Livestock Development Office,Songkhla

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Songkhla is one of 77 provinces of Thailand located in southern region with the border connected to Pattani, Satun, and Malaysia, and with the population of 1,481,021 classified into Buddhists 74.5 % and Islamic 25.3 %. Most people make a living mainly from agriculture and fishery with average income of 164,513 Bahts/ Family/ Year (2011). Songkhla has 16 districts. 4 districts have been labeled risky areas including Chana, Thepa, Nathawee and Sabayoi due to the fact that in these areas there has been violence or terrorism continuously such as bombing, arson, hidden assailing the properties of people and government, and ambush both people and government officials, which are the same situations with those in the areas of Pattani Province, Yala Province and Narathiwas Province. The terrorists have the objective in gaining governing power which leads to land separation, resulting in a great deal of damage to lives and properties of people and government sectors as well as greatly impacting on those involved, society, and economy in the areas with the main cause of misunderstanding between the public and governmental sectors. The violence affects the way of life of people and the operation of government officials. People there lack security for their lives and properties as well as lack inspiration in performing their careers. All they have is suspicion. The lack of trust among people causes fractures between Buddhists and Muslims. The situation also influences local economy due to the fact that middlemen or traders of agricultural products in the cities lack of confidence for their safety and security. They therefore do not take the chance to go to take the goods or agricultural products in the areas. The products cannot be sold and has low price under the pressure from local merchants. This becomes additional problems to agriculturalists which make them suffer more because the production system of agriculturalist has already had low efficiency. The agriculturalists also lack knowledge and production technology in addition to the fact that they have no investment for procuring efficient productive factors Songkhla Provincial Livestock Office as an organization taking responsibility in developing and promoting livestock raising has seen that the career performance of agriculturalists in the area of Chang Subdistrict, Nathawee District, Songkhla Province depends mainly on growing plants such as rubber, fruits and vegetables with the use of agricultural chemicals to increase their productivity such as fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides which affect the health of agriculturalists, community and environment in the long run. In 2006 there was a great demand for beef cattle in livestock market thus the initiation of implementing the agriculturalists in Chang Subdistrict raise the beef cattle in order to make agricultural production cycle complete. The plan was made for livestock raising by making use of natural weeds in rubber plantations and fruit orchard as animal food. Cow manure can then be used as fertilizers for plants to reduce the production investment. Due to the poverty of agriculturalists and the high price of breeders, Royal Cattle Buffalo Bank for Farmers encourages agriculturalists to borrow the breeder for production, one for each agriculturalist for calf production to be extra income and complete the production cycle. However, there have been a large number of new problems due to the fact that agriculturalists have no knowledge and understanding in raising, health care, disease prevention and managing animal food. The number of calves was not as expected and the breeders are in bad shape to become further burden for the agriculturalists.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
In 2009, Mr. Weerachai Wirotsaengarun, Head of Songkhla Provincial Livestock Office who take responsibility of the Royal Cattle Buffalo Bank for Farmers considered and reviewed previous approaches to analyze and solve the problems occurring to agriculturalists with the following operation: 1. The finding of the real needs of agriculturalists Mr. Weerachai Wirotsaengarun assigned Mr. Suchart Tulayakul, an official veterinary expert of Nathawee Provincial Livestock Office, to start collecting the information to learn and get to know agriculturalists by working in the areas to get close to the agriculturalists who borrowed the cattle from Royal Cattle Buffalo Bank for Farmers and interrogating, talking, observing, studying, analyzing and understanding for each agriculturalist about their attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, ways of living and society. The facts obtained are that: -In fact agriculturalists in the areas do not need wealth for luxury. They are happy with sufficient living without debts. -Villagers have no trust especially between Buddhists and Muslims as well as to the officials. The officials themselves worry about their security to access the areas. 2. Fulfill agricultural productivity to complete the cycle by supplementing livestock production into the cycle of plant production to make use of the produce and by-products from plant production cycle as animal food and take animal waste as plant fertilizers. This reduces the waste in agricultural systems, the production investment, and the cost in plant production. Furthermore, additional calves from the productions are obtained every year. In completing the project, the operation as a whole is emphasized, based on the integration of all organizations involving in the living of agriculturalists in the areas with the objectives of their happiness and benefits. Each organization performs their work according to their duties and context that they take responsibilities to reach the goals together. 3. Create the confidence and trust in the community between Buddhists and Muslims, between people and officials as well as among officials from various organizations via the activity of “Eating at Friends’ Houses”. Eating at Friends’ Houses is the activity designed to be based on villagers’ ways of living as well as customs and traditions resulting in the meeting and the exchange of experience, knowledge, ideas, beliefs and traditions between members. The sharing s also encouraged by taking main dishes and desserts from their own houses to eat together at friends’ houses regularly once a month. This is assigned to take turn to all the houses, including those of government officials in the areas.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
