| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The overall strategy adopted is to conduct all seismological research and disseminate this knowledge to citizens of Gujarat and all across India. In a short span of about six years, this institute is developed as a Centre of Excellence in Earthquake Science. It has its own sprawling campus and has rich assemblage of laboratories and instruments. As has been expressed by several national and international experts, this Institute is bound to be developed as one of the best Centre in the world of Seismology due to all round facilities available and beautiful ambience of the campus and city. The Institute has now the strength of about 30 Scientists, 20 Research Scholars and 25 Technical Personnel working on various aspects of seismological research. The work of the Institute can be categorized into five areas: (i) Earthquake Monitoring, (ii) Study of Physics of the Earthquake Processes, (iii) Earthquake Hazard Assessment using Geophysical Surveys, GPS studies and paleoseismology, (iv) Earthquake Prediction Research and (v) Seismic Microzonation. Several new studies were started and significant findings from these studies will help in understanding physical processes of earthquake phenomenon and seismic hazard assessment in Gujarat. The brief description of major ongoing programs as follows:
Seismological Monitoring: Gujarat seismic network of 60 Broadband Seismographs and 50 Strong Motion Accelerographs has been operated smoothly since 2006. Data of 39 broadband stations were processed in real-time through VSAT at ISR round the clock to determine the epicenter and magnitude of earthquakes within minutes of arrival of the seismic waves with the help of Auto location software and disseminating the earthquake information to administrators and decision maker for taking appropriate mitigation measures.
Crustal Deformation Studies by GPS Measurements: Crustal deformation study is being carried out through GPS measurements in seismically active belts of Gujarat. Twenty-two permanent GPS stations were setup in Gujarat and eleven campaign mode GPS stations were deployed in the Kachchh region. InSAR studies continued in Kachchh and indicate significant uplift around the Kachchh Mainland Fault.
Seismic Hazard Assessment: Macro Level: ISR is pursuing several major programs seismic hazard assessment Global Earthquake Model (With Italy + Germany), Seismic & Tsunami hazard using EU – India, e-Infrastructure (Grid & cloud computing), Probabilistic Seismic Hazard (PSH) Map of India, PSH and characteristic Frequency Maps & Design Basis spectrum for Gujarat, Vulnerability Assessment of installations in Coastal Gujarat.
Seismic Hazard Assessment: Project Specific: Gujarat Infrastructure Finance Tech-City City, Sardar Patel Statue, LNG Storage Terminal (Mundra), Nuclear Power Plants, Multi storey V S Hospital, Ahmedabad
Seismic Microzonation: ISR has done seismic microzonation studies at Gandhidham, Kandla and Anjar and is doing at Dholera Special Investment Region, Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Surat & Bharuch (with Geological Survey of India)
Multi Parametric Geophysical Observatories (MPGOs): Three MPGOs were established in seismically active Kachchh region for earthquake prediction research. Twelve different geophysical parameters are monitored and precursory signals are observed in radon, ground water level, gravity and magnetic fields.
Tsunami Modeling: Tsunami modeling of wave arrival time and amplitude in Arabian Sea from large earthquakes in Makran has been done with better bathymetry data and inundation maps prepared and an alert system has been developed.
Geophysical Studies: Seismic, Gravity, Magnetotelluric, Resistivity, GPR and other Geophysical surveys were carried out for study of crustal structure and faults. 2D resistivity profile was taken in Kutch region. ISR has pioneered a technique of 3D fault mapping by Magneto Telluric investigation.
Outreach Program: As per OUTREACH PROGRAM, ISR helped a number of Universities in India in many ways like training their students in geology, geophysics, geotechnical investigations in ISR’s rich labs and field surveys, delivering lectures in their special courses. We train some 50 students annually for dissertation work for durations of months to a year and in summer / winter training programs for which students come from all corners of the country. Many investigations were undertaken for matters of societal importance like: (i) Pilot Project on Extraction of Uranium from Nuclear Waste for Baba Atomic Research Centre using the magnetic separator in ISR and (ii) Investigation of the reporting of Cracks in houses in Faradi Village of Mandvi taluka in Kachchh by means of Rapid Visual Screening with Geological & GPS Survey.
