| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The redistribution of teachers in Luwu Utara included the following activities:
• Workshop to raise awareness of the ministerial decree between five ministries (Ministry of Education and Culture, Ministry of Religion, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry for Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform, and Ministry of Finance) with attendance by local government, schools, community and mass media.
• Based on suggestions from NGOs and professional associations of teachers with approval from the local government, a multi-stakeholder forum called the Communication Forum for Education Promotion (Forum Komunikasi Peduli Pendidikan or FKPP) was formed. This forum worked together with the district education office to evaluate the proportional teacher distribution program.
• Collection and verification of teacher distribution data
• Calculation and analysis of teacher distribution data using the nationally managed education database.
• Monthly discussions held by the MSF in the media centre café and the Teras Adira coffee shop and regular discussions in Tudansipulung.
• Drafting of district head regulation on teacher distribution, based on problem analysis
• Public consultation on draft district head regulation
• Awareness raising of the district head regulation and the implementing procedures conducted in-person and through radio
• Monitoring and evaluation of teacher distribution regulations and procedures through the MSF, in cooperation with citizen journalists
As the chronology above suggests, the strategy for introducing and successfully implementing teacher distribution incorporated the following elements:
1. Strengthening of civil society organizations
The local government of Luwu Utara strengthened civil society organizations by involving them in analysis, planning, and monitoring and evaluation. In addition, the local government and civil society organizations collaborated during the democracy café dialogues and were referenced jointly in print media.
2. Formation and strengthening of a multi-stakeholder forum (MSF)
The local government also recognized and supported the Forum for the Promotion of Education in Luwu Utara, which involved community members, village development workers, education council members, and journalists. This forum conducted an advocacy campaign specifically on the teacher distribution policy.
3. Policy advocacy by the technical team
The Luwu Utara department of education disseminated the District Head Regulation on Proportional Teacher Distribution in cooperation with the multi-stakeholder forum through discussions in coffee shops, articles in online media (www.luwuraya.com and www.kompasiana.com), and regional and local newspapers (Palopo Pos, Upeks, Seputar Indonesia, Tribun Timur), in addition to the live discussions and interactive format of the “Good Morning” program on local radio station Adira FM.
The district administration also utilizes Tudansipulung (Luwu Utara traditional town hall meeting) to gather public inputs, including traditional leaders, on the improvements of education services.
4. Monitoring and evaluation of policy implementation by the MSF
Following the issuance of the new teacher distribution decree (No.821.29/31/BKDD) on 31 October 2013, the multi-stakeholder forum and citizen journalist monitored whether the 37 secondary school teachers selected for reassignment had in fact moved to their new schools (they had – a major success in itself). The multi-stakeholder forum now plans to conduct a satisfaction survey, involving teachers who were redistributed, the original schools, their new schools, students, and parents.
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
There were a number of key stakeholders involved in the implementation of the initiative from local government, community, and mass media. A comprehensive list is included below:
• District Head and Deputy District Head
• District Council/Parliament
• District Secretary
• District Education Office
• District Planning Agency
• District Human Resources and Training Agency
• Head of Legal Bureau
• Head of Organizational Management Department
• Head of Public Relations
• Technical Implementation Unit from the District Education Office
The local government officials who comprised the technical team that drafted the district head regulation and implementing guidelines for proportional teacher distribution were also responsible for collecting, analyzing, and verifying the data used to calculate the teacher redistribution needs.
• Professional Teachers Associations: National Teachers Association (PGRI) and the Indonesian Teachers Association (IGI)
• Education Council
• NGOs: Forum Lingkar Masyarakat Luwu Utara (FAKTA), Lembaga Pemerhati Masyarakat (L-PERAK)
• Traditional leaders
These groups participated in the Forum for the Promotion of Education in Luwu Utara (FKPP), which was involved in the initiative from the preliminary planning stages all the way through to monitoring and evaluation.
• Palopo Pos (local print newspaper)
• Ujungpandang Express (local print newspaper)
• Semangat Pagi (local radio station)
• Radio Adira (local radio station)
• Jurnal Celebes (online media site)
Community members and local government officials actively participated in dissemination and promotion activities such as interactive dialogues at the democracy café, live radio shows on Adira radio stations, and in print media.
