Eco-friendly Bacteria Effective Solution for Toilets (E-Best)
Defence Research and Development Organisation

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
India is a prime example of the global sanitation challenge; nearly 60% of the world’s open defecation occurs in India. For instance, of the 0.24 million ‘Gram Panchayats’ in the country, only a mere 24,000 are completely free of open defecation. A study by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) estimated that India’s lack of sanitation coverage cost the country an equivalent of 6.4% of its annual gross domestic product. Population in the cities although have better access to the toilets but only to the tune of ~70%. Growing poverty and income inequality in urban areas have compounded the sanitation problem, and many Indian mega-cities have very large slum populations. Open defecation also creates vulnerability, particularly for women and girls who experience a loss of dignity or are exposed to abuse and harassment while defecating in the open. Further, improper waste management leads to contamination of limited sources of drinking water both surface and groundwater and discourage tourism and economic development. Untreated waste is responsible for several diseases like, dysentery, diarrhoea, amoebiasis, viral hepatitis, cholera, typhoid etc. taking the life of lakhs of children annually. Moreover, a large percentage of toilets are still cleaned manually inspite of the ban imposed through Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993. The centralized sewage system is restricted to only a few cities, none of the metropolitan cities in the country have complete sewage system (most sewage treatment plants are insufficient and not being properly operated) and the untreated sewage is discharged into rivers. Rural areas and cities which do not have sewage system have the option of treating the waste by septic tank, soak pit and twin pit systems, which have inherent problems of cleaning (indirect manual scavenging), foul smell, contamination of underground water sources / nearby soil. At high altitude areas the waste is collected throughout the winter season in the Ladakhi toilets and untreated waste is transported to the fields manually. Thus, there has been an urgent need to develop a human waste treatment technology which is eco-friendly, user friendly, cost effective and can eliminate most of the pathogens and the curse of manual scavenging (directly or indirectly). Further, technology should work in all geo-climatic conditions (+50 to -50°C; hilly terrains; plains; islands; high water table areas both in mobile and stationary platforms) of the country. The need was for a technology having wide application especially for remote, rural and urban areas which don’t have sewage system that too for single or multiple houses. DRDO has developed the technology of human waste disposal based on anaerobic biodegradation, called ‘Biodigester Technology’, meeting all these requirements.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
High altitude areas like Siachen has temperature as low as -40 to -50°C, space limitations, low oxygen, hilly terrains and non-availability of conventional energy sources. None of the existing technologies is suitable to work in such harsh climates. Imported technology has been tried by Indian Railways (said to be the largest open defecation system of the world) for on-board treatment of human waste but failed due to long journey time over the varying climatic conditions, habits of passengers (garbage throwing & water usage), large number of passengers, etc. The prevalent technologies for plains are cost and maintenance intensive besides being inefficient. Even the Septic tank, the most popular technology, also has problems with respect to cost, effluent quality, sludge management and space requirement. DRDO developed as well as perfected an eco-friendly biodegradation technology for human waste disposal for armed forces deployed at high altitude locations and glaciers, where ambient temperature is as low as -50 °C. The sub-zero temperature does not allow the natural biodegradation of organic matter leading to accumulation of human waste over the years, contaminating the ice which is the only source of drinking water and poses a great health risk. Further, melting of ice in summer contaminates rivers and other water sources and ultimately spreading the contamination downstream. DRDO developed Biodigester Technology is environment friendly, maintenance free and efficient without depending on conventional energy sources. Biodegradation is a natural process and scientists of DRDO exploited the process to enhance the rate of biodegradation to suit the desired requirements. Hundreds of such biodigesters have been installed at various locations in Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. Subsequently, the technology has been extended to Indian Railways for on-board treatment of human waste. Thousands of stainless steel made biodigesters are in operation in different trains of IR. Under a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Railways, it is planned to install these biodigesters in all trains in the years to come. Lakshadweep administration has ordered 12000 biodigesters for all houses of its ten inhabitable islands. Low cost single house biodigesters have been designed for rural sector of the country which is long lasting, require little space, generate environment-friendly safe effluent and do not require any maintenance. Recently developed version of this technology