1. The way of making the production complete the cycle by supplementing the livestock into crop production resulting in the use of the waste which has the cost of removing if not used, which means the increase of efficiency of agricultural production by reducing the cost and adding the income as well as making the production cleaner or without causing the pollution to environment in the community. Furthermore, this is another way to help reduce the use of chemicals in the production and promote safety for agriculturalists and consumers. 2. The activity “Eating at Friends’ Houses” which is the application of way of life as well as customs and cultures of people to create the opening of the heart to accept others and the taking part in various activities of the project with sincerity, leading to the meeting and discussions and forming the group with understanding and trust as well as the acceptance among the villagers, between villagers and officials, and among officials from various organizations. When combined with clear objectives in the development or solving the problems, this creates the blending of feelings, ideas, and beliefs with correspondence in the same direction which finally resulting in the power in the community that helps each other in the development for their better lives and living outstandingly.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
1. The integration of the operation of all sectors involving in the improving quality of life for agriculturalists. After investigating and understanding the needs and expectations of all groups in the areas, Mr. Weerachai Wirotsaengarun got the conclusion and assigned the ways to solve the problem in beef cattle raising and the way to create peacefulness in agricultural communities, Chang Subdistrict. He therefore supported the taking of the ideas to pilot at the beginning of 2009 with the suggestions that the ideas should be transferred to other local organizations and they should be invited to join in the operation. As a result, the ideas was taken to extend to officials who work regularly in the local areas by talking, persuading, and convincing them to see the importance and resulting benefits that will occur in the local areas, with the philosophical principle of cooperating that Department of Livestock Development operate. The participants need to have three basic requirements: 1) mutual needs 2) mutual interests and 3) mutual benefits. Basic information obtained from the investigation is that all people in the areas wants and are interests in making their hometown back to peacefulness again for happiness and security in their live and properties of all people together. All involving officials agreed with the ideas thus they help each other create the guidelines and operating plans as well as extend the ideas to people in the areas by arranging the panel to discuss to inform them to make them understand their right and their opportunities from taking part in giving suggestions, giving opinions, making decision in assigning the approach for the operation, and participating in developing themselves and hometown communities. This started from the panel discussion at the house of the head of the community who is the president of the group. After that taking turns to the houses of other members respectively. Later it was developed to be “The activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses”. The activity is designed for all members to get closer and have an opportunity to talk to each other thoroughly. At the start, 29 agriculturalist families and 7 local governmental organizations decided to join the activity by endorsing and making agreement in operation together. Each organization took responsibility according to their context in joining hands in implementing better living and happiness for agriculturalists. -In 2009 the activity of beef cattle raising was selected to supplement agricultural career. There were 29 agriculturalists. The breeder cow was given to each agriculturalist intended to increase the income. In 2011, it was extended 2. The use of activities which are people’s ways of life for the movement. The villagers then can gain access and open their heart to accept the participation in various activities via “The activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses”. The activity was designed to make all members get close to each other and have a chance to discuss with each other thoroughly for both agriculturalists and officials from various organizations. It is held regularly every month and is used as a channel to: -Follow the progress or the outcomes of various activities that has been assigned in the operation plan. -Fulfill the knowledge to all members, both agriculturalists and officials, by using the activity of telling the things that each has done in the past month to member friends to share the experience and exchange the knowledge to each other. -Overtop to give the chance to everyone to present new ideas to develop, improve, and overtop the activities that have been done to make it better for all dimensions: quality, efficiency and effectiveness. The example of the topping up developing from this activity include the fermentation of the manure for energy and take the residue as organic fertilizer for growing plants instead of chemicals and the taking of vegetable and fruit pieces to ferment as a biological extract to be used as biological fertilizer and insect propellants.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
