| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The “Sustainable Waste Management Practices at Petit Verger Prison” project has been carried out in different phases as described below.
•Phase 1: Sensitization Campaign
A sensitization campaign on the separate collection of green wastes shall be carried out with the inhabitants of the region concerned, targeting in the first instance 500 families to gradually be extended to all 1000 families in the region. This will be reinforced with the production and distribution of pamphlets as well as a strategy for community involvement. The community outreach will involve the participation of the community of Pointe aux Sables. Communication vehicles can be general talks, brochures and leaflets, as well as a composting open-day at Petit Verger Prison. The awareness education programme will:
create community awareness of the environmental benefits of waste segregation and composting;
promote participation of detainees in collection services; and
provide advice and technical know-how to detainees and prison officers on composting practices.
•Phase 2: Waste Characterization Study
A waste characterization study will be carried out at Petit Verger Prison and among the community residing in the vicinity of Pointe aux Sables. The waste characterization study implies the selection of a sample size and the definition of a sampling protocol. For higher statistical accuracy and confidence level, the number of samples will have to be large. However, usually for solid waste data, the confidence level (C.L) is set at 80% or 90% (Cacadia 2003, cited UNEP 2009). The number of samples is also influenced by level of variation of materials in the samples. For example, if a certain type of material contained in the sample is in lower percentages with respect to other materials (for example, aluminium) higher number of samples will be required to confirm the quantity of that material in comparison with the higher percentage material (for example, food). As per UNEP (2009), to achieve a C.L of 70%, the minimum sample size for different wastes constituents for residential is as shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Number of samples for waste composition
Confidence level (C.L) 70%
Another important factor that needs to be considered in this study is the timing of sample collection so as to achieve representative data. Waste disposal patterns vary according to the time of day or week. Therefore, based on the economic viability, the study will include plans either (1) to collect data that covers the entire period of disposal, or (2) to collect data that may be assembled later in a way that represents the entire period. As such, the local knowledge plays an important role in identifying and planning for appropriate timings for data collection for various waste streams or for different types of materials. This method of quantifying waste involves visiting or contacting the waste generators, that is, the community and determining through measurement or observation, the amount of waste disposed during a given time period. The participants in this waste characterization study will be provided with plastic bags for the collection of the different waste components for a period of 2 weeks.
•Phase 3: Theoretical Training on Large Scale Composting Process
The champions in composting will undergo a training session so as to equip themselves with all the information that they will need on composting and the troubleshooting measures. The trainers will be in a position to teach earth friendly ways of creating healthy, beautiful gardens as well as to increase yield in crop production without the use of chemical fertilizers.
•Phase 4: Identification of site and design of compost shed
For the large-scale composting program a windrow composting system will be developed. The windrow composting system will treat wastes that have been collected from the community. Training will be conducted on how to set up and monitor a windrow composting system.
Sensitization / Training Campaign with officers & detainees March / April 2013
Training on Composting Process April 2013
Sensitization Campaign at Community Level April 2013
Waste Characterization Study at Prison & Community Level May 2013
First Report Writing May 2013
Windrow Design April - May 2013
Windrow Shed Construction May – June 2013
Windrow Set-up June – July 2013
Monitoring of Composting Process June – September 2013
Final Report Writing September 2013
Open Day / Expo Sales at Petit Verger Prison October / November 2013
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The Mauritius Prison Service has enlisted the University of Mauritius and Kinouété, a Non-Governmental Organisation, in its project for their technical advice, expertise and support.
The University of Mauritius (UoM) has been engaged on various waste management projects in Mauritius and in Africa. The University of Mauritius has also designed and tested a rotary drum composter under the academic and technical expertise of Professor Romeela Mohee who has conducted research in the field the composting since 1998. Some examples are the Waste recovery at community level (2007); the Waste composting at farmer level (1997–2000). Also, a Domestic waste recycling program by four regional women associations was conducted in 2006-2007 in Mauritius. Regarding dissemination of knowledge, a 92-page manual entitled Trainer’s Package on Composting was developed in 2007, to raise awareness amongst young Rodriguans on the benefits of composting and to encourage farmers to compost organic waste by the same group of researchers.
Beyond Mauritius and Rodrigues, there has been development of composting technology in other African countries including Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa. In May 2002, the Regional Compost Network was initiated to connect researchers in the field of composting in southern Africa, with participants mainly from Mauritius, Kenya, Botswana, South Africa and Reunion. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) funded the project, which was implemented by the University of Mauritius, under the aegis of the United Nation Office for Project Services (UNOPS). A Certificate in Solid Waste Management was also conducted in Seychelles, Comoros Islands, Bostwana, Reunion Island and Mauritius. There has also been an exchange program for MPhil/PhD research on waste management between Reunion Island and Madagascar. Furthermore, the University of Mauritius was entrusted the responsibility of organising an International Conference on Solid Wastes in Mauritius in September 2011. Currently, the University of Mauritius is one of the partners of an EU-funded project under Re-Sources Project with other ACP countries (ENPRO (Togo), ERA (Cameroun), Planete Contact, University of Quisqueya, 2IE (Burkina Faso)) for the dissemination and the exchange of knowledge and expertise on (1) waste characterization, (2) composting, (3) biogas production, (4) Combustible, (5) Education and Sensitization, and (6) carbon credit.
Association KINOUETE is a registered Non-Governmental Organization working since 2001 towards the rehabilitation and reintegration of detainees and ex-detainees in Mauritius.