has been named as 'BioTank' that is an excellent low cost alternative of the conventional septic tanks being currently used by individual houses and communities and sometime used as Biotank cum reed bed (top mounted) for treatment of grey water also. And the water so obtained is colourless and odourless which is full of nutrients and minerals and is extremely good for irrigation or gardening. Encouraged by the public response, railways are exploring to set up such toilets at all the major stations on its network. Based on the Biodigester Technology biotoilets made of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastic), besides being economical, can be implemented faster than the regular RCC (Reinforced Concrete Cement) toilets. The technology is maintenance-free and allows near complete elimination of pathogens without requiring the night soil to be disposed through sewage line and septic tank. Since the need for septic tanks and sewage lines has been eliminated in this technology, the biotoilets can be installed and ready for use within just 48 hours, compared to two months for the conventional toilets. Even the cost savings on biotoilets are high, as much as 50 percent, compared to regular toilets. The Biodigester requires only an initial one-time charging with anaerobic bacterial inoculum if it is in regular use.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The existing human waste disposal technologies like soak pits, twin pit latrines, septic tank etc. have many limitations with respect to environmental pollution, cost, aesthetics, serviceability, manual scavenging, cleaning of septic tank, acceptability and workability in different geo-climatic conditions. Even the Septic tank, the most popular technology, also has problems with respect to cost, effluent quality, sludge management and space requirement. The Biodigester Technology is unique in providing the solution to all type of sanitation challenges. It is use and forgets technology requiring no operation and maintenance, useable in extreme geoclimatic conditions in stationary and mobile mode, user friendly and space saving for densely populated locations. The Biodigester technology has two components; fermentation tank (or Biodigester) and the cold active Anaerobic Microbial Inoculum popularly known as ‘bacteria’. Biodigester is a specially designed fermentation tank with provision of inlet for human waste and outlet for treated effluent and biogas. Microbial consortium efficiently degrades human waste at temperature as low as 5°C and as high as 50°C. Suited to all geographic terrains and environmental conditions, biotoilets are a strong solution for the 600 million Indians deprived of toilets and also provide waste treatment for the existing toilets.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Biodigester Technology is now being intelligently implemented for social benefit. This technology is not just eco-friendly but is also cost effective. DRDO in association with Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) has undertaken the initiative to provide biotoilets to the rural and tribal population of the country based on its indigenously developed ‘Biodigester’ Technology’. The biodigester technology was initially demonstrated in high altitude low temperature areas of Siachen, Leh and Kargil regions. Later on, the technology was modified and adapted to suit the requirements of Indian Railways and demonstrated in Barauni Express (running between Gwalior and Barauni) and Bundelkhand Express (running between Gwalior and Varanasi) before large scale implementation in different trains. The technology of biodigester has been transferred to 45 industries of national and international repute for high altitude low temperature biodegradation, biodegradation in plain/ coastal areas and for mobile systems like Indian Railways. Several of these firms have produced and supplied biodigesters to Indian armed forces, other governmental agencies like Union Territory of Lakshadweep, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC), to public and to other private companies. FICCI in association with the Ministry of Defence and DRDO organised a ‘MoU Exchange programme between DRDO and Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation for Implementation of Biodigester based Eco-friendly Toilets in all Gram Panchayats in the country’. The MoU envisages a plan for setting up of Biodigester based toilets in saturation mode across the identified Gram Panchayats. Simultaneously, MoUs have also been signed with Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) under Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation and Ganga Action Parivar (GAP). Awareness is created by state/ central governments through conferences and workshops. Forty five industries located all over India are in contact with local authorities/ public and are busy in execution of biotoilets work in different states. Mizoram and Himachal Pradesh are planning for Pilot Programme through Asian Development Bank (ADB). LAHDC has plan of going for 750 biotoilets for civil use, of which 300 are already installed and another 500 are proposed for Army use. DRDO demonstrated the technology in Dhamra, Odisha, Paramarth Niketan, Rishikesh, Vivekananda Needam, Gwalior, etc. It is a technology that was developed in laboratory but was gradually demonstrated and established in a capacity building mode for different capacities starting from single family to colonies and the technology was made familiar through advertisement by conducting workshops and conferences, and through industry but under strict monitoring of DRDO for quality assurance.