directors. 1. Auto-located earthquake parameters were manually checked for accuracy. Azimuth and distance coverage of seismograph stations and velocity model of the region was continuously improved for better statistical accuracy of estimates. 2. Seismic hazard assessment was carried out mostly as time-targeted sponsored projects ensuring timely completion. Quality was checked by national and international consultants at regular intervals. 3. The findings were published in international journals as research papers which had thoroughly reviewed by international experts. 4. Bi-annual national /international seminars were organized to thoroughly discuss the work done here. Also the work was presented in such conferences. ISR has done the following projects which are directly related to societal benefit: Projects at International Level • Simulation of Strong ground motion with Karlsruhe University, Germany • Strong ground motion scenario studies in Gujarat in collaboration with National Science Council, Government of Taiwan. • Seismic hazard assessment of Ahmedabad, University of Trieste, Italy project Projects at National Level • Seismological Monitoring of Gujarat state, Department of Science and technology, Government of India. • Seismic Microzonation of Dholera Special Investment Region, Gujarat Industrial Development Board, Government of Gujarat. • Seismic microzonation of Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. • Seismotectonic study of LNG terminal site at Mundra, Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation, Government of Gujarat. • Vulnerability of coastal installations in Gujarat, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. • Seismic Microzonation of Gujarat Infrastructure Finance Tec-City, Government of Gujarat. • Paleoseismological studies in Gujarat, Department of Science and Technology, Government of Gujarat. • Multiparametric Geophysical observations for earthquake prediction research, Department of Science and Technology, Government of Gujarat. • Generation of attenuation relationship for Western India, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Government of India. • Preparation of Probabilistic seismic hazard map of India, Bureau of Indian Standards, Government of India. • Crustal deformation studies in Gujarat, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. • Tsunami modelling, Gujarat Power Projects Ltd, Government of Gujarat. • InSAR studies in Kachchh region of Gujarat, Indian Space Research Organisation, Government of India. • CAL-VAL project in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organisation, Government of India • Active fault studies in Kachchh region, Gujarat Disaster Management Authority, Government of Gujarat • Geothermal Resource Identification in 5 Hot spring regions in Gujarat, Gujarat Power Corporation Limited, Government of Gujarat • Site investigation for nuclear power plants, BRNS, Atomic Energy, Government of India • Seismological Monitoring around Narmada Dam, Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited, Government of Gujarat • Earthquake Early Warning System for Gujarat through dense network of Strong Motion Accelerograph stations in Gujarat, Department of Science and Technology, Government of Gujarat. All the projects are time bound with project management to monitor the progress of the projects. By such projects/studies, ISR is serving as a one-stop solution for gathering all seismic related information as well as a self-sustainable seismological research model for the betterment of industries, environment and the mankind as a whole.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The sites of stations had to be selected away from cultural activity to reduce the cultural noise as the recorded waves have to be amplified up to a million times. For power supply and to have approach for living of personnel and maintenance, the sites can’t be too far. Hence to reduce noise the foundation of the piers over which sensors are to be kept had to be made deep and special arrangements to isolate the area around the sensors. Triggering parameters like (i) Frequency filtering of noise (ii) Ratio of long time to short time amplitude ratio and their time windows are set for proper recording. Setting of Triggering Parameters area wise and station wise took 2 yr. It depends upon noise level of stations, distance and magnitude level in any area. Being a specialized subject, getting trained man power and expert man power is very difficult in India. ISR has started various initiatives to create human resource base in the subject to sustain all the research programs.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
