KM 0 Pro Poor Information System
Centre for Data and Development Analysis of West Java Province

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Poverty Alleviation is a government priority program in order to achieve the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG's). As the province with the highest number of people in Indonesia, the number of poor people in West Java still stands at 4 to 4.5 million. It is a fact showing that West Java is still one of the biggest contributors of poor people in Indonesia. Various programs have been carried out for the existing poverty alleviation issues. However, this did not result in a significant impact on poverty alleviation. The decline in the poverty rate in the period 2009 to 2010 showed an average of only 0.46%, so that the percentage of poor population to the total population is still above 10 percent. The achievement shows the persistence of the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the programs implemented. Poverty Data Variation factor is believed to be one of the dominant factors in this problem. The attempt to overcome the problem of poverty is usually done by conducting a multi-dimensional approach, involving many agencies and spending much time. This resulted in the differences in the use of sources of data on poverty that can lead to the implementation of programs that are not on target, giving rise to social conflicts. Such programs are difficult to be measured for their success level due to the inexistence of the records. 2008 PPLS data (from National Statistics Agency), the Welfare and Pre-Welfare Family data (from National Family Planning Coordination Agency), Population’s Socio-Economic Data Collection (PSE05), and the National Socioeconomic Survey (SUSESNAS) are some forms of variation in the data source references. Until the end of 2012, the National Team for the Acceleration of Poverty Alleviation (TNP2K) released data on poverty and poor people database on individuals basis (by name by address) used as a reference in poverty alleviation programs. But the data is in tabular form so as to produce the prompt and massive processed data is rather bit difficult due to the static and non-informative sources. This will complicate the Regional Head, Member of Parliament and other decision makers to process and access information about the poor because of the absence of data that are informative and easily obtained. The condition is clearly not supporting the Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMD) 2013-2018 targeting the decline percentage of poor people in West Java from 5 to 4% of the population in 2018. Therefore, to support poverty alleviation efforts, it is crucial to have a program providing prompt, accurate, and accessible information about the poor people data fosucing more on the realization of the efforts in line with the MDGs and Provincial Development Plan in West Java.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The variation of poverty data to be used as an ingredient of poverty alleviation programs create uncertainty targets, so poverty data released by TNP2K are very helpful in making the reference data. In its development, various inputs and facts on the ground are covered through formal and informal meetings organized by the government and various parties showing a high need for poverty data which are centralized and easily accessible. It would greatly help the government, private sector, NGOs and other parties who implement poverty alleviation programs. Based on this, the West Java Provincial Government, through the Center for Data and Analysis Development - Regional Development Planning Agency, built an integrated and accessible poverty data information system. The program was then followed by the creation of Kilometer 0 Pro-Poor Information System application. Kilometer 0 Pro-Poor Information System is an application that can meet the needs of detailed information on the reference data to be used for poverty alleviation efforts by various parties. In addition, because it is using individual-based poverty data, the application is expected to provide clarity on the household data as the target object used in the poverty alleviation program. Therefore, considering this is a problem that involves other fields, the development of Kilometer 0 Pro-Poor Information System as an approach to poverty alleviation is built with the involvement of various parties. Basically this application exists because of the participation of various stakeholders such as communities, governments, academics, students, NGOs and other parties in the hope of the existence of a poverty data reference, providing administrative transformation in the field of information regarding the use of data poverty. Cooperation of these parties ultimately produce an application that provides more informative and accessible poverty data, reducing the variation of poverty data. This application is in line with the spirit of the central government through the National Team for the Acceleration of Poverty Alleviation (TNP2K) because it is based on individual-based national data used for poverty alleviation efforts.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
