Cloud Telephony and IVRS (Interactive Voice Response System) based Daily Monitoring System (DMS)
Mid Day Meal Authority, Uttar Pradesh, India

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
The state of Uttar Pradesh in India has over 160000 primary and upper primary schools with around 20 million children enrolled there. These children are served Hot Cooked Lunches prepared in the school premises by Village Panchayats/ community. The funds and the food-grain for these meals are provided by the government machinery. Due to remote and rural nature of most of the schools there is no way to monitor the scheme in real time on whether the meals were served in a particular school or not and if served how many children were actually fed. This resulted into poor monitoring of the scheme and laxity at the last mile level. The delivery of lunches is important as these lunches are the sole nutritious food for many children coming from extremely poor families. The challenge was to ensure the delivery of the hot cooked mid day meals through real-time/ near real-time monitoring of delivery of the mid day meals in each of the schools. The large reach of the scheme in terms of geography (the state of Uttar Pradesh being the largest state in India with 75 districts), the number of entities (160000 schools) to be monitored and the number of people from whom the data is to be culled on a day to basis posed challenges to the monitoring mechanism. The flow and status of information under MDM Scheme BEFORE the implementation of the Initiative viz."Daily Monitoring System" used to be as follows: • an MDM register was kept at schools in which number of children who availed meals was recorded by headmaster on daily basis • This data was supposed to be compiled block-wise in block level register on monthly basis and then in the district level register. • Inspection and monitoring of the schools was possible on random selection basis only. • Identification of schools where meal was not cooked was not possible. Thus remedial action was very difficult to be taken for specific schools not serving the meals. In view of above problems, an analysis of information flow in the traditional method was done and a redesign was initiated. It was found that one major bottleneck due to which meal was not cooked/ served in a school was ignorance about such schools at block/district level and therefore no intervention could be possible for ensuring the service delivery. Non-availability of a systematic mechanism for furnishing of such data on a regular basis was the given gap in the traditional system which needed to be bridged. The Mid Day Meal Authority, Uttar Pradesh hence required an ICT based Monitoring system which shall address: • Real-time reporting of Mid Day Meal data of schools to block, district and state level. • A web-based real-time Management Information System (MIS) and Decision Support System (DSS) • Making exceptional reports available to concerned authorities for timely intervention. • Maintaining accuracy of the data being reported • Making school, block, district and state wise data available to the State and Ministry for planning purposes.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Lack of accurate and timely information has always plagued the MIS of large scale government operations. Cloud Telephony and IVRS (Interactive Voice Response System) based Daily Monitoring System (DMS) has been devised by Mid Day Meal Authority (MDMA), U.P. as a solution to these impediments. The Initiative is a unique process innovation, with no parallel in world. It envisages a systematic data collection on real time basis directly from the grass-root level of programme implementation. An automated MIS and DSS are also built into the system. As implemented for Mid Day Meal Scheme in U.P. the System tracks the number of • schools that serve/did not serve mid day meal on any particular day, • Children who had lunch in the school on the prescribed working days. Under the initiative, automatically generated calls are pushed from a virtual number to the mobile handset of the teaching/ para-teaching staff in each of over 160000 schools just after the scheduled delivery of lunches (1.00 pm in summers and 10.30 am in winters) everyday. This automatic call asks the teacher to provide information on the count of children who were served meals on that particular day through pressing of digits on the keypad of their mobile handset. In case meal was not served in school, the teacher keys-in zero on his mobile. The pressing of digits gets transmitted through the telecom network to the cloud computing infrastructure and decoded and transferred to the enterprise data management framework for further processing. The collected information is documented on a web based portal ( login: fc, password: trips) on real-time basis and MIS/actionable alerts are generated in form of SMS/ e-mails, web-based MIS and various analytics for the officials at the various levels from state to the village level. The vision of the initiative was conceived by Mr Sudhanshu Tripathi, Finance Controller in MDMA way back in 2007 and was implemented under the able leadership of Mr Amod Kumar who joined MDMA as its Director in Dec’09. .The strategies adopted for ushering in the desired Government Process Re-engineering were: • Wide scale brainstorming and suggestions seeking from all staff and field functionaries, • Involvement of all the teachers union and incorporation of their feedback/ suggestions, • Video conferencing with all the District Magistrates and District Education Officers. • Discussion with few teachers selected from different parts of the State. • No cost to teachers was a paramount strategy for designing the initiative, • Use of data ‘pull’ technology vs. data ‘push’ so that the system is able to extract information from the teachers • Application of SIP model of service delivery (Software as a Service – SaaS, Infrastructure as a Service – IaaS and Platform as a Service – PaaS) so that standardization and updating of technology is not an issue. • Complete outsourcing of the system with following features  Complete risk passed on to vendor  Pay per data instead of pay per call  No investment for hardware, software, training etc at the client level.  