1) Songkhla Provincial Livestock Office is the core organization as an initiator takes responsibility in driving the project as a whole and takes care of duties involving in beef cattle raising such as giving the suggestions and helping agriculturalists in taking care of animal health, preventing animal diseases, breeding animals and managing animal food. The Royal Cattle Buffalo Bank for Farmers takes responsibilities in procuring and lending the cow breeders to agriculturalists, one for each family, to produce a calf under the condition that the agriculturalists need to return the first calf to the bank for extending to other agriculturalists. After the agriculturalist reaches the agreement of five years, the bank will give all the animals, except the first calf, to be under the agriculturalist’s ownership. 2) Land Development Office, Songkhla Province, takes part in responsibility of developing the land of agriculturalists to be fertile and appropriate for growing plants, growing of good quality plant to be animal food (Napier grass, Pak Chong 1) for livestock raising, and procuring water sources for agriculture. 3) Nathawee District Office which is administration unit with Nathawee District Head and village headman to keeping the security in the areas by surveying, investigating, taking care of the safety for agriculturalists and participating officials in the area. 4) Chang Subdistrict Administrative Organization, Nathawee District, which is the local governmental organization to support and facilitate the organizing of group activities for villagers such as meetimg room and vehicles. 5) Nonformal Education Office, Nathawee District, takes care and supports the organizing of the group activities as well as provides speakers for the processing in the activities and “The activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses” to help develop agriculturalists to have the capabilities in the process of taking part and leadership as well as taking the agriculturalists for study visits at other places and taking other agriculturalists for study visits and exchanging ideas. 6) Army Livestock Development Unit takes care of the construction and development of basic structures such as public streets in the areas as well as cooperates with Department of Livestock Development in taking care of animal’s health and servicing artificial inseminations for agriculturalists in risky areas 7) Energy Office, Songkhla Province, takes care of topping up the system of animal production by taking animal manure from the beef cattle raising to produce biogas to be used as household gas in the families of agriculturalists to save energy and reduce the pollution in terms of smell as well as insects in the community and topping up to the production of biological extract. All organizers and agriculturalist group take part in thinking, making decisions, and following up the operation by themselves in all activities under operation via “The activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses”.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The creation of Peaceful Agricultural Community amid violence in risky areas in Chang Subdistrict is the activity driven by the integration of organizations carrying out official duties in the areas with clear mutual objectives. All resources are taken from each organization supporting the activities that they take responsibilities, with the cooperation in assignments since the step of designing the activities as follows: 1) Songkhla Provincial Livestock Office makes use of its normal budget. The Royal Cattle Buffalo Bank for Farmers takes responsibilities in procuring and lending the cow breeders to agriculturalists, one for each family, totaled 29 breeders or 348,000 Baht (12,000 Baht each) as well as constructing one model gas fermentation tank of Department of Livestock Development for 6,000 Baht and providing the 5,000 Baht fund for the foundation of animal medicine for agriculturalists. 2) Land Development Office, Songkhla Province, makes use of its regular budget in training 36 agriculturalists to have knowledge about soil improvement and analysis as well as growing plants as animal food (Napier grass) covering the areas of 25 rais. 3) Energy Office, Songkhla Province, supports the budget to construct 4 gas fermentation tanks, 20,000 Baht each. 4) Nathawee District Office, Nonformal Education Office, Nathawee District, Army Livestock Development Unit and Chang Subdistrict Administrative Organization already have the activities to operate in the areas thus can make use of their normal budget in joining the project. 5) Agriculturalists provide their own budget to construct 4 biogas tanks with the model of Provincial Energy Office, 5,000 Baht each.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
The completing of the project under the strategy of integration of all operation from all involving sectors as well as the use of the activity in driving the operation based on knowledge and understanding, which can reach the basics of ideas and minds of villagers result in the development deriving from individual inner to express through a number of activities, creating the sharing of ideas and feelings of individual to the group in addition to the fulfillment by governmental resources and personnel. The outcomes can be summarized as follows: 1. Agriculturalists are strong, able to depend on themselves and ready to share and help each other. They are also ready to cooperate with government officials in developing their community to be strong, secured, safe, and peaceful which results from more trust between Buddhists and Muslims, between villagers and government officials as well as the integration of government officials to reach mutual goals. 2. There is a complete cycle of agricultural production system. There is no extra waste or useless residue from production system to result in burden of extra cost for the system in addition to increasing efficiency of agricultural production system, increasing income, reducing cost for agriculturalists, and continuous overtopping development. 