UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM CONTROL FORMS
The Activities Control Acceleration (P2K) APBA

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Government of Special Autonomy Region of Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (Aceh) has been conducting many efforts in order to rearrange the development and economic condition in the region due to the prolonged armed conflicts and great natural disaster of tsunami (2004). The central government has been allocating Special Autonomy Fund and Supplementary Fund for Oil and Gas Revenue Sharing to assist the restless struggles of the region in pursuing the better public welfare in the area. The enormous amount of the fund allocated for Aceh and the large scopes of development activities (covering 23 cities/regencies) without proper budget control mechanism had been causing the low level of the budget absorption for several years (in 2009, the percentage was only 64%). At that time, the budget control was done partially by each unit handling the fund utilization without any unification as well as synergic control mechanism. To maximize the absorption of the existing budget, government spending should have been realized proportionally throughout the year. However, the improper and uncontrolled spending had resulted in an impact on the quality and the quantity of the expected outcomes of the activities. The falsified reports by the government officials on the development projects realization were so common to avoid any assessment which must have pointed incapacities as the evaluation results. These situations often influence the policies taken by the high-rank authorities, issuing partial and incomprehensive decisions. This was only one among other situations, aggravating the bureaucratic state of the region.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
To successfully control the budget, it is required to increase capacity and performance accountability of all government apparatus. Since 2010, The Aceh Provincial Government has been implementing the budget realization control mechanism using the Upstream (planning) and Downstream (utilization) Control Form as scouting and monitoring tools in the budgeting process in Aceh government. The existence of the control form is the result of shared experiences from the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Agency (BRR) of NAD (Nangroe Aceh Darussalam) - Nias (2007-2008) and the Activities Control Acceleration (P2K) APBA since 2010 until today. The Upstream and Downstream Control Form (UDCF) has been one of the solutions for the Government of Aceh to control its budget, by way of orderly use of the form at any stage of implementation. The forms can act as early detection of potential problems arising the delay of the budget realization, so that it becomes a tool for high-rank officials to determine further decisions. The UDCF is presented in the form of a comprehensive tabulation and staining with RED, YELLOW, GREEN and BLUE as the status of the value of the manager's performance budget, applied as follows: 1. Form A, used as a substitute for the Budget Implementation Document; 2. Form B, used as monitoring form for the procurement activities; 3. Form C, used as Performance Monitoring for Budget Managers; 4. Form D, used as strategic activities monitoring form for field visits; 5. Form E, used as physical and financial realization (s-curve) monitoring tool; 6. Form F, used as track record form or a statement of assets;

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
a. The signing of Budget Execution Document is done at the same time and the same place, ensuring the timely and thorough budget allocation and endorsement; b. The realization of the initial budget is in accordance with the plan, so as to accelerate the economic turnaround in the area; c. The bidding process and contract signing with the suppliers/providers are done collectively and witnessed by budget executants and the beneficiaries of the project results; d. The information boards of the projects details are ensured to be installed at every project sites, allowing public to acknowledge about the activities conducted in their respective area; e. The budget executants are guided and confirmed to initiate the project activities after the contract signing; f. Field visits are conducted regularly to monitor project activities; g. The evaluation is done by involving all stakeholders in the process: h. The budget managers' performance are directly published to TV monitors and P2K website (http://p2k.apba.acehprov.go.id); i. The documentation of the project activities as well as the budget realization are orderly monitored in a “Track Record” book.