Madhya Pradesh Women Finance and Development Corporation

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Situation before the initiative Women play a significant role in agricultural development and allied fields including the main crop production, post harvest operations, etc. There is hardly any activity in agricultural production, except ploughing in which women are not actively involved. Despite their traditional roles as mothers and homemakers, the contribution of women to agricultural production,family and society is much higher than what is acknowledged. Even though women comprise almost 50% of population, their participation in the decision making process and control over resources. at all levels is deplorably negligible. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD, a specialized agency of United Nations), an international financial institution has funded the Tejaswini Project in six districts in Madhya Pradesh for women empowerment. Though the project has been successful in achieving its objective of enabling poor women to make use of choices, spaces and opportunities for their overall well being, the need was felt for consolidating the results and ensuring that the Self Help Groups as well as its members became economically empowered. Dindori, a Tejaswini district where the initiative was piloted, situated on the eastern part of Madhya Pradesh is a tribal dominated district with around 64% tribal population. Baigas belonging to Primitive Tribal Group are the predominant tribe in the district. Baigas traditionally practice shifting cultivation in forest areas,do not cultivate plain lands due to their traditional practices. They are dependent upon collection of forest produce for their livelihood, which has become difficult, due to complexity of forest regulations. The traditional practices did not give enough yield to ensure food security for the entire year. The Baigas leave their house after the death of any family members due to their nomadic culture. Even though members of Baiga community possess marginal land holdings, due to their traditional mindset they did not practice scientific cultivation.Hence the issue was not that of lack of resources but inefficiency in utilizing resources optimally. As a result of which Baigas continue to live a hand to mouth existence. It was critical to change the mindset of the community to ensure their economic empowerment. Major problems and Issues needed to be addressed a. Agriculture is the mainstay of livelihood for families and mostly male dominant. b. Acknowledging and recognising roles and contribution of women in agriculture. c. Economically empowering the Baiga Women Self Help Groups (WSHGs) /Federations through modern agricultural methods as well as by confidence building of their family members and community. d. Sensitisation of Baiga farmers to adopt improved agriculture practices e. Developing technical and managerial skills of all kind as a sure way to strengthen both the SHGs and its members. f. Improving status of food security. g. Ensuring quality of life. To address these issues and problems the Kodo Kutaki Way (Cultivation of minor millet) was initiated to recognise the roles of women farmers and ensure their food security.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Who proposed the solution? The principal architect of the initiative Ms. Kalpana Srivastava, Managing Director, felt that apart from household activities women were also contributing to the family income and food security as farmers, yet, their contribution was not being recognized. To address gender inequalities arising due to patriarchal dominance, to acknowledge/ appreciate contribution of women farmers, she proposed that women would have a say in the family and the community only if empowered economically. What the initiative is about? Target Audience To recognize the roles of women farmers and develop sustainable livelihoods for WSHG members of Tejaswini Programme “The Kodo-Kutaki Way” was implemented by Baiga Women Farmers from poor families with small land holdings, practicing traditional farming, belonging to “Nari Chetana Mahila Sangh” federation in Mehandwani block, Dindori district, covering 41 villages, comprising 200 WSHGs of 3000 households. The women farmers were:- • Sensitized towards adopting modern agriculture. • Trained in modern cultivation practices to achieve food sufficiency. • Sent on exposure visits to Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK- Agriculture Science Centre) and Agriculture University. • Given exposure on Demonstration Plots. • Given concurrent support by Community Resource Persons. • Facilitated by frequent visits of experts from KVK. Objectives • To recognise roles of Baiga women farmers. • To enable them to make use of choices, spaces and opportunities for their overall well being. • To improve quality of life by ensuring economic empowerment. • To sensitize and create livelihood opportunities for Baiga women farmers through improved agriculture practices. • To ensure food security status Strategy M. P. Women Finance & Development Corporation as part of its commitment to women empowerment, improving livelihood status of women members is also implementing an IFAD assisted Tejaswini Rural Women Empowerment Project in six districts in the state, comprising women belonging to poorest of poor section of the society. Providing spaces to these women, involving them in economic activity,ensuring their recognition within the family and the community was a major challenge. A well planned decentralised strategy was devised by the stakeholders to minimize the risk of failure. Prior to implementation of the activity, a series of brainstorming sessions were held by the management by involving professionals from related fields.Cultivation of minor millet was chosen as a viable economic activity since it has low growth period, adaptability to the local soil and environmental conditions and due to its nutritional value. A complete business analysis was undertaken to make the activity profitable. The strategies adopted were:- Planning Stage a) Selection of a viable economic activity, adaptable to the climatic conditions of the area, to targeted families. b) Financial implications for the selected activity to be examined c) Technical competence of women farmers to be considered d) Accessing technical know how. e) Product should be marketable and should have a demand. f) Establishment of suitable monitoring framework. Implementation Stratgey a) Identification of Service Providers. b) Sensitization and motivating Baiga Community the key concern. c) Training and exposure of Women Farmers. d) Identification of Community Resource Persons. e) Use of improved agriculture practices. f) Testing of Soil Competencies and Strengths. g) Exploring possibilities of convergence with line department. Post implementation Strategy a) Availability of storage facility. b) Development of inventories. c) Ensuring quality control. d) Identification of potential buyers. e) Exploring possibilities of value addition/ branding. How it solved the problem The initiative has increased the productivity of the crop substantially, leading to improved food security status, availability of cash income through sale of their surplus produce. The initiative was a win-win situation for women members, community as well as federation.