1. Only Institute of the country fully dedicated to Seismological Research. 2. First in the country to disseminate earthquake magnitude and locations within minutes of arrival of seismic waves. 3. Expertise in Seismic Microzonation and Seismic Hazard Assessment. Pioneer in 3D Magneto Telluric Studies 4. Expertise in Seismic Microzonation and Seismic Hazard Assessment 5. First in the country to initiate the earthquake early warning system 6. Initiated Multi Parametric Geophysical Observations for Earthquake Precursory Research 7. Initiated Paleo-Seismological studies 8. Developing human resource development in this field 9. Conducted International Symposia every year 10. Has made international collaborations 11. Has External Ph.D centre status with Indian Universities and academic collaboration with national and international agencies. Seismograph Network and Auto location of Earthquake Parameters Deployment of a dense network of seismograph stations and receipt of online data at central receiving station enabled dissemination of information within 10-15 minutes. However, even this much time taken by manual analysis was not acceptable as media gets felt reports immediately and demands information within a few minutes for public dissemination. Hence, auto-location program was installed. The initiative has enabled the following: • Auto analysis of earthquake parameters (magnitude and location) • Earthquake alert and dissemination of earthquake information to people concerned with disaster management, media and public within minutes • Auto-updating of catalogues of earthquakes • Tsunami alert for western coast regions of India Seismic Hazard Assessment Using the catalogue of earthquakes and mechanism etc. along with geological and geotechnical data of soil seismic hazard is estimated at different scales i.e. individual sites of critical structures or for an area or city. The seismic hazard is frequency dependent, meaning it is different for different natural periods of buildings depending upon their heights. It may vary within a few tens of meters. Hence, detail geotechnical information is investigated at different depths of boreholes drilled at close grids. Seismic Risk Reduction The correct assessment of seismic hazard is first step for risk reduction. However, for its implementation by the society a public awareness program was started. Tsunami Alert Round the clock watch of earthquakes and near online modelling of tsunami has enabled establishment of Tsunami Alert system for west coast region of India. Public alert will be issued through media. Phone numbers are stored in ISR’s data centre for critical installations in Gujarat and Maharashtra which will be directly alerted. Awards: • Decennial Gold Medal from Indian Geophysical Union, Hyderabad in 2011 • Fellow Gujarat Science Academy Award-2011 • Golden Jubilee Honorary Scientist Award from IISEE, Japan in 2012 Accolades: • During Jan 2012 Indo-US Workshop the US scientists commented that ISR has generated excellent & valuable earthquake and geodetic data sets which has given new insights for intra-plate earthquakes which are least understood. Such large earthquakes have occurred worldwide infrequently. For last few decades such earthquakes have occurred in Kachchh and studied with modern different types measurements. • During Feb 2013 the Italian delegation leader commented that ISR has generated excellent geotechnical and geophysical data sets for seismic hazard assessment. • Harsh Gupta, Member National Disaster Management Authority commented that ISR has best seismograph network in India.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
More than 50% area of India is susceptible to earthquake hazard. Himalaya to Andaman-Nicobar belt is one of the seismically most active in the World. In Gujarat also the moderate and large damaging earthquakes are likely to continue. Hence, the initiative has to continue in future and continuously improved and new aspects have to be introduced. Various government departments which need earthquake information are Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority, Disaster Management Cells in different districts, Revenue Department, Irrigation Department, Nuclear and Petro industries etc. besides media, public and students. Though Himalaya is in zone 5, there is no such system there. Some other states in southern India also have earthquake problem. Several provincial governments have approached us to replicate ISR’s system in their states. ISR has provided opportunities to scientists for visiting abroad for training on new software/technologies. The trained staff members are providing/sharing knowledge with other staff members. The labs are well equipped with modern equipments. The earthquake data is worth of millions, and is used for seismic microzonation and seismic hazard analysis, deep crustal and mantle information, geodynamical modelling and other research works. The seismic data generated using dense network can be used by private builders and real estate agencies to construct building with earthquake resistant design. All the earning from the sponsored projects is kept as reserve fund and utilized for human resource development and capacity building of the institute. ISR is continuously striving for regular projects and initiated New Plans in new direction are as below: 1.0 2D and 3D Seismic Surveys for Petroleum Exploration and Basement Structures Mapping: Petroleum in India is produced from Tertiary rocks. In Gulf production is from Mesozoic rocks. Gujarat coastal regions have thick Mesozoic deposits which are untrapped. ISR proposes to get done 2D and 3D seismic surveys for 1)Offshore 2D and 3D seismic survey in the transition zones for petroleum exploration; 2) Onshore 2D and 3D seismic survey for petroleum exploration; 3) Determining the basement structures and faults. Large unexplored areas in the transition zone can be explored for oil and gas. Beside this, the onshore 2D and 3D seismic survey can be used to decipher the basements and deep faults as the knowledge of faults and subsurface structure are essential input for microzonation, earthquake prediction, and hazard mitigation. It will also help in preparation of a tectonic model for the Kachchh basin which will be useful in exploration for oil and mineral deposits. 