Its actions start inside prison where they offer Life Skills Groups, Pre-release Groups and individual counseling services. Having prepared the detainee to reintegrate society after release, they then offer support and guidance through a team of professional Reintegration Social Workers, Coordinators and Counselors who facilitate this process.
Association Kinouete strongly believe that the rehabilitation and reintegration services we offer both inside and outside prison contribute to reduce recidivism amongst our beneficiaries and help marginalized people return to the mainstream. Our work also aims to reduce the amount of people affected by extreme poverty, through a process of empowerment and increased autonomy.
The Drop-In Centre is open every weekday in Floréal, where Reintegration Services and Counseling Services are offered to ex-detainees. Every month we have a group Encounter session where men and women ex-detainees meet and share about the joys, challenges and difficulties met during their reintegration.
In addition they are now offering temporary residential facilities to up to 6 women after prison. This will give them an opportunity to adopt a new non deviant lifestyle enabling them to settle back into society and increase their chances of successful reintegration and reduce the risk of recidivism.
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
• Senior management and staff were motivated and initiated through team building exercise.
• Detainees also were motivated to join in this project by participating in the celebration of the World Environment Day in the community with other organisations within the civil society.
• Members of the community were sensitized and they were very interested to collaborate in the project.
• Through a dedicated NGO and the University of Mauritius, we applied for fund with the UNDP GEF Grant and a sum of 50000 USD was granted.
• The Prison Department renovated an old lorry which was out of order to convey the waste from the community to the prison for the production of compost.
• Detainees were also enlisted in an Enhanced Earnings Scheme whereby they were able to generate income as weekly wages.
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
• The synergy created to see academic institution, civil society, international organisation, staff of the prison and detainees working together towards a sustainable environmental project.
• The smooth social reintegration of detainees and at the same time engaging them in constructive activities.
• Creation of wealth from waste.
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Continuous project monitoring and evaluation will be carried out at specified intervals that will determine project success and can help the Mauritius Prison Service (MPS) identify risks that may prevent these outcomes from being achieved. The MPS approach will provide tangible value to the project success and include:
• A clear view of the expectations of the various project stakeholders to create efficiencies in the project, benefit and control activities based on alignment with stakeholder expectations.
• A unique and independent perspective on relevant risks at each phase of the project implementation, presenting an understandable view of the road block(s) that could potentially prevent the MPS from achieving project success.
• Continuous feedback to project stakeholders and project manager(s) enabling them to proactively identify and address potential implementation risks before they significantly impact the project.
• Transfer of knowledge, enhancing the MPS capabilities to successfully deliver future projects.
Monitoring & Evaluation Plan
Phase Steps & Process Outputs Timeframe & Reporting
Training Identification of detainees in terms of their interest
Identification of officers in terms of their interest and commitment Gain in knowledge and skills and more chance of employability upon release
Gain in knowledge and skills and possibility of becoming a skilled trainer in this field Assessment made at end of training to ensure that the training objectives have been met and the targeted audience are well acquainted with compost.
-Identify participants at Community Level Community involvement in the project Evaluation done after each campaign so as to assess whether the objectives have been met
-Characterization of wastes generated at the Prison & in the community (Paper; Organic; Green Waste; Plastic) Determine the amount and different types of wastes that are being generated at the prison and in the community of Pointe aux Sables. Sample size and the definition of a sampling protocol
Timing of sample collection so as to achieve representative data. Waste disposal patterns vary according to the time of day or week. Therefore, based on the economic viability, the study will include plans either (1) to collect data that covers the entire period of disposal, or (2) to collect data that may be assembled later in a way that represents the entire period.
Large Scale Composting Process
-Collection of green waste at Community Level
Identification of site and design of compost shed
Windrow composting system will be developed. It will treat wastes that have been collected from the community. Training will be conducted on how to manage a windrow system.
Production of compost on a large scale for internal use and sale to the general public Frequency of Waste Collection
Amount of Waste Collected
Amount of Compost Produced
Internal Use of Compost
Sale of Compost
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Implementation of this innovative environmental project could face countless risks which could prevent the desired project outcomes from being achieved, if not properly monitored. These risks could include:
• Project Risks: Insufficient resources, scope changes, poor communication
• Control Risks: Unfamiliar technology, misunderstood objectives, lack of end-to-end understanding, poor data quality
• Benefit Risks: Lack of accountability, poorly defined metrics, invalid organisational case assumptions
Activity Risk Risk Mitigation Measures
Activity 1: Training of officers and detainees at Prison Level • Lack of motivation
• Absenteeism of detainees and officers • Awareness on importance of waste segregation and management
• Enhanced earnings scheme for detainees
• Income generated from proceeds of sale of compost will be distributed
Activity 2: Sensitization Campaign at Community Level • Lack of participation
• Poor communication
• Identify local drivers / leaders in the community
• Media Coverage
• Importance of waste segregation at source
• Municipality of Port Louis, the Min. of Environment and the Mauritius Post involvement in the project
Activity 3: Characterization Study • Poor data quality
• Misunderstood objectives • Specific data collection and analysis well defined – carried out by technicians of UoM
• Objectives clearly defined and set
Activity 4: Large Scale Composting Process • Detainees in the community for waste collection
• Unfamiliar techniques
• Climatic Conditions • Low-Risk detainees involvement in the community under constant supervision
• Wearing of fluorescent overall for easy identification
• On the job & off the job training to be provided to both detainees and officers by technicians from UoM
Activity 5: Organisation of an Open Day at Petit Verger Prison • Breach of Security • Open Day will be held in the outer compound of the prison