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The stakeholders for this technology are diverse group of people beginning from Scientists, academicians, industries, ministries, state and central government, FICCI, Indian railways and the industry partners who are now spreading the technology. The initial technology was developed by a group of Scientists through their whole hearted devotion for this work. As and when required, advice, suggestion and support from academicians and engineers were taken into consideration. Once the technology was matured enough, it was demonstrated at different levels and on getting wide acceptance, it was further made popular through the help of state government and finally for popularization at country level, support of different ministries of central and state governments was gratefully accepted. Moreover, many industries contributed in the technology demonstration thorough their Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) activities. In the mean time the technology was well accepted by Indian Railways for installing in trains in a huge numbers and by Ministry of Rural Development for spreading the technology to every nook and corner of the country to stop open defecation. FICCI in association with the Ministry of Defence and DRDO organised a ‘MoU Exchange programme between DRDO and Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation for implementation of Biodigester based Eco-friendly Toilets in all Gram Panchayats in the country’. The MoU envisages a plan for setting up of Biodigester based toilets across the identified Gram Panchayats. The technology of biodigester has been transferred to 45 reputed firms for high altitude low temperature biodegradation, for in plain/ coastal areas and for mobile systems like Indian Railways and another 100 firms have applied for getting the Biodigester Technology. Several of these firms have produced and supplied biodigesters to Indian armed forces, other governmental agencies like UT of Lakshadweep and to other private companies.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Since its beginning, funding for development of this technology was provided by Defence Research and Development Organisation, Govt. of India. Initially, the funding was only for basic R&D as there were no prior technologies and the technical manpower involved were Scientists and Technologists from DRDO. It was a phase wise developmental process with financial commitments as per necessity for new technology upgradation, addition and modification for better use. The complete technology development was covered under Research Project from DRDO and whenever there was a project gap, the continuation of research work was carried out under Build up and maintenance fund of DRDO. After basic R&D was completed, there was new fund allocation for Prototype Demonstration under Technology Demonstration Project. And finally, the complete Biodigester based technology/product came into existence that was successfully demonstrated in different terrains and was well accepted throughout the country as the most efficient Human waste Management Technology. Important to mention here that before the Biodigester Technology Project was conceived, a small project was undertaken on Biogas Technology demonstration at Arunachal Pradesh. The project was funded by the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Govt. of India. The experience of that project, made Biodigester Techology for Human Waste Management project at ease.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
The breakthrough success of the innovative Biodigester Technology meeting the demand of armed forces attracted the attention of civil populace from various parts of the country and the demand was fulfilled by modifying the Biodigesters for specific applications. The most successful out puts are as follows: Biodigester for Railways: Indian Railways has been facing the problem of human waste nuisance as the waste of millions of passengers is discharged on the tracks and the workers who are involved in maintenance of tracks and trains are exposed to untreated human excreta. Stainless steel Biodigesters of 350L volume have been developed and so far more than 11000 have been fitted in the coaches and working satisfactorily. IR manufactures approximately 4000 new coaches every year besides 50,000 coaches in operation and has decided to equip all of its coaches with Biodigesters by year 2022. Biodigester for Lakshadweep Islands: Lakshadweep Islands have special problem of high water table (1-2m) which gets contaminated by human excreta and the existing septic tanks don’t generate the effluent of desired quality. Govt. has decided to install custom designed Biodigesters, which can work in water logged areas also, for all of the families (12000) inhabiting the islands. The work is in progress and more than 2000 Biodigesters have been installed. Mobile toilets: There has been demand for mobile toilets wherein the waste can be treated onsite for places having floating populations and short term events (e.g., Exhibitions, mela, etc.). Mobile Toilets with Biodigesters have been developed having ten toilet seats and successfully demonstrated in Allahabad Kumbh Mela and other places. Biodigesters for high altitude civil areas: Ladakh autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC), Leh has plan of going for 750 biotoilets for civil use in Leh town, of which 300 are already installed. Shri Amarnathji Shrine Board, (SASB) has also put up biotoilets for pilgrims visiting the Holy Cave. In addition, 500 biodigesters have been procured by army for hygienic disposal of human waste. Biodigesters for plain areas: A large number of biodigesters of FRP and cement/ brick (Biotank) have been installed in different states with capacity ranges from single family to multi-storeyed buildings to public toilets and colonies. DRDO in association with FICCI has also installed biodigesters at several public places in Odisha, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, etc.