Innovation and creativity are relied upon by this initiative is the ability of an application to display database information Data Collection of Social Protection Program (PPLS) that not only provide by-name-by-address information of the targeted households (RTS) in writing, but also equipped with by-picture and by-coordinate facilities displaying the details (education, occupation, family situation, the condition of the house, history of illness, disability, the electrification ratio, etc.) as well as the exact location and the route to reach the spot. The application can be used as verification to be processed into a wide variety of information related to efforts to alleviate poverty including the determination of Uninhabitable Housing, Educational Grants for Underprivileged Students, Social Grants, and Health Insurance. The online presence of the application will give the ease of access for users to obtain information. Through this initiative, West Java Province is optimistic to overcome the problems of poverty faster than other regions, since the application is solely owned by the Province of West Java.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The first phase of the implementation were system analysis and planning. The analysis results were then used to design the application frameworks as well as the necessary features. The details supporting the data were also collected in order to provide such comprehensive information. The data were obtained through a survey conducted by the Center for Development Data and Analysis of the West Java Province and involved the participation of students from universities in Bandung. Until now, the survey has covered 30,000 Targeted Households (RTS) spread across the regencies/cities in West Java Province aiming for greater scope for future reference. The next stage were system designing and implementation based on the results of the planning and analysis. There were two design process conducted at this stage, namely the Entity Relationship Database (ERD) Designing and User Interface Designing (using the Unified Model Language (UML) tool). The next process is the implementation, which is the stage of translation of what has been previously designed into a particular programming language (Code Igniter), followed by the System-Testing phase to assess the system’s stabilization and its readiness to be launched. This phase is done by some students and experts who act as programmers and data entry officers. Moreover, in the stage of development of this system is also getting help from the experts from IBM from different countries. Expert assistance from IBM is a form of CSR to the corresponding market countries. The form of expert assistance programs by creating scripts that can accelerate the process of search queries in the data. When the application is functioning properly and is ready for use, further socialization was done by inviting the Regents and Mayors and parties associated with poverty alleviation programs. Socialization was conducted to deliver the features of the application including the details of each data presented. Aerial Imageries were also displayed along with all possible routes to reach the spots. Every Regent and Mayor were given User ID and Password to be able to use this information system as an integrated database that will be single reference to target poverty alleviation programs and social protection in West Java Province . All Regents and Mayors were also encouraged to participate in the database building and development, both by involving PUSDALISBANG of Central Statistics Agency and independently. Until now, the application has been utilized by various levels of government in the province of West Java, along with participation in updating the data. The existence of such participation provides improved quantity and quality of data collected in the application so that it will provide more useful information to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of poverty alleviation programs.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Data and Analysis Center Team of Development Regional Planning and Development Agency (BAPPEDA) of West Java Province is a pioneer in making this application and assisted by the students and companies like IBM. In addition, this initiative must involve all parties, especially with regard to stakeholders. Some stakeholders are involved in the government decision-makers, such as governors, Head of Task Force Units, the Regent/Mayor, Head of Districts and Village Leaders. In addition, some organizations, NGOs and other private sector initiatives related to the Company is also involved in the implementation. Governor as regional coordinator in the alleviation of poverty, is responsible for coordinating all activities addressing poverty assisted by the Deputy Governor. Duties and authorities listed in Provincial Coordination Team of Poverty Alleviation (TKPK). In addition, the Governor also plays a role in allocating funds to build and maintain the system to run optimally to the village level, through the co-administration and financial assistance to the regencies/cities and social assistance (grants) through community organizations. Regents/Mayors perform the duties imposed by the central government and the provincial government in poverty alleviation. Furthermore, they also participate in the verification of data on poverty, conducted a survey of RTS and use of Kilometer 0 Pro-Poor Information System. NGOs play a role in monitoring the implementation of activities and programs and perform validation and evaluation of grant aid in accordance with the PPLS data available in the application. Besides, NGOs also play an active role in providing input to various drawback in the implementation of poverty alleviation programs, particularly at the village level. Facilitating functions are also implemented in the programs and activities addressing poverty in the area funded by the central government, local governments and non-governmental.