Training, mobile no. collection, updation, call center, publicity also responsibility of vendor In the re-engineered process the unit of information is the actual level of implementation in the field rather than any intermediary like block/district or division. The MIS that is generated daily helps the district/State authorities in immediately zeroing-in on defaulting schools and take necessary remedial steps. Exception reports generated by the System help in efficient inspections and effective monitoring. MIS and DSS built into the system provide objective criteria on which policy decisions can be taken. It also ensures ICT based social audit as School Management Committees with majority of non-officials are going to be called-up soon.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The distinguishing and innovative features of the technology stacks in the DMS are: • Scalable DMS is able to push more than 300000 to 400000 telephone calls to the mobile handsets of approximately 3,00,000 teaching/ para-teaching personnel in a few hours per day to collect data on the count of children availing meals. • Stable Each of the technology components of the DMS has been innovated to be scalable and reliable for 24x7 operations. • Generation of Actionable alerts and multi-modal delivery of the same to the officials concerned through SMS/Emails/Web-based System This initiative builds upon a number of innovations: • Innovation in the monitoring processes (a complete BPR effort and designing of several new processes for monitoring scheme implementation) • Use of Call Center with VoIP and implementation of a sophisticated hybrid CRM (Customer Relationship Management) + Helpdesk solution • Use of new service delivery mechanisms like Cloud Telephony (Voice/SMS/Data Services) and Cloud Computing • Unique Several cutting edge IT technologies (eg. Text to Speech for the local language Hindi) • Use of PRI (Primary Rate Interface) lines for routing multiple calls simultaneously • Creation of platform for dissemination of information and collection of feedback/ data from the teaching personnel.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
In view of the initiative being unique, the key development steps mainly related to the design aspects and can be summed up as under: • Given the huge number of schools from where data was desired to be captured on daily basis, the first major step was zeroing-in on a suitable and viable technology for the System. • Secondly and largely attendant to the first was arriving at a solution wherein the sender of data i.e. the teacher in this case need not spend a single penny so that the focus remained on monitoring of the Scheme instead of reimbursing the expenses incurred by the teachers for giving data. This was necessary to ensure meaningful participation of lakhs of teachers in the initiative. • Also significant in this regard was focus on ‘pull’ rather than ‘push’ method of data capturing so that data is captured from maximum teachers and it was not left to their will to send it on their own. • Further, this had to be done within the given timeframe after the meals are served and before the school is closed for the day. • Bridging gaps in traditional monitor system necessitated attention to carefully designing necessary MIS and exception reporting structure and alerts etc. Key implementation steps were: • Foremost implementation step was selling the idea to the teachers and making them own it. All the teachers unions were consulted so as to convince the teachers about the benefits of the System by way of demo etc. • Other such steps were codification of all the schools, trainers-training, preparation, design and printing of about six lac operational manual and its distribution before onsite demo, onsite/ on-line demo/teachers’ training in about 900 blocks and town areas of the State, collection of teachers’ personal phone numbers. • The feedback given by the teachers was accounted for in the development of the system. Thus, the acceptance and user-friendliness played crucial role in the search for a system that could fit in terms of requirement, design and viable technology. • Development of the data-base and purging it, devising mechanism of call system and call escalation, on-line verification of the mobile numbers of almost 4.5 lac teachers, devising mechanism of updating of database in case of change of teachers’ place of posting or mobile numbers, establishing call-centre for personalized attention to teachers query etc have been other major landmarks. • It has also been ensured that at the end of the month, the data keyed-in by the teachers is verified in black and white by them. The system of submission of data by the teachers and auto generated real-time MIS has transpired a wave of change in implementation of the Scheme at the field level. Real-time online monitoring is now done by about 900 Block Education Officers, 75 District Basic Education Officers/ District Magistrates (DMs) and their Commissioners and State level officers. Improvement in the speed and quality of the service delivery is the resultant outcome since the number of such schools where meal was earlier not served is coming down substantially. Chronology: • Vision document prepared and submitted on Jul’07, • Project launched on Mar 31, 2010, • System developed and tested within two months of the launch date and stabilized within six months. • System started capturing real time data since June’10 • Government of U.P. replicated DMS for monitoring nutritional support programme under ICDS (Integrated Child Development Services) since Sep’11. • In view of Government of India’s decision to replicate this System for monitoring MDM in the whole country, bids invited by GOI in 2013 and evaluation of bids under process as of now.