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Heart of the Biodigester Technology is bacteria which do the successful decomposition of human waste. The bacterial consortium was developed in laboratory. For successful, efficient performance, the design was developed by scientists with the help of local industry engaged in fabrication of biodigesters. After laboratory level demonstration, field demonstration of this technology was done by the scientists locally and then in high altitude and other plain areas. Moreover, many industries helped in this technology demonstration thorough their Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) activities under strict monitoring of DRDO scientists. Once the technology was matured enough, it was demonstrated at different levels and on getting wide acceptance, it was further made popular through the help of state government and finally for popularization at country level, support of different ministries and central government was gratefully accepted. The technology of biodigester has been transferred to 45 reputed firms for high altitude low temperature biodegradation, biodegradation in plain/ coastal areas and for mobile systems like Indian Railways and another 100 firms has applied for getting the technology. Several of the industry partners have produced and supplied biodigesters to Indian armed forces, other governmental agencies like UT of Lakshadweep, LAHDC and to other private companies. But in every steps the quality control for evaluating successful performance was monitored by DRDO scientists. The bacteria generation facility is with DRDO and now technology for bacterial inoculum generation is transferred to the industry partners/. However, all the quality control and quality assurance (QA/QC) aspects rest with DRDO. In every quarter of the year, inspection of the inoculum generation plant is carried out and the plant is certitied after performing laboratory tests for the quality of the bacterial inoculum. In the mean time the technology has been well accepted by Indian Railways for installing in trains in a very huge numbers and by Ministry of Rural Development for spreading the technology to every nook and corner of the country to stop open defecation. FICCI in association with the Ministry of Defence and DRDO organised a ‘MoU Exchange programme between DRDO and Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation for Implementation of Biodigester based Eco-friendly Toilets in all Gram Panchayats in the country’. The MoU envisages a plan for setting up of Biodigester based toilets across the identified Gram Panchayats. Forty five Indian companies are busy in DRDO biodigester capacity building throughout the country under quality control of DRDO scientists.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The development of this technology actually faced many obstacles till this matured technology came into existence. A few obstacles and their solutions are mentioned below: 1. In initial phase at High altitude at sub-zero temperature it appeared that the single Biodigester connected for 4/5 latrines wasn’t working as the human waste in the connecting pipe from the latrines to the Biodigester and the connecting chamber got frozen and as a result the waste wasn’t able to reach the underground biodigester for biodegradation. This problem was solved by placing biodigester directly under the latrines. Moreover, P-trap used for stopping off odour was removed from the latrine and water seal was provided inside the biodigester and freezing of outlet pipe at low temperature was resolved by placing heating tape on it. 2. Another problem at glaciers was transportation of equipment in absence of roads. Bio-digesters were made modular so as to be transported by porters/helicopters. 3. Use of cleaning agents proved to be harsh on the heart of the Biodigester, the bacteria, as bacteria couldn’t tolerate the chemical cleaning agents. This resulted in decreased efficiency of Biodigester. This problem was solved by immobilization of bacteria in biodigester. The benefit of this added technology was that only surface bacteria in the matrix cavity were exposed to cleaning agents whenever exposed to. Inner layers of bacteria on the immobilized matrix remained unexposed which in due course of time covered the loss of the surface bacteria and maintained biodigester efficiency. 4. One installation problem was faced while running biodigester in the trains. There was problem of public littering of non biodegradable plastic bottles etc. that blocked the biodigester path. This was solved by modification of biodigester design that didn’t allow passage of plastic bottles and at the same time sorts biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials separately.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