Citizen Journalists (community members from across the district)
• Citizen journalists documented their reactions to efforts made by the local government to address teacher absenteeism. Local government public relations officers Melki and Aldi as well as Hasra Abbas, a journalist from luwuraya.com, were particularly interested in promoting articles from citizen journalists.
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The main source of funding for this initiative came from the local government with contributions of time and labor from community members through the multi-stakeholder forum and mass media.
Government contributions were mobilized by the district head, whereas civil society mobilized out of concern for a common issue. Technical assistance for the initiative was supported by funds from the local government budget, community contributions.
To support the program implementation, the district education office allocated funds to the amount of IDR 50 million ($5,000) in 2014. These funds were used to support the data analysis, outreach and awareness activities, as well as teacher relocation. The district administration provided IDR 21.5 million ($2,150) for Fakta to conduct monitoring and evaluation. It also set aside IDR 267 million ($26,700) to provide incentives for the teachers relocated to remote areas.
In addition, the district administration provided the Indonesian Teachers Association with IDR 120 million ($12,000) to support teachers’ professional development.
The local government commitment through human resources, technical resources, and financial resources led to effective implementation in a short period of time and succeeded where other initiatives failed. Due to the cost efficiency of this initiative it is replicable again in Luwu Utara as needed, in other districts in South Sulawesi, and throughout the country.
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Five concrete outputs that contributed to the success of the initiative can be summarized as follows:
1. District Head Regulation No. 28/2012 on Proportional Teacher Distribution
2. Implementing Procedures for Proportional Teacher Distribution
3. District Head Decree on Teacher Placement
4. Formation of Technical Team and Implementation team by local government
5. Formation of Multi-Stakeholder Forum
Within a relatively short period of time, as many as 128 primary school teachers and 37 secondary school teachers were redistributed to schools with a shortage of qualified teachers, due to the active involvement of both local government and community members.
The district head regulation served as an immediate mandate and government order to proportionally distribute teachers. The implementing guidelines served as a reference for the technical implementation of this mandate/order. The process for redistribution was codified in the Department of Education Head Decree No.47/2012. After the department of education head decree was issued, an additional decree was issued by the district head to fund the implementation team to oversee the implementation of the regulation throughout all sub-districts in Luwu Utara. In conjunction with the oversight responsibilities of the local government, the MSF also conducted monitoring and evaluation activities and cooperated with citizen journalists to document the process of redistribution and the changes in teacher absenteeism as a result of the initiative. The recommendations were submitted to the local government to complete its evaluation of the initiative, and are currently being reviewed.
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
As primary school teachers have already been transferred, future monitoring efforts will focus on the 37 secondary school identified for redistribution. To monitor the progress and constraints of teacher distribution, the local government established an internal monitoring mechanism involving the local development planning agency and technical units of the district education office. Together, this joint team conducts quarterly evaluations through interviews with the staff of the technical offices, focusing on financial aspects of the initiative’s implementation. In addition, the technical office also conducted internal evaluation to assess the progress of the initiative.
As part of a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation effort, the multi-stakeholder forum is planning to conduct interviews with teachers that were redistributed and invitations to the public to participate in regularly scheduled dialogue.
The MSF and citizen journalists will monitor the local government implementation of proportional teacher distribution initiative in accordance with the district head regulation and implementing guidelines. The MSF is also planning to conduct a satisfaction survey of teachers that relocated, their schools of origins, the schools that received new teachers, students, and parents to assess the perceived benefits of the implementation of these beneficiaries.
The recommendations from this survey will be shared with the government of Luwu Utara as part of its ongoing evaluation of the initiative.
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
This ambitious initiative required the dedication and commitment of a number of stakeholders to implement policies that had previously stalled. During the implementation process there were a number of challenges faced, such as:
• Objections from teachers that were scheduled for redistribution due to their understanding that the redistribution was a form of punishment
• Inconsistencies in the data collection and availability of data in various locations that complicated the problem analysis
• Poor policy advocacy skills of civil society organizations
The stakeholders involved in the initiative addressed and resolved these issues in the following ways:
• Intense explanation and dialogue about the value, meaning, and importance of teacher distribution to improve public services with the public as a whole
• Intensive two-way dialogue with teachers about the importance of the initiative for their career development and welfare as well as reminding them that they are an integral part of success in providing basic education services
• Careful validation and verification of data collection from the schools by analysts
• Strengthening of NGO capacity through training and workshops on policy advocacy.