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The vision of the initiative was conceived by Mr Sudhanshu Tripathi, Finance Controller in the MDM Authority, U.P. Mr. Tripathi submitted a concept paper way back in 2007 in which he conceived an SMS based information flow on real-time basis from all the schools wherein SMS of number of children availing MDM would be sent by the school teachers daily on a central server and a web-based MIS for daily reporting would be generated. The concept so visualized by Mr. Tripathi got an impetus in Dec’09 when Mr Amod Kumar joined MDMA as its Director and the technology of cloud telephony and IVRS was zeroed-in on account of the problems of language, user-friendliness, cost, modifications etc in the SMS based solution. Since toll-free SMS was not possible across all networks; so also the SMS based solution was found to be unable to ensure that it does not cost anything to teachers for giving information. Mr. Kumar led the project from the front and implemented it successfully sine June’10. The system has been working very efficiently since then and monitoring of the implementation of the MDM scheme has become effective, resulting into substantial reduction in number of schools where meals are not served vis-à-vis the earlier scenario. Mr Tripathi continues to be the nodal officer for the project which has won many accolades from Government of India (National e-Governance Gold Award) and many private forums viz. NASSCOM, UNICEF, Vodafone, ASSOCHAM, IAMAI, DEF and Yahoo. The other stakeholders of the initiative viz. the divisional/district officers and teachers unions were also consulted before launch of the system. They wholeheartedly supported the initiative sine the system gave the teachers a tool to directly communicate with the higher echelons in the decision-making without any intermediary level and thus be able to give truthful information immediately.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The initiative has been completely outsourced to an IT agency of the Government of Uttar Pradesh. No investment by the client has been made for hardware, software, training etc. Training, mobile no. collection, updation, call center, publicity was also the responsibility of the vendor. The basis of costing is receipt of data irrespective of the numbers of calls made to get that data. For development, implementation and operation of the system for first six months, payment was provisioned at Rs 1.80/ data/ school/ day. The rate of payment after that is Rs 1.20/ data/ school/ day. Thus the value of the contract for first six months was about Rs. 300.00 lac and about Rs 382.00 lac per year after that depending on the actual number of data received. As MDMS is a Government of India assisted scheme, the financial resources for the initiative were mobilized out of the management and monitoring funds received from the Govt of India. As regards the human resources, the outsourced agency has technology partners associated with it for professional and technical support. As regards the technical resources, SIP model of service delivery (Software as a Service – SaaS, Infrastructure as a Service – IaaS and Platform as a Service – PaaS) has been used by the vendor. With the help of the DMS, the gaps apparent in the traditional system of information flow have been bridged and monitoring of the mid day meal scheme did not remain an objective-out-there to be attained; it has, rather, become embedded in the process of data received through the system. The initiative has been helpful in stablising the process wherein the speed and transparency of data have been instrumental in efficient and effective governance and improvement in speed and quality of the service delivery is the resultant outcome. The key features of the initiative can be summed up as under: • Data collection and MIS/ DSS available on real time basis; real time performance evaluation • Direct & instant info mechanism from grass-root to the State without intermediate levels • Creation of a media for the apex level to directly reach school functionaries • Identification of problem areas immediately • Objective info available for immediate corrective measures/ policy decisions • Transparency & neatness of data resulting into truthful information • Data ‘pull’ vis-à-vis data ‘push’ methodology; User of Information controlling the info-flow instead of sender • Teacher not to spend a single paisa • Exception report based monitoring vis-à-vis random selection based • Instant info leading to check on distortion/ fudging of data • No need for any mobile phones to be given to teachers • Completely outsourced • Govt of India can directly monitor without any reports from State Govt. • ICT based social audit since the plan to call up/ involve School Management Committee with non-official as its head is to be rolled-out soon • Simple, feasible, scalable, cost-effective • Easy to replicate for monitoring huge government programmes.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