About 1/6th of world population still openly defecate in the absence of any toilet/ latrine, of which 60% live in India. Sixty percent (626 million) Indians do not have toilets. This makes India the number one country in the world where open defecation is practiced. The existing human waste disposal technologies like soak pits, twin pit latrines, septic tank etc. have many limitations with respect to environmental pollution, cost, aesthetics, serviceability, manual scavenging, cleaning of septic tank, acceptability and workability in different geo-climatic conditions. Moreover, these technologies do not work at low temperature and can’t be adapted for mobile systems. DRDO developed Biodigester Technology is environment friendly, maintenance free and efficient without depending on conventional energy sources. The effluent is odourless and gets rid-off most of the pathogens. The special features of this technology are anaerobic microbial inoculum, that require one time inoculum charging; immobilization matrix for retaining higher microbial mass for survival in adverse conditions; specially designed tank for efficient biodegradation suitable for mobile and stationary platforms; permits use of toilet cleansing agents; tailor made in respect to number of users, materials, situation and condition; no bad smell in toilets from the tanks; faecal matter in the tank not visible; no infestation of cockroaches & flies; no clogging of digester; effluent is free from off odour and solid waste; reduction in pathogens by 99%; reduction in organic matter by 90%; no maintenance required; no requirement of adding bacteria/ enzyme repeatedly; no need of removal of solid waste (sludge). The advantages of this technology includes wide applicability, maintenance free, effluent water recyclable, minimize water consumption, customized & easily adaptable, organic waste reduction is >99%, environment-friendly & cost-effective, suitable for any geo-climatic condition. It allows almost complete elimination of pathogens without requiring the night soil to be disposed through sewage line and septic tank. Since the need for septic tanks and sewage lines has been eliminated in this technology, the biotoilets can be installed in shorter time than septic tank based toilets and at 50 percent cheaper rate. Completing the water and nutrient loop the biotoiletbiotoilet generates colourless and odourless water which is full of nutrients and minerals and is extremely good for irrigation or gardening. After DRDO installed 200 units of bio digesters in high altitude areas such as Siachen and Ladakh for its jawans and word spread about the advantages of bio toilets, the Planning Commission evinced interest in the technology developed by DRDO and recommended its use in Lakshadweep islands. The technology has been adapted successfully for use in all terrains. The breakthrough success of the innovative Biodigester Technology also attracted the attention of civil populace from various parts of the country and the demand was fulfilled by modifying the Biodigesters for specific applications. Since 2010, Indian Railways has started to transform all on-board toilets into biotoilets. With an average 18 million people travelling by train every day, Indian Railways is a lifeline but its toilets are in a pitiful state. Under a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Railways, it is planned to install these biodigesters in all trains in the years to come. Lakshadweep administration is in the process of installing 12000 biodigesters for all houses of its ten islands. Low cost single house biodigesters have been designed for rural sector of the country which is long-lasting, require little space, generate environment-friendly safe effluent and does not require any maintenance. Recently developed version of this technology has been named as 'BioTank' that is the excellent low cost alternative of the conventional septic tanks being currently used by individual houses and communities and can be fabricated using bricks/cement locally. As part of a FICCI interface programme, DRDO is commercialising the technology so that biotoilets can reach every nook and corner of the country. The DRDO has already transferred it to 45 private firms to build the eco-friendly toilets, named 'E-BEST' i.e., Eco-friendly Bacteria Effective Solution for Toilet, all over the country as per market demand. DRDO has also planned to install biodigester in its every upcoming buildings/constructions. DRDO developed biotoilets technology can bring a significant change in the quality of life of people, mainly in rural and urban slum areas and help them lead a healthy life.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Biodigester Technology developed by DRDO, India disposes human waste in 100% eco-friendly manner and completing the water and nutrient loop the biotoilet generates colourless, odourless water which is full of nutrients and minerals and is extremely good for irrigation or gardening. The biodigester requires only an initial one-time charging with anaerobic bacterial inoculum, besides, it is the only technology which can eradicate manual scavenging. This technology is 100% maintenance free and is not dependent on the limited and costly conventional energy sources and saves space, energy, environment, time and provides good hygiene. Biotoilets prevent diseases, and deaths caused by water-borne diseases. It allows almost complete elimination of pathogens without requiring the night soil to be disposed through sewage line and septic tank. Since the need for septic tanks and sewage lines has been eliminated in this technology, the biotoilets can be installed in shorter time than septic tank based toilets