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Initiatives can be realized due to the commitment of the leadership to realize One Integrated Develompent Data of West Java originating from the establishment of a special institution that handles data seeking to create a reference used for the development process, one of which is PPLS data usage as a reference to poverty alleviation. The Local Regulation on Integrated Develompent Data of West Java has been a superior law and the commitment to the use of the database. The system handiness is largely determined by the availability of resources from both human resources and financial resources. As a pioneer of the system, Center for Development Data and Analysis (PUSDALISBANG) accommodates the spirit of the development of this initiative through executive recruitment, both experts as well as students from the community college roling in the function of programmers, data entry operators, and surveyors supported by PUSDALISBANG Team conducting the analysis of the required functionality of the application. Programmers Team is the team that have an important role in initiating the application starting from the system-needs analysis, designing the system architecture, application building, feasibility testing of the application, and the application maintenance. The team consists of four programmers who are students from several universities in Bandung. The Division of Data Collection and Analysis as well as experts from several agencies including the IBM support the team. Surveyor team is a team that is responsible for listing, completing, and verifying the data obtained from TNP2K. The team is led by bureaucrats from PUSDALISBANG and involves the participation of students from universities in Bandung, as surveyors spread throughout the regencies/cities in West Java Province. Data entry team is a team that is in charge of the poverty data input derived from the survey results followed by coordination with the programmers for the data uploads process. Data entry is made up of six students and several contract workers. In general, the three teams worked for five months at a cost that is derived from the Provincial Budget through the PUSDALISBANG of Regional Planning and Development Agency (BAPPEDA) of West Java. In general, the manufacturing of KM 0 Pro-Poor System spent the fund of USD 8,000 for the purposes of labor and USD 27,000 for survey purposes covering 30 thousand respondents. Furthermore, to improve the budget efficiency, the coordination among levels of government, especially in the area of data sharing has been carried out continuously creating a strong joint commitment in updating data in improving the quality of development, especially in poverty alleviation programs.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Basically the output output of this initiative is to produce applications providing more comprehensive data presented online so as to allow stakeholders to obtain data used for the determination of poverty alleviation policies. The data used is expected to help poverty alleviation programs and activities organized by the government at various levels such as provinces, regencies and cities, districts, even villages, to use the budget efficiently. Another output of this application is a system utilized as coordination tools for poverty data integration so that there is only one reference in poverty alleviation programs which results in the increase of efficiency in the use of the budget, especially in the activities of finding information that can be allocated to other more technical programs. Information poverty data that can be accessed through the system has been used by several agencies for the purpose of the official programs for more increased and targeted results. The programs include: • Support for The Renovation of Unihabitable Housings and Elektrification Program; • Temporary Direct Aid for Society; • Provision of Rice for Poor Families Program (RASKIN); • Training of Mushroom Farming held by Office of Forestry; • Training of aquaculture held by Office of Fisheries; • Training of Sheep Farming held by Office of Animal Husbandry These programs are greatly assisted by the existence of the system. Stakeholders can easily know the current condition of the targeted households based on photographs, educational background, environmental conditions without going through the surveys back, thereby reducing the cost of information seeking.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The system implemented to monitor progress and evaluate the activities is carried out either manually or electronically and is in cooperation with the regencies and cities governments, regional and local apparatus organization, and NGOs as well as the active participation of the local communities. This monitoring is done periodically to see the progress of this application. Qualitatively, all stakeholders as mentioned previously must participate in verifying the data and monitor the development of the targeted households (RTS) through surveys that the system is actually providing the most accurate data. Information are always subsequently updated by loggin in to the application using the provided credentials. This is done in order to improve the quality of data and systems as well as monitor the progress of the system. In addition, the evaluation was also performed by the reporting of poverty alleviation programs based on data derived from the application of the interested parties to the Provincial Government through PUSDALISBANG of Regional Planning and Development Agency (BAPPEDA) of West Java Province. This is done as a result of the evaluation of the utilization of the application to the provincial government so that the government can find out how much the existence of the application in helping the related parties in alleviating the poverty. Given the characteristics of poverty, programs and policies of each region, the parties are also required to provide input to PUSDALISBANG of Regional Planning and Development Agency (BAPPEDA) of West Java province associated with facilities expected in this application. To monitor