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Strategies applied to control the implementation of the UDFC are as follows: a. To monitor all the process of the project activities in order to early detect any deviation or violation on the executions; b. To conduct a proactive leadership and staff management at the budget execution level; c. To strengthen the Local Authorities’ commitment in responding to the monitoring results; d. To empower the loyal, patient, Human resources involved have criteria loyal, patient, determined, communicative and hardworking individuals; e. To conduct no-pause and timely-updated form filling and submission; f. To ease the access of gaining information about the monitoring results (via TV monitors, websites, text messages, and mass media); g. To prepare skillful controller officers, mastering the ability to detect any problems and to provide visible solutions and to maintain direct access to Local Authorities. P2K-APBA set some aphorisms in order to provide easy benchmarking evaluation, namely: a. Zero equals to zero; all control variables must be in synchronous state; b. Anti-virus for Hand-shakers and Scapegoat Cases; ensuring all activities supported by data and facts; c. No-Pause Monitoring; providing the most updated data at any time; d. High Risk; recognizing projects tending to rise deviations or violations requiring high-rank officials’ intervention in the process; e. Tak Tuk; mimicking the sound of a hammer on wood piece, marking the beginning of the project activities; f. Pecah Telor, imitating the state of egg-breaking, marking the initial fund liquefaction; and g. Love Letters, indicating the warnings given by the Governor to Head of Local Service Units.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The implementation of UDCF Mechanism involves various stakeholders in several stages of the projects activities: a. Planning Stage: Regional Planning and Development Agency; Budget Team of Aceh Provinsial Government; Local House of Representative b. Budgeting Stage Local Office of Finance of Aceh c. Bidding Stage Development Administration Bureau, Procurement Service Unit, Electronic Procurement Authority d. Implementation Stage Local Service Units of Cities/Regencies; Budget Users; Contractors; Supervisory Consultants; Field Supervisors e. Utilization Stage Community; Auditors; Special Committee of the Legislatures; Office of Local Assets Management
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Infrastructures used for this innovation include the available resources of the Government of Aceh and the former BRR NAD-Nias. Besides being used as control center, the building is also for the meetings venue for Governor and provincial and local budget managers’ leaders. The individuals empowered in this innovation must meet the criteria of loyal, patient, determined, meticulous, communicative, and hardworking personnel, besides the ability to master the spreadsheet office software. Each job function holds specific responsibilities. a. General Controller; the personnel must be able to cooperate with the head of the program at Local Service Units; b. Technical Controller; the personnel must be able to direct the field operations as well as control the territory; c. Data Controller; the personnel must be able to handle data server management; d. Secretariat; the personnel must be able to master orderly administration, finance, documentation and presentation. The control center office is also equipped with internet access to facilitate intra-and-inter-network connection and communication to provide timely-updated data. The rest-area inside the building as well as pantry and social activities area are also provided. To support these resources, P2K-APBA receive the fund allocation from the Government of Aceh through Regional Planning and Development Agency covering the needs of personnel honorarium, office operations, and field visits and meetings.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
a. The budget absorption rate increased significantly from 60% in 2010 to 90% in 2014 with proportional monthly budget absorption rate; b. The innovation creates the transparency of all the government projects, reduce the number of falsified reports, as well as increasing the probabilities of timely projects finishing; c. The transparent process supports the value of Good Governance principle in bureaucratic reform issues; besides, the innovation also encourage more coordination between the provincial and local governments; d. The government spending activities will be neatly and orderly noted into an integrated record, making it easy for auditors to conduct any evaluation regarding the projects activities and budget realization; e. Community are involved in the process, allowing the residents to participate more in the external monitoring and evaluation process.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The UDCF is used as a monitoring tools by applying the Zero equals to Zero (0 = 0) to ensure that the data is true. The data properties include fixed data (budget), additional data (suppliers/providers selection), and dynamic data (activities results). The verified data are then confirmed by Local Service Units. Once the testing is done and the entire variable data have been synchronized, the results are then presented to Governors and Head of Local Service Units. The results of the monitoring will be periodically publicized on TV monitors and P2K website, as well as published in mass media. Sanctions and rewards to the performance of the Local Service Units are expected to motivate the performance improvement from corresponding personnel, all of which are monitored and controlled through the UDCF tool. The UDCF Mechanism is also opened to flexibilities upon dynamic situation, condition, and current issues in the implementation. Besides, the support from the high-rank officials, in this case – The Governor, Mayor, or Regent, will greatly affect the sustainability of the innovation implementation.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