and at 50 percent cheaper rate. The biodigester is a spin-off technology product developed by scientists from DRDO for meeting the requirement of Armed Forces soldiers serving in the high altitudes of Ladakh and Siachen. However, spin-off benefits are transferred to civil sectors also. The breakthrough success of the innovative Biodigester Technology meeting the demand of armed forces, attracted the attention of civil populace from various parts of the country and the demand was fulfilled by modifying the Biodigesters for specific applications. Cost benefit analysis showed that one Biotoilet costs Rs.15000 for 5 persons, Rs. 50000 for 100 persons and Rs.200000 for 500 persons. Whereas a Septic tank based toilet costs Rs 25000 for 5 persons, Rs 200000 for 100 persons and Rs 800000 for 500 persons. Looking at the cost benefit analysis, it is not very expensive. It will prevent deaths that are caused by water borne diseases. A large number of children die due to water borne diseases. The durability of the whole system is 25 years. Commercialising the use of this "unique" Biodigester Technology, which turns human waste into biogas and odourless compost, DRDO is now licensing private companies to build eco-toilets all over the country. As part of a FICCI interface programme, DRDO is commercialising the technology so that biotoilets can reach every nook and corner of the country. The DRDO has already transferred it to about 45 private firms for them to build the eco-friendly toilets, named 'E-BEST', all over the country as per market demand. The biotoilets developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation would bring about "a revolution" in sanitation sphere of rural areas, ending open defecation in the country. Providing toilet to each household both in rural and urban areas, that is affordable and nature-friendly. Moreover, this technology based business is an employment source for youths uplifting their social and economic condition.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The initiation for development of technology for ‘human waste management’ was a really challenging one as the technology was to be developed for climatic and seasonal extremes and challenging Terrains having subzero temperature. At the same time, there were no scientific clues available regarding this technology that could be considered as base feasibility study to begin with this technology, thus making the initiation of this technology challenging. And finally, due to social stigma associated with human waste, it was difficult to get a team of Scientists who were voluntarily interested to apply their knowledge and creativity to solve this problem. However, there were independent thinkers whose brains were teeming with curiosity ready to explore new horizons and to attack this problem. Thus beginning of this challenging task was really difficult but interesting. A very positive lesson was learned during the development of this technology. Every drawbacks of this technology was accepted as a challenge to be solved till a fully matured technology came into existence. During initial years, there was almost no expectation as there were very less chances of success for human waste degradation at ultra low temperature. In order to keep the spirit of the working team motivated and not to feel neglected, support from the organisation was a must as some of our most prolific Solvers have even worked many hours beyond the scheduled working hours to focus on finding the answers to this problem. The scientists had to require lots of dare and unlimited commitment towards patience. But as it is said, every scientific problem underpins simple solutions; our invented technology also was not an exception. With every failure we learnt lessons that opened up new opportunity towards success. By sincere efforts of Scientists and all stakeholders, the bio-digester technology has reached to the stage of execution for different types of users and different situations. As on today, the bio digesters are being installed in thousands in both mobile and stationary systems. Since, the requirement of Sanitation for such type of technologies is in millions for India alone, the present achievement need not be taken as satisfaction, but as first mile stone of the referred objective. The scientists should still consider the improvement/modification of bio-digester for improving the efficiency and reducing the cost affordable by the poorest also. The government should consider making it more affordable by reducing the taxes and by providing required subsidies. Many more industries can be engaged for spreading the technology to meet the huge demand of sanitation both nationally and internationally. NGOs and public need to be engaged for better awareness amongst the public regarding need of sanitation and use of this technology. Concerted efforts of scientists, government, industries, NGOs and public will certainly free the humankind from the curse of open defecation providing a hygienic, happy and healthy life of dignity.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Defence Research and Development Organisation
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Lokendra (Dr.) Singh
Title:   Scientist-H and Outstanding Scientist  
Telephone/ Fax:   +91-1123017752/+91-1123017753
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   lst2397@rediffmail.com  
Address:   DRDO Bhawan, Rajaji Marg
Postal Code:   110011
City:   New Delhi
State/Province:   Delhi
Country:  

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