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Office of the Chief Minister of Gujarat provided liberal support and freedom for development of ISR. Department of Science and Technology, Government of Gujarat facilitated the administrative support. A network of twenty two seismic stations all over Gujarat was established with the financial support of Asian Development Bank (ADB) by Gujarat Engineering Research Institute (GERI). Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited operated a network of nine Seismic stations around Narmada Dam. All the seismological studies in Gujarat were brought under Institute of Seismological Researchspread over an area of 15 acres of land. The Institute was built and numbers of instruments were procured with the financial support of World Bank. Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA) played a major role in establishment of ISR. Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), ISRO and NPCIL of Government of India, Gujarat Industrial Development Board (GIDB), Gujarat Infrastructure Finance Tech-City (GIFT), Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation (GSPC), Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL) provided grants for several projects. National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad and Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad provided technical support for core competency and professional development. Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) has extended financial support for identification of geothermal source zones at five hot spring sites in Gujarat.
ISR has following instruments/facilities (Instrument Name, Qty, Manufacturer) of worth more than 300 million Indian Rupees
1. Broad Band Seismographs (60 nos) (Guralp Systems, UK)
2. Strong Motion Accelerographs (50 nos) (Geosig Systems, Switzerland; Kinematrics, USA)
3. Global Positioning Systems (32 nos) (Leica Systems, Switzerland)
4. RTK enabled GPS system (1 no) (Leica Systems, Switzerland)
5. Total station (1 no) (Leica Systems, Switzerland)
6. Engineering Seismograph 48 channel (1 no) (Geometrics, USA)
7. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) 100/200 MH (1) (IRIS, France)
8. 5 Sec Seismometers (7 nos) (Leinnarrtz, USA)
9. Microtremor Recorder (7 nos) (Leas, France)
10. Resistivity Imaging System (1 no) (IRIS, France)
11. Arcgis software (1 no) (NIIT, India)
12. Magneto Telluric Unit (1 no) (Metronix, Germany)
13. Gravimeter (2 no) (Scintrics, USA)
14. Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometer (3 nos) (GEM Systems, Canada)
15. Time Domain E.M profiling system (1 no) (Zong Systems, USA)
16. Super Conducting Gravimeter (1 no) (GWR Instruments Inc, USA)
17. Digital Water Level Recorders (5 nos) (IRIS, France)
18. Electronic Auto Radon Monitor ( 5 nos) (Sarad Systems, Germany)
19. Tl/Osl Dating System ( 2 nos) (RISO laboratories, Denmark)
20. D/I Magnetometers (3 nos) (GEM Systems, Canada)
21. Borehole Strainmeters (3 nos) (GTSM Technologies, Australia)
22. Auto Location Software (1 no) (Nanometrics, Canada)
23. ULF Magnetometers (3 nos)(Institute of Space Research, Ukraine)
24. Overhauser Magnetometers (Gem Systems, Canada)
ISR is one of its first kind of Institute in the country and hence heavy dependence is on equipment / tools / software purchased from abroad. Licensing of software applications is one major aspect. However, ISR intends to procure enterprise wide licenses with lifetime upgradations. Also, scientists are frequently travelling abroad to participate and make themselves aware of latest technological advancements in this field.
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Generous World Bank Loan was provided for ISR buildings worth 220 million Indian Rupees and procurement of a number of instruments worth of 300 million Indian Rupees. Department of Science and Technology, Government of Gujarat is providing major fund for plan and non-plan heads of the institution. Majority of the expenditure is booked under this fund. ISR is also getting funds from various sponsored projects from various departments of Government of India and Government of Gujarat. ISR has few international projects from Taiwan, Germany and Italy. The Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority has provided 160 million Indian Rupees as corpus fund. With all these funding sources, ISR is able to manage its long term sustainability and its capacity building. ISR has recruited 12 Core Group Scientist positions on Permanent basis and 30 Scientist positions under Contract basis. About 20 scientific staff is recruited on sponsored projects. About 15-20 research scholars and 20 technical staff are part of support system.