• Much improved control and implementation of the Mid Day Meal Scheme; Substantial reduction in number of schools not serving meals to about 3 to 4 % in Oct-Nov’13 vis-à-vis about 30 % in Jun-Jul 2010. • Various analytics/ inferences on efficiency/ efficacy of MDM implementation available on the portal 24x7 for information and remedial action. The district level authorities have a system in place now which is helping them base their decision on realistic data instead of vague reports. • Instant and direct communication possible with the school teacher for knowing the reasons if meal was not served in his/ her school. District/State authorities responsible for monitoring are able to get the real time data and take corrective measures so that meal is cooked in schools where it was not so. Teachers too are a happy lot since they fulfill their responsibility of informing the higher ups through this system in case meal was not cooked – information which was otherwise likely to be curbed before launch of this system if the number of such schools in a block or district was sufficiently large. The teachers also feel assimilated in the process of governance since their information is directly accessed by the highest levels of the decision makers in the Government • Transparency & neatness of data resulting into truthful information; Instant info leading to check on distortion/ manipulation of data; Elimination / reduction in Leakages; the System has checked fudging of data and has thus enhanced efficiency and efficacy of implementation of MDMS in the State. • Sanitised and authentic data for policy inputs. Data on enrolment and total meals served to be used for planning of Mid Day Meal implementation. GOI now approves Annual Work Plan on account of the system generated data.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
As regards significant change in process that has led to efficiency improvement in terms of time or cost for citizens or agency, improve agency efficiency, facility for Audit Trails etc, the System has helped the teachers give information instantly to the District and upto the State level. For successfully monitor the implementation of the strategy, the District level authorities responsible for monitoring of the Scheme were instructed by the MDM Authority for regularly using the online system and do inspections based on exception reports generated out of the system. Logins of district and block personnel were monitored at State level in the monthly meetings and those not logging-in regularly were taken to task. Apart from the system itself, letters from the apex level were sent to non-performing districts on daily basis for reminding them of the daily status of their schools and for initiating corrective actions. Also the progress of the scheme through the new system was reviewed by the Principal Secretary of the department on monthly basis and surprise teams were deputed for same day verification of data keyed-in by the teachers. The Chief Secretary of the State also reviewed the progress of the system in the governing body meetings of the MDM Authority. The initiative has won many accolades after going through the rigorous process of jury evaluation. The evaluation of the implementation of the initiative by such jury and institutions testifies to the success and performance of the initiative. Such awards and recognitions received by the DMS are: 1. The National e-governance Gold Award for innovative use of technology by Government of India in 2012 2. NASSCOM Social Innovation Honours and UNICEF recognition for ‘Innovation for Children’ in 2013 3. ASSOCHAM (Association of Chamber of Commerce and Industries in India) award for Excellence in Education in 2013 4. Manthan Award South Asia and Asia Pacific 2013 for e-governance 2012 by Digital Empowerment Foundation and World Summit Awards under the auspices of Information Technology Department, Government of India 5. India Digital Awards by IAMAI (Internet and Mobile Association of India) in 2012 6. mBillionth Award South Asia for m-governance in 2011 by Digital Empowerment Foundation under the auspices of Information Technology Department, Government of India 7. Vodafone Special Recognition for Mobile for Good in 2011. 8. Yahoo! Gold Standard Award for Internet for Good 2013 shortlisted the initiative.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The major obstacle in developing a fully computersied MIS based on daily data collection from village level was the level of computerization in rural India. The telecom revolution in India and ensuing mobile telecom connectivity available in almost all remote areas, however, brought in an opportunity which could well be used for data collection. Other obstacles can be put as under: • Dependence of the receiver of the info on the sender - overcome by data 'pull' methodology (vs. data 'push') used in the IVRS based DMS • Mammoth size of the State of U.P and huge no of schools (1.60 schools) posed a problem of covering all such schools by calls during one day – overcome by design wherein Outbound Dialing Solution (OBD) using PRI (Primary rate interface) lines was devised to send multiple calls simultaneously. • No previous model available – overcome by various brainstorming sessions with stakeholders, techno groups etc regarding design and implementation aspects. • Implementation of such a system implied traversing unknown territory due to the risks involved – overcome by completely outsourcing the system. • How to ensure that teachers would own the system! - overcome by way of consulting all the major teachers unions and incorporating their suggestions in the system. Also, a Government Order was issued by the State Govt. making it mandatory for the teachers to give data through the DMS. • Initial discomfort of the districts with the information received through the DMS was an obstacle since the number of schools not serving meals was relatively high. Sheer prowess of the DMS in giving different useful exception reports and its utility in taking pin-pointed corrective measures in problem areas gradually convinced the stakeholders about the beauty and utility of the DMS for effectively monitoring any such programme on daily/ real time basis.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