2.0 3D Magnetotelluric Survey: The method of 3 D Magneto Telluric Survey for detection of faults has been pioneered by ISR. It is found to be an effective method to find crustal structure and geological faults beneath the Deccan Basalts where other methods are not successful. This type of survey will be useful to tap vast petroleum reserves in Mesozoic rocks beneath the Deccan Traps and geothermal energy resources. The method could be essential for detecting any geological faults close to planned crucial plants like nuclear power plants or LNG Terminals close to postulated faults. 3.0 Seismic Microzonation of one or two cities per year: ISR plans to do Seismic microzonation studies at five sensitive cities in Kachchh and Saurashtra. Seismic microzonation is a rigorous process involving several types of seismic, geophysical, geological and geotechnical investigations. It is useful for advising seismic coefficient for the area, amplification due to soil for different heights of buildings and ground conditioning methods to safeguard against damage due to earthquakes and due to liquefaction caused by it. 4.0 Preparing Vs30 Map of Gujarat: For preparing seismic hazard map of Gujarat considering site effects, we obtain Shear wave velocity to 30 m depth Vs30 in Gujarat region at 15 km interval near geological boundaries. 5.0 Deterministic PGA Map and Response Spectra for important selected areas of Gujarat: Preparation of the Deterministic Peak Ground Acceleration Map and Response Spectra for important selected areas of Gujarat is a tough and time consuming job. However it will be completed in 5 years. 6.0 Earthquake Early Warning: ISR plans to develop earthquake early warning system for Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar cities using the Strong Motion Accelerograph data of Kachchh region which will be connected through VSAT. Hardware and software required for it is being setup. 7.0 Near Real Time Rupture Modeling of Earthquakes for Tsunami Warning: Near real time rupture modeling of earthquakes of Makran along with real time GPS modeling will be helpful in estimating directivity and tsunami amplitude for effective tsunami warning. 8.0 Multiparametric Geophysical and Geochemical studies in Kachchh: The study is based on the applicability of geophysical and geochemical methods for monitoring of precursory signals for seismic events in the context of Kachchh geological scenario, Gujarat. The research is also aimed at assessing the relationship between recorded geophysical and geochemical perturbances to regional or transregional earthquakes. Kachchh region is like a natural laboratory for earthquake prediction research as large number of earthquakes are occurring in a small area. 9.0 GIS –Based intelligent shake map data base for different magnitude earthquakes at different types of geological terrains. 10.0 Preparation of Geotechnical Atlas of Gujarat. 11.0 Geodynamic studies: Interpretation of geophysical data Processing, modeling, and inversion of geophysical data, preparation of depth-sections and image maps for natural resource exploration and geodynamic studies 12.0 Study of Deep Crustal and lithospheric structures: Imaging through seismic soundings, seismic tomography, magneto telluric, gravity and geothermal investigations By such projects/studies, ISR is serving as a one-stop solution for gathering all seismic related information as well as a self-sustainable seismological research model for the betterment of industries, environment and the mankind as a whole

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Based on the experience several new future developments are planned 1. Earthquake Early Warning system(for onsite critical installations and distant cities) 2. GIS –Based intelligent shake map (damage scenario): Data base for different magnitude earthquakes at different types of geological terrains is being prepare. 3. Implementation of Auto location in some other earthquake affected states. 4. Auto processing of GPS data (for modeling sea floor uplift due to large Makran earthquake and in turn assess tsunami amplitude and directivity). 5. Online data of earthquake precursors is being implemented. Earthquake Early Warning system A large earthquake in Kachchh can cause damage to multi-storey buildings up to 300 km distance or so as happened during 2001 earthquake in cities of Rajkot, Ahmedabad, Surat, Navsari etc. In Ahmedabad itself some 150 buildings collapsed. If an earthquake starts in Kachchh, it is detected within 10 sec. The damaging waves take 50 sec to reach Ahmedabad. Hence, 40 sec warning can be given. Warning could be for onsite critical installations and distant cities.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Institute of Seismological Research
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   Dr. B. K. Rastogi
Title:   Project Owner  
Telephone/ Fax:   +91-79-66739019/ +91-79-66739015
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   Next to Petroleum University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat
Postal Code:   382009
City:   Gandhinagar
State/Province:   Gujarat

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