ISR is one of its kind Institute in the country putting efforts to establish and maintain an advanced infrastructure for seismic monitoring throughout Gujarat that operates with high performance standards, gathers critical technical data, and effectively provides information products and services to meet the Nation's needs. An Advanced Seismic Network consists of modern seismographs, communication networks, data processing centers, and well-trained personnel; such an integrated system would constantly record and analyze seismic data and provide timely and reliable information on earthquakes and other seismic disturbances. Gujarat has developed the capability of detecting, processing of earthquake parameters, and reporting of earthquakes within 10-15 minutes, even for small earthquakes anywhere in Gujarat state. Also, Online network, analysis methodology and the auto location software detects earthquake waves, the seismic data is saved at database and locates the earthquake within 3-4 minutes and also disseminates the information about earthquake parameters via SMS, email, fax automatically along with web site updating. Moreover, computerization has led to standardized, comprehensive, and modern seismic monitoring and data analysis system, providing high-quality data and information for accurate and timely notification on earthquakes and their impacts, as well as data for tsunami warning, earthquake hazard, loss assessments, and basic and applied research in seismology and engineering. Tsunamis alerts can also be generated.
Basic research areas
Basic research in the solid earth sciences related to hazard reduction comprises the fields of Seismology, Geology, Tectonophysics, and Marine Geology and Geophysics.
Applied research areas
Applied research related to earthquake hazard reduction comprises the fields of earthquake engineering, engineering seismology, soil and geotechnical engineering.
Laboratories and technical facilities
Some of the laboratories are linked to operation of geophysical networks and other facilities. In addition to experimental capabilities, some laboratories are designated for data analysis and information assimilation and dissemination.
Typical research laboratories are Geotechnical laboratory and Optically stimulated luminescence Laboratory.
The ISR operate both seismological and geodetic networks. The seismological network should comprise broad band seismographs and strong motion instruments, telemetered in real time. The geodetic network comprise co-located Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, telemetered in real time.
Data archive and analysis laboratories
Data streams from the geophysical networks (and other complementary observational networks) are collected by a data analysis laboratory comprising data collection, quality control, data basing, and archiving hardware and software. Routine processing on the data streams for first tier data products should be automated, with periodic review by staff analysts.
Data products and visualization laboratory
Higher-order analysis of geophysical data, and integration of complementary data sets by the ISR and its partners, is the focus of a data products laboratory. This laboratory may also contain computer visualization hardware and software to promote the more effective use of derived data and information products.
Education and Outreach
Education and outreach functions support the ISR objectives of training a technical workforce, raising awareness of hazard and risk in the populace and among decision makers and policy makers, and providing risk management decision support for government, public and private partners. Education and outreach through formal degree programs, some of which are linked to Indian universities and other educational institutions, as well as informal, such as stall exhibits, training at various institutes/organizations, participation in workshops and scientific/technical publications.
ISR is one of its first kind of Institute in the country and purchased equipment / tools / software from abroad. Developing such unique laboratories with sophisticated instruments, expert man power, sustaining such facilities for longer time and delivering productive outcome is tough job. ISR has made all these facilities through sponsored projects and support of various organisations.
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Citizens and Users (disaster management people) used to get the information on relevant earthquake parameters after many hours of its occurrence. Now all the information related to earthquakes is available in minutes by SMS, email and Fax. There is no chance of false information or misinformation about earthquakes. The public fear is allayed immediately. The information regarding the possible damaged areas and affected population is provided. The online web site data and expertise gained by ISR is being used by many students for their PhD, for designing of the earthquake resistant structures/high rise buildings like Gujarat Infrastructure Finance Tech-City, a multi storey VS-Hospital, proposed Sardar Patel Statue (tallest in the World), LNG Terminal (Mundra) and Nuclear Power Plants. Also, Special Investment regions and cities like Gandhidham, Kandla, Anjar, Dholera, Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Surat & Bharuch make use of this data.