UNICEF has done a study of this initiative and has appreciated it. The impact of the initiative has been discussed in detail by UNICEF in the study viz. Cloud Telephony and IVRS Based Daily Monitoring System (DMS) for Mid-day Meal Scheme. Urgency of immediate information of the status of implementation in MDM scheme is much more pronounced compared to any other welfare scheme since if a child is deprived of meals due to one reason or other, one can not make up for a missed meal the next day. Thus getting real-time data of meals being cooked or not was the foremost challenge before us which has been met successfully. The impact due to the introduction of the DMS can be summarised as under : • Substantial Reduction in schools where Mid Day Meals were not getting served. • Reduction in leakages • Enabling Teachers/ grass-root functionary with an ICT tool • Providing a platform for Voice to the school personnel and Creation of an eco-system of support to them • Successful Demonstration of use of Appropriate Technology. Context specific use of ICT (e.g. interface of computer and mobile telephone in case of DMS on account of ground level reality of status of computerisation in rural India and strong presence of mobile phone in rural India and use of IVRS and cloud telephony technology for data pulling in view of vast expanse and huge no. of grass-root level from where info was sought) ensures its success. • Successful Demonstration of a Unique and Novel method of Monitoring Scheme implementations in far and geographically spread areas involving large number of personnel which can be replicated across schemes and sectors. The impact has been measured quantitatively on account of the analytics that are available in the MIS available since the start of the initiative i.e. Jun’10. With the re-designed and re-engineered process of info-flow in the MDMS in Uttar Pradesh, value-addition is apparent for the ultimate beneficiaries of the MDMS i.e. about 20 million children availing mid-day meal daily, since the number of such schools where meal was earlier not served is coming down substantially – about 3 to 4% in Oct-Nov 2013 vis-à-vis about 30 % in Jun-Jul 2010: No. of Schools data received from No. of schools meal was not served Percentage Jun, 2010 33,067 11, 771 35 % Jul-Sep, 2010 1,00,519 28,284 28% Apr-Jun, 2011 1,36,519 18,180 13% Apr-Jun, 2012 1,46,234 10,863 7% Sep-Oct, 2012 1,45,260 9,577 6.5% Apr-Jun, 2013 1,39,722 7,118 5% Aug-Sep, 2013 1,47,416 5,370 3.6% Further, the impact of the initiative has been measured qualitatively on account of the processes which mark a paradigm shift in the system of data collection and MIS of huge government programmes and usher in Government Process Re-engineering (GPR). The matrix below shows the qualitative difference made in the delivery of public services on account of the changes perceived in the re-engineered processes: Status before the implementation of the initiative Status after the implementation of the initiative Key result areas Information about schools not serving MDM No authentic information available Exact information available daily Information about number of children availing MDM Compiled district-wise information available on monthly basis School wise information available on daily basis Immediacy of intervention Not possible Possible Policy Input Vague Objective criteria Key performance indicators Periodicity of information Monthly/quarterly Daily Level from which information made available District School i.e. the actual level of implementation System of alerts Not available Alerts available to higher ups for remedial action Quality of data Compiled monthly Real time data Transparency Information often based on percentage basis Transparent, actual information available on public website Socio-economic impact parameters Knowledge of status of implementation to public Not available Available Social Audit Not possible Possible Level of community ownership Low High Beneficiaries' feedback Available, if at all, through hierarchical system Directly available to decision makers With the help of the Daily Monitoring System, the gaps apparent in the traditional system of information flow have been bridged and monitoring of the mid day meal scheme which is the basic objective of the MDM Authority did not remain an objective-out-there to be attained; it has, rather, become embedded in the process of data received through the system.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Acceptability of the initiative by the school teachers is the biggest force behind its sustainability. Teachers are a happy lot since they fulfill their responsibility of informing the higher ups through this system in case meal was not cooked – an information which was otherwise likely to be curbed before launch of this system if the number of such schools in a block or district was sufficiently large. The teachers also feel assimilated in the process of governance since their information is directly accessed by the highest levels of the decision makers in the Government. Sustainability in socio-cultural economic terms is ensured since School Management Committees with majority of non-officials are going to be roped into the System soon, so as to enhance credibility of data and make the MDM scheme more and more community owned. As regards the