the progress and quality of the application, the active participation of NGOs and citizens is required, especially in monitoring the implementation of activities and performing validation and evaluation of grant aid in accordance with the PPLS data available in the application. Furthermore, NGOs also play an active role in providing input to various drawbacks in the implementation of poverty alleviation programs, particularly at the village level. While public participation is needed in the data validation data given society are extremely aware of how the condition of the target households in the surrounding areas. Qualitative monitoring is supported by quantitative evaluation conducted by looking at the increase in the number of targeted households available in the application. This is done to fulfill the completeness of the database so that the poverty data in accordance with the functions available in the application becomes more complete.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The main obstacle faced in developing this application was an attempt to encourage local authorities within the scope of West Java province to utilize Kilometer 0 Pro-Poor Information System, one of which also integrates with existing budget authority to complete the database. This problem is being addressed with the implementation of outreach and intensive meetings between the provincial government parties. Beside, there have also been the provisions of incentives to the regencies/cities for the optimization of the data survey. Since the system in online and internet-based, another issue that arises is from the infrastructure side, since there are many regions in West Java are still lack of adequate internet access. This obstacle can be overcome by increasing access to the Internet in various regions in the province of West Java along with various providers. Given the infrastructure improvement efforts requiring considerable time and expense, the socialization of tethering systems are available in smartphones and gadgets is also crucial, so that internet network can be expanded in easier, cheaper and faster way. In terms of human resources, some of the literatures state that the quality of information technology knowledge of the villagers are very inadequate compared to the ability of residents of urban areas. Most officials in the rural areas are still unable to operate such online and internet-based application. To overcome this problem, training is the only answer visible, in order to boost the rural officials’ skill in comprehending and utilizing the system.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The decision makers (the Governor, Head of Working Units, the Regents/Mayors, Head of Districts and Village Leaders) can gain access to the application in the form of a user ID and password to use the application in accordance with the responsibilities and authorities to quickly and easily obtain the information about the targeted households effectively and efficiently. The availability of online and internet-based information provides the clarity about the objects. The poverty alleviation efforts can be done more accurate and comprehensively. This has an impact on the declining percentage of the poor populationfrom 10.57% in 2011, 9.89% in in 2012, to 9.61% in 2013. The system existence tends to minimize or even eradicate the chance or opportunities of corruption practices. This happens due to the clear and targeted objects, minimizing the contacts between the aid recipents and the data administrators. The system also helps reduce the cost of information seeking. The data are available online and accessible to public, reducing the cost spend to seek similar data as occurred previously prior to the system implementation.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
This initiative will certainly continue in view of the many benefits it may share. Besides, given the comprehensive poverty data are required by all elements of government parties, the government of West Java Province always gives good support for the moral and material in the sustainability efforts of this application. The existence of complete and comprehensive data would further facilitate access to information, improve data quality and accelerate the time taken to alleviate the poverty. In terms of development, the system can be replicated by all elements of government parties. One clear instance was the initiative from the Government of Bekasi City that independently completed the poverty data of 1088-targeted households (RTS) in the system in 2013 and used the data to alleviate poverty in the city. Replication can also be done in other areas considering that the data are nation-wide recognized released by TNP2K with the same format and content so that it is easier to replicate.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Various efforts being made to alleviate poverty are not as simple as planned due to the complicated correlated problems with other fields. The Kilometer 0 Pro-Poor Application is one of the many stages and focused approaches taken to solve the problem of poverty, but it must be supported by other efforts to improve the quality of education and perception, considering these two factors as the dominant factors affecting poverty.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Centre for Data and Development Analysis of West Java Province
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Rudi Mahmud Zafrullah
Title:   Head of Centre for Data and Development Analysis  
Telephone/ Fax:   +62 022 2505993, Fax: +62 022 2534861
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   Jl. Sangkuriang No. 2
Postal Code:   40135
City:   Bandung
State/Province:   West Java

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