Seismicity reporting within 10 minutes:-From the dense seismic network of ISR it is possible to locate and report the earthquake epicentral parameters (magnitude, origin time, latitude, longitude) within 10 minutes of arrival of seismic waves at central station. If accurate epicentral parameters are known immediately to decision makers, they may start the emergency response exercises straight away in order to minimize the impact of earthquake on life and property. An effort for earthquake early warning is under way, through this system, earthquake alerts can be issued in seconds to safeguard life and property. Availability of information about earthquake parameters helps public in understanding the real hazard and reduces unnecessary panic. The availability of catalogs of earthquakes on website has enabled several students in carrying out PhD research and M. Tech. dissertation. Catalogs of earthquakes and focal mechanisms are used to assess seismic hazard for critical facilities, multistory buildings and different cities leading to earthquake risk reduction.
Intensity based shake map:-The Intensity based shake maps up to village level are generated and sent to disaster management team. These maps show the likely affected towns, villages within 5 km, 10 km, 20 km, and 50 km radius of epicenter. Accordingly quick decisions for relief can be taken.
Tsunami Alert:--Gujarat state is having nearly 1600km coast line and a number of people and ports are vulnerable to Tsunami. Seismicity monitoring work by ISR is done round the clock whole year. Tsunamigenic earthquakes are located and reported within 10 minutes, and accordingly Tsunami alerts are generated. Modelling of Tsunami has been done for West Coast of India if an earthquake happens along Makran. A large tsunami happened in 1945 by such an earthquake. At different places along Gujarat coast, the arrival time of Tsunami wave, height of Tsunami wave and the distance of flooding have been calculated. If the earthquake happens along Pakistan coast, the travel time is 2 hours and if in Iran then 3 hours. Tsunami height at Dwarka and Jakhau etc. is about 3 meter. The list of tsunami arrival time and amplitude at different places has been put in website. Round the clock watch is kept for any great earthquake occurring along Makran for tsunami warning. Facility for tsunami alert for west coast region of India has been installed.
Seismic Hazard and Seismic Microzonation Program:- The vulnerability of buildings, lifelines, public works, and industrial and emergency facilities can be reduced through proper earthquake-resistant design and construction practices. The economy and efficacy of such procedures can be substantially increased through research and development. ISR has developed the seismic hazard map for the Gujarat state. Also seismic microzonation of major cities of state and special investment region (SIR) ofDholera is being carried out by ISR. Anyone planning for new buildings and structures in state may use the results of these programs to make earthquake resistant buildings to save human lives and minimize the impact on economy.
Earthquake Prediction Program:- Efforts are being made to have a model that could pick the precursory signals before an earthquake like change in water level, Radon gas emission, change in gravity and magnetic field etc., to predict accurately the time, place, magnitude, of earthquakes in Kachchh region of Gujarat.
Active fault study:-The geological study of active faults can reveal when in recent past and how frequently major earthquakes have occurred and how much risk they pose. Such long-term seismic risk assessments are needed in virtually every aspect of earthquake hazards management, whether emergency planning, public regulation, detailed building design, and investment decision. ISR has already delineated the active faults in Kachchh region of Gujarat and doing this type of study for other parts of Gujarat. The output will help in seismic hazard and microzonation work.
-Preparation of Earthquake hazard map for Bureau of Indian Standards which will help all the citizens of India in adopting optimum seismic coefficients for earthquake resistant designing of buildings.
-Hazard assessment for nuclear power plant sites of NPCIL to make them safe from earthquakes and tsunami.
-ISR is training Govt. officers and college teachers about earthquake safety factors and disaster management.
-The Institute is helping in framing municipal laws to enforce earthquake safety norms for Gujarat. Based on recent results, hazard in different parts of the state are assigned. Cities are given importance factors and structural engineers are to be given categories 1 to 5. Depending upon the importance factor of the city and height of the building an independent structural engineer of a particular assigned grade has to be engaged. Certificates of satisfactory implementation of design criteria are to be ensured on different stages of construction. Responsibility will be fixed in case of failure due to an earthquake.
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The general superintendence, management and control of the affairs of the Institute shall vest in the Governing Council under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Chief Minister.
All policy level affairs and major issues for the development of ISR shall vest in the Executive Committee under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Chief Secretary, Government of Gujarat.
Secretary, Science and Technology Department, Government of Gujarat is empowered to take all the decisions administrative and development of the institute as Chairman of Implementation Committee of ISR.