financial and institutional sustainability, Government of India has overseen its performance for more than a year now and is convinced of its success. The funds meant for the management and monitoring of the MDMS are sufficient to incur the expenditure of the initiative. Moreover, the Solution is built on revenue generation model; accordingly user charges can be levied, if and when it is so decided, for giving info to public. However, this would depend on the nature of programme and services for which the initiative is being used and accordingly appropriate decision can be taken in this regard. Replicable Aspect: The initiative can very well be applied anywhere in the world - nationally or internationally - especially for monitoring huge government/ public welfare programmes/services by way of data collection directly from the grass root level and a customized web based MIS and DSS. Some such examples can be • Development programmes with one to three parameters • For info of daily collection of revenue directly from grass root/ village level viz. for Excise, Commercial/Entertainment Tax, Mandis etc • For daily no. of F.I.Rs, no. of Challans by traffic police, monitoring Health programmes etc • The initiative can also be successfully used in private sector e.g. for knowing the sales data or for market survey (e.g. sale/ demand of Coke vs. Pepsi) directly from rural retail outlets. Government of India, Ministry of HRD has decided to replicate this system of daily monitoring of MDM for all states and UTs. National Informatics Centre has developed a roll out plan. Accordingly bids have been invited by Government of India and are being evaluated at present. Government of U.P. has already replicated it for monitoring Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme in Uttar Pradesh since Sep 1, 2011. The initiative has also been successfully used for monitoring distribution of books and uniforms under Govt of India programme viz. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in about 1.60 lac schools in U.P. Adaptability aspect built into the System. e.g. local language support in IVR through Text to speech along with cloud telephony and cloud computing technology would ensure easy replicability of the initiative.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Overall Experience The System is a kind of mirror for the decision-makers in so far as it projects a picture in front of them which was just not available to them otherwise; or, if at all any rudimentary information was available, it was available in bits and pieces only and the canvas of intervention was very small. Simplicity of the system and ease of use to the user have been the hallmark of the immense success of the initiative, impelling the Government of India to replicate this model in the entire country. Overall, the end result is a success story worthy of emulation by various other sectors. Most importantly, the initiative has brought in a system of accountability and transparency, primarily because data is available almost immediately; its impact has been that compliance with the scheme has improved to a great extent, which is the ultimate objective of a monitoring system. Lessons Good governance signifies functioning of the government organization in a fashion that the outcome of the functions performed are for the good of the people at large and which also projects a sense of participation by the people in the process of its functioning. In short, if a government ‘of’ the people is made to function ‘by’ the people and ‘for’ the people as such, the entire process of governance in such a scenario would be good governance. ICT, on account of its vast potential in terms of pace and transparency of information, can be used to make people- both governing the people and the people being governed- aware of different dimensions of implementation of schemes and programmes that were hitherto not traversed by them to the extent to which use of ICT can enable. The information so received can and should be used for developing a Decision Support System for helping the decision maker take remedial and corrective measures in the implementation of a programme and help the programme, in turn, attain its objective on the one hand and making the process of governance accountable on the other. Thus, use of ICT can usher in a paradigm shift in the process and practices of governance as such and remarkable improvements can be seen in implementation of welfare programmes if we have transparent and neat data on immediate basis. Recommendations for the Future The success and the acceptance of the System also shows that it provides a tool which can be applied in any huge and decentralized scheme being implemented at the village level – in other developing nations too- where problem of continuous electricity supply and network still loom large. Moreover, the DMS is not a one time affair. It a dynamically evolving system with new innovations and initiatives being incorporated into the system continuously. Also, the huge reservoir of data now available in the system can be used to identify regional patterns of problems so that necessary interventions could be designed. Thus apart from being a tool of monitoring, DMS should be used as a tool of planning too.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Mid Day Meal Authority, Uttar Pradesh, India
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Title:   Finance Controller  
Telephone/ Fax:   +919415014378, +919453004004
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   Mid Day Meal Authority, U.P. 3rd Floor, UPTRON Bhawan, Gomti Nagar
Postal Code:   226010
City:   Lucknow
State/Province:   Uttar Pradesh

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