At the beginning of the implementation, there were some resistances from the local service units. This format is considered as a tool to dismantle the existing problems and to publicize the poor performance to the Regional Executives, but after a while, it can be later accepted as a means to provide solutions to the problems faced, from planning activities to budget utilization. By not interfering with the substance of the performance of local service units the UDCF Mechanism displays the actual field data in order to increase internal controls in each work unit area. The UDCF can easily adjust to the circumstances of the consumers, so this format is difficult to be developed in the form of software application, yet adaptable to Spreadsheet Office Software appearance. The absence of legal entity for the control team is also an obstacle to the sustainability of the innovation in the future. The problem should be solved by the commitment of the government authorities to legalize the existence of such team into a well-established organization.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
a. The collective bidding process and the acceleration of initial budget liquefaction provide greater opportunities for the community to play an active role as providers/suppliers, so the development of business and economic cycle will be more enterprising; b. Through the TV monitors and http://p2k.apba.acehprov.go.id website, the performances of local service units become public consumption so that communities are able to evaluate the government apparatus’ work, enhancing public trust in the Government; c. The installment of information boards about the projects at each site provide wide information to public about the project in progress in the area, adding more access for communities as projects beneficiaries to participate in monitoring the timely and qualified project activities; d. Integrated control of the auction, collective contract signing process, and initial project activities will provide benefits in the form of the people's economy acceleration and timely development projects; e. The learning element integrated in the innovation shares the replication opportunities to other regions or provinces in Indonesia.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
To ensure the adaptability and sustainability of the innovation in other regions in Indonesia, Ministry of Internal Affairs has issued a brief instruction to all provincial government to form Team of Budget Absorption Supervisory and Evaluation (TEPPA). In carrying out its duties and functions, the team is guided by Presidential Unit of Development Supervisory and Control (UKP4). The UKP4 has introduced the UDCF Mechanism to other provinces and invited them to share their experiences at P2K-APBA and take advantage of opportunities in controlling replication of the budget in each Local Government. Since 2012, there have been 21 Agencies/Organizations/Ministries/Offices visiting P2K-APBA to conduct comparative study on the innovation. a. 13 Provincial Governments, including Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, East Java, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Gorontalo, North Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, Maluku, West Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, NTB, NTT Province; b. 2 Regencies/Cities Government, including West Bangka and Anambas; c. 4 Ministries/State Agencies, including Directorate of Higher Education, Team from Secretary of State, Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK), and Central Procurement Policy Authority (LKPP). In addition to the above-mentioned institutions, there have been 23 cities/regencies in Aceh implementing the mechanism as government's budget (covering General Allocation Fund, Special Autonomy Region Fund, and Supplementary Fund for Oil and Gas Revenue Sharing) control tool.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Some lessons learned from the innovation implementation include: a. Transparency; providing the actual reflection of the project sites by displaying the timely-updated data influences direction and characteristics of the policies (targeted, focused, and effective) taken by high-rank officials; b. Integrity; the result of the great commitment of provincial and local authorities to maintain the mechanism as the forms used in monitoring and controlling Aceh provincial and local budget spending; c. Cooperation; the state of compact, focused, and orderly controlling activities conducted by groups of individuals from various backgrounds; d. Accountability; the orderly record of all project activities and spending in an integrated Track Record system; e. Flexibility; the ability of the innovation to adjust to and accommodate local contents, needs, situation, condition, and current issues; f. Discipline, the state of compliance of the budget managers in carrying out the controlling function. To sustain the existence and implementation of the innovation, it is recommended that the team members of P2K-APBA are appointed the permanent employees of local service units. Another option will be the official appointment of the innovation as preferred method in controlling governments expenditures.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   The Activities Control Acceleration (P2K) APBA
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Taqwallah Taqwallah
Title:   dr. , M.Kes  
Telephone/ Fax:   +62 813 60707900
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   sekretariat.p2k@gmail.com  
Address:   Aceh Governor Office , T. Nyak Arief street 219 Banda Aceh
Postal Code:   23114
City:   Banda Aceh
State/Province:   Aceh
Country:  

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