Director General, ISR is the Chief Executive Officer of the Institute. He is responsible for the administration of the affairs of the Institute as well as of the conduct of the other Officers and staff, under the overall supervision, direction and control of the Governing Council and the Executive Committee.
Under the Head of Director General there are five directors i.e., Director1: Observational Seismology, Director2: Physics of Earthquake Process, Director 3: Crustal Deformations, Active Tectonics, Earthquake Precursory studies, Director 4: Geophysics, Director 5: Earthquake Hazard Assessment and Microzonation. Various Scientists, Research Scholars and technical staff work under Directors.
1. Auto-located earthquake parameters were manually checked for accuracy. Azimuth and distance coverage of seismograph stations and velocity model of the region was continuously improved for better statistical accuracy of estimates.
2. Seismic hazard assessment was carried out mostly as time-targeted sponsored projects ensuring timely completion. Quality was checked by national and international consultants at regular intervals.
3. The findings were published in international journals as research papers which had thoroughly reviewed by international experts.
4. Bi-annual national /international seminars were organized to thoroughly discuss the work done here. Also the work was presented in such conferences.
ISR has done the following projects which are directly related to societal benefit:
Projects at International Level
• Simulation of Strong ground motion with Karlsruhe University, Germany
• Strong ground motion scenario studies in Gujarat in collaboration with National Science Council, Government of Taiwan.
• Seismic hazard assessment of Ahmedabad, University of Trieste, Italy project
Projects at National Level
• Seismological Monitoring of Gujarat state, Department of Science and technology, Government of India.
• Seismic Microzonation of Dholera Special Investment Region, Gujarat Industrial Development Board, Government of Gujarat.
• Seismic microzonation of Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India.
• Seismotectonic study of LNG terminal site at Mundra, Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation, Government of Gujarat.
• Vulnerability of coastal installations in Gujarat, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India.
• Seismic Microzonation of Gujarat Infrastructure Finance Tec-City, Government of Gujarat.
• Paleoseismological studies in Gujarat, Department of Science and Technology, Government of Gujarat.
• Multiparametric Geophysical observations for earthquake prediction research, Department of Science and Technology, Government of Gujarat.
• Generation of attenuation relationship for Western India, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Government of India.
• Preparation of Probabilistic seismic hazard map of India, Bureau of Indian Standards,
Government of India.
• Crustal deformation studies in Gujarat, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India.
• Tsunami modelling, Gujarat Power Projects Ltd, Government of Gujarat.
• InSAR studies in Kachchh region of Gujarat, Indian Space Research Organisation, Government of India.
• CAL-VAL project in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organisation, Government of India
• Active fault studies in Kachchh region, Gujarat Disaster Management Authority, Government of Gujarat
• Geothermal Resource Identification in 5 Hot spring regions in Gujarat, Gujarat Power Corporation Limited, Government of Gujarat
• Site investigation for nuclear power plants, BRNS, Atomic Energy, Government of India
• Seismological Monitoring around Narmada Dam, Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited, Government of Gujarat
• Earthquake Early Warning System for Gujarat through dense network of Strong Motion Accelerograph stations in Gujarat, Department of Science and Technology, Government of Gujarat.
All the projects are time bound with project management to monitor the progress of the projects. By such projects/studies, ISR is serving as a one-stop solution for gathering all seismic related information as well as a self-sustainable seismological research model for the betterment of industries, environment and the mankind as a whole.
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The sites of stations had to be selected away from cultural activity to reduce the cultural noise as the recorded waves have to be amplified up to a million times. For power supply and to have approach for living of personnel and maintenance, the sites can’t be too far. Hence to reduce noise the foundation of the piers over which sensors are to be kept had to be made deep and special arrangements to isolate the area around the sensors.
Triggering parameters like (i) Frequency filtering of noise (ii) Ratio of long time to short time amplitude ratio and their time windows are set for proper recording. Setting of Triggering Parameters area wise and station wise took 2 yr. It depends upon noise level of stations, distance and magnitude level in any area.
Being a specialized subject, getting trained man power and expert man power is very difficult in India. ISR has started various initiatives to create human resource base in the subject to sustain all the research programs.