3. New knowledge about agriculture has been developed continuously. The learning Center of Community was founded to transfer and share knowledge both within and outside the community such as agriculture without chemicals, alternative energy from manure, new breed of beef cattle with better productivity, new kind of nutritious animal food, and the preservation of animal food to be used during food deprivations. 4. A new way of operation for governmental organizations has been developed which focuses on serving the needs of people instead of only finishing the assigned duties, resulting in the integration in working which has never occurred before.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses has been created through integrated thoughts to design for the best efficiency with reasonable resources and time but resulting in benefits covering all aspects in one activity. The monthly activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses not only create the opening-up of members’ hearts but can also be used in following up and evaluating the operation by interrogating and reporting the progress individually for all members: agriculturalists, government officials, as well as those involved. The communications can therefore be performed in both directions with best efficiency and appropriateness. Songkhla Provincial Livestock Office monitors and evaluates the operation of this activity monthly by documenting and collecting the data of the outcomes from the operation, progress, impacts, problems, obstacles, and success factors as well as inspects the change of environment, feelings of agriculturalists, community, officials and those involved from all sectors via The activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses to lead to the planning and improvement. The example is that at the beginning the activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses started from taking turn to be the host. The host for each month used to facilitate the place and take care of all expenses from the activity alone. Everyone agreed that it is too much burden to the host. There was a suggestion to help relieve the burden of the host. Finally, it is agreed upon the modification that the host only facilitate the location. All members then prepare sufficient food by themselves to exchange and share. Other involving organizations can also monitor and evaluate, both as a whole and only the parts under responsibility through the activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses. Moreover, agriculturalists can monitor and evaluate the progress of the operation of each group as well as the operation of officials.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Initially, by organizing the panel discussion in the activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses, it was found that agriculturalists had no confidence in speaking and expressing themselves due to the fact that they were unfamiliar with speaking in front of a lot of people or felt uneasy when they are asked by the officials which made the activity as a whole not smooth and only little information was obtained. The proceeding of the activity was therefore changed by supporting process speaker from Nonformal Education Office, Nathawee District, to help activity operation for effectiveness and to create friendly atmosphere. In fulfilling the system of agricultural production by livestock raising, the impacts on community were found including the waste with bad smell, insects, the contamination in water resource for villagers, the lack of animal food in the dry seasons. Those involved brainstormed to obtain the modification by encouraging agriculturalists to build biogas tanks with cattle manure as raw materials and supporting the growing of Napier grass as animal food. Agriculturalists, officials, and those involved are worried about the sustainability of the activity under operation due to the fact that at the beginning it was the operation by the cooperation at officer level, not at organizational level. Later, it was made into the agreement of 8 organizations. Purchasers of agricultural products from town lack of confidence in security therefore refuse to go there and buy the products in the areas. Villagers together show them safety in the areas and inform them the movement of the terrorists in nearby areas all the time. They finally have confidence in going to buy agricultural products continuously. Some agriculturalists are not interested in raising cattle and buffalos because they are too large. Songkhla Provincial Livestock Office also opens up the opportunities for agriculturalists who are interested in raising other animals such as goats and sheep to join the project and join the group activities fro extension.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
There are a large number of benefits from the operation of this activity both in the form money and not in the form of money. Moreover, the benefits are provided to a variety of levels: individual for the agriculturalists, officers and those involved; group for agricultural groups and government organizations; community; and society. All can be summarized as follows: 1. Creating the learning together of agriculturalists, officers and those involving resulting in the development as knowledge at individual, group, and community level for the benefit of performing their career and solving the problems in daily life systematically, which a the basics for community development. 2. The income of agriculturalists is increased in many ways such as: -income from livestock raising by borrowing the cattle from Royal Cattle Buffalo Bank for Farmers. Agriculturalists can gain extra income from selling the calf which belongs to them according to the agreement at the rate of 10,000 Baht each for male and 18,000 Baht each for female. Healthy breeder can provide one calf per year. The total value of the calves is 280,000 Baht from starting members in 2009 of 29 families getting 29 breeders that produced totally 24 calves. The money from selling the first generation male cattle to return the money back to the Royal Cattle Buffalo Bank for Farmers was 190,000 Baht. In 2013, there was an extension from 7 female calves to have total 36 breeders with 7 additional female calves to result in the total value of 522,000 Baht belonging to agriculturalists. In addition, there is a benefit from organic fertilizers after fermenting to obtain biogas with the total value of 255,500 Baht per year. The cost for cooking gas can be saved for about 3,000 Baht per year. Additional benefits which are not in the form of money include good health due to the reduction in using chemicals including insecticides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers as well as good environment without pollutions. 3. There is the opening-up of individual’s heart, leading to the trust of all sectors in the areas of cooperating activities as well as resulting in understanding and helping each other between Buddhists and Muslims. Finally, it leads to the happiness of all people to become “Peaceful Agricultural Community” in the areas with risks from violence. 4. This is the model in modifying the operation of governmental organizations that need cooperation with the process of contribution from agriculturalists as well as other sectors to link in solving problems and reach specific purposes. 5. The community has more strength: Social strength: Members in the community have understanding, trust, empathy, assistance to each other and ability to live together despite different religious beliefs. Economic strength: The production system is efficient with best use of resources, continuous development and learning, and available markets. Members in community take part in and join in the development of the locality of their own, with the feeling of being belong to the community and the awareness of loving their hometown. 6. There is safety in lives and properties of villagers and government officials working in the areas.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The objective in operating this project is determined to reach for the survival of everyone as well as the community. Everyone has strong desire to achieve because it means life and property for everyone. When the peacefulness is created in the community, everyone needs to maintain it due to the fact that the lessons obtained from the loss of peace in the community in the past is the pain that is hard to forget. All activities are designed with philosophical principles of the process of contributing which is the true basic human need. Even though there are no other mechanisms to require or force cooperating practice, there is blending by nature due to the fact that operating activities are based on the basic needs and interests which are common to all for mutual benefits. Therefore, the operation this way can be driven spontaneously, resulting in naturally continuing operation. There has been the agreement of organizations in writing to be the commitment together in operating the project of all officials with the approval of the organizations. The learning exchange and experience sharing each other in the activity of Eating at Friends’ Houses encourages continuous and leap development. Having a learning center result in the study visits by various organization to study, learn, and take it as the guideline for community development or solving community problems widely. This activity has received the award of national governmental service of the type of excellent service integration award from the Office of the Public Sector Development Commission for the fiscal year of 2013, with the publication as Best Practices to disseminate to the public as well as disseminate via website of the Office of the Public Sector Development Commission at

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The design of the activity corresponding with the way of life or customs and traditions of villagers is the guideline to open up people’s hearts in sincerely accepting and taking part in various activities in the project. Those directly affecting the successfulness of the activities include meeting, talking, exchanging of knowledge and experience, joining hands in creating ways to improve their work and career together. These activities create the acceptance among people themselves, between villagers and officials as well as among officials from various organizations. When combining with clear objectives in the development and solving problems, it results in the blending of feelings, ideas and beliefs with correspondence and the same direction to finally form community power to help develop the community for better life and living outstandingly. Consequently, initiators need to have knowledge and understanding of real environment, context and situations in the areas as well as be able to access the thoughts of all involved and society to finally lead to the development for continual success. Solving problems by integration with benefits for agriculturalist as the main objective has started from changing the ideas of officials who take responsibility to best fulfill the mission of each organization to focus on best benefits for agriculturalists. All members perform their best for their duties according to their context of responsibility to reach mutual goals to truly form the integration in operation. The meeting and talking in various activities create the exchange of experience and help in overtopping continuously in all aspects, especially solving problems and creativeness for self-progress. Creating trust in each other is a very delicate matter. The operation needs carefulness and patience in proceeding continuously. After thrust is created, there are a lot of good things following, and beyond expectation. The process of participating is the key factor of the successfulness of the operation, especially the process of creating trust to each other.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Livestock Development Office,Songkhla
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Mr.Watanapol Ploymeeka
Title:   Chief Strategy and Information  
Telephone/ Fax:   +(66) 74 312 736
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   170 Kanjanavanich Road,kaoropchang
Postal Code:   90000
City:   Moung District
State/Province:   Songkhla

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