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The initiative is unique because of the involvement of women farmers from Baiga Community. Baiga is a Primitive Tribal Group and practices shifting cultivation. The members of the community do not cultivate their land due to their customary values. The initiative was about involving women farmers from 41 villages from the Baiga Community and ensuring their food security and acknowledging their roles in agriculture, otherwise a male dominated livelihood. Some innovations are:- • The uniqueness of the initiative lies in its conceptualisation and implementation process. • Owned and managed by the community through Federation by creating two tier structures of federation and Women Self Help Group members. • Decentralised process for decision making • Organised farming on collective basis. • Role division between farmers and federation. • Federation undertaking financial planning, providing technical support, regular backstopping and assisting women farmers in establishing backward and forward linkages • Roles of each woman farmer (cultivation,enhancing production, processing,maintaining inventory on the produce and share of each farmer marketing etc).well defined. • Effective convergence with Department of Agriculture. • Productivity clubbed with marketing and value addition.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Elements of action plan The key elements of the initiative, pre deployment, deployment and post deployment of the activity were incorporated in the action plan starting from accessing resources for raw materials to technical support to marketing assistance. Key development steps and chronology Step 1 January 2013: Conducting Baseline Survey on potential beneficiaries and land availability A base line survey was conducted to understand the livelihood concerns of the village to identify economic activity as well as women farmers interested in taking up cultivation of millets. An assessment on availability of land was also done to understand the interventions to be provided with respect to technology, production and marketing support. Step 2 February 2013 Sensitisation of Baigawomen farmers The first challenge was to change the mindset of Baiga community. The Baiga do not practice modern agriculture due to their customary values. They do not cultivate land as they treat land as their mother. Sensitising them was an uphill task. The DPMU took up several sensitization programmes to motivate Baiga farmers for practicing modern agriculture. They were exposed to other areas where farmers of the same community had adopted improved agricultural practices. The women members were sensitised about the need of improving their livelihood to ensure food security. The women farmers of Baiga community were also sensitized by other women farmers who were linked with the initiative. Step 3 March 2013:- Identification of master trainers and training The initiative involved women farmers from 40 villages covered by Nari Chetana Mahila Sangh. Master trainers from each village were identified and trained to provide training to women farmers and timely interventions. These master trainers were provided training on advanced crop production technology by Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya (JNKVV) March 2013:- Training of women farmers, exposure visits Women Farmers selected for the initiative were then provided training on cultivation of millets, land/bed preparation, seed processing, sowing and transplantation, cropping system and intercultural practices, integrated nutrient management, integrated pest management, vermi compost, soil testing etc. Before starting the cultivation of millets the women farmers were also sent to JNKVV for exposure. Step 4 April 2013:- Identification of local experts . The DPMU team also formally contacted local experts from Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) to provide support to women farmers for cultivation of millets. A complete strategy was devised collectively with KVK experts to supervise the pre cultivation, cultivation and post cultivation activities. Step 5 April 2013:- Establishment of Demonstration Plots To make the activity a viable one and motivate farmers, various demonstration plots have been developed by involving women farmers so as to build up their confidence and to inculcate in them the habit of practicing modern agriculture practices. Step 6 May-August 2013:- Implementation of activity and concurrent monitoring The activity was implemented from May 2013. A complete monitoring strategy was developed to ensure sustenance of project activities,to assess the profitability and quality of outputs. September-Oct. 2013 onwards: - Exploring potential buyers, The remarkable success of the activity has resulted in surplus produce with the farmers and the federation has facilitated selling of surplus produce by identifying potential buyers contacting for tie ups. Nov.2013- Jan.2014:- Value addition and Brand development The SPMU, DPMU officials, federation members along with the support of technical experts are in the process of developing a brand for their produce. Numerous products like Millet kheer, Idli, Millet khurma etc have been developed, displayed and have gained huge recognition at the national level. Feb. 2014-April 2014:- Identification of new and left out women farmers May 2014 onwards: - Initiating the process of cultivation and concurrent monitoring

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The initiative was conceptualized and proposed by Ms. Kalpana Srivastava, Managing Director of the M.P.Women Development Corporation. Ever since her career began in Madhya Pradesh, she was concerned about the oppressive socio-economic conditions of women in the state due to patriarchal nature of the society. To rectify this gender discrimination, she sought to create a women friendly environment in society and provide spaces for women in the development process. She is currently heading the State Project Management Unit (SPMU) of the IFAD funded Tejaswini Programme for women empowerment which is approaching its last phase. She aimed to consolidate the empowerment benefits by ensuring sustainability of WSHGs. A durable, self-sustaining and strong cementing force was therefore needed to sustain the WSHGs even after withdrawal of the Tejaswini Programme. Combining these, she put forth an idea of involving them in a viable economic activity through agriculture thereby instilling self-confidence in them and also indirectly ensuring control over resources (asset control) by them. She deliberated with the officers of State Project Management Unit. (Ms. Seema Singh Thakur, Project Director, Mr. M. K. Chaturvedi, Deputy Programme Director and Mr. A. S. Bhal, State Coordinator, New Initiatives) and Mr. K.K. Hartalkar the District Project Manager, the federation members. The entire team then had several rounds of discussions on exploring the possibility of developing a concrete livelihood plan which would be viable in socio-eco-climatic-geographical conditions of the district A draft action plan was then designed and developed and shared by Mr. K.K. Hartalkar with DPMU, Federation Chairperson Ms. Rekha Padram, other federations’ representatives and the SHG members as well as the family members and the District administration. The suggestions on draft action plan were incorporated to make a concrete plan which could be successfully implemented by the SPMU, DPMU, Federation, SHGs members collectively.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
A wide range of financial, human and technical resources have been used to make the activity sustainable. Financial Resources The financial resources were provided through IFAD funded Tejaswini Rural Women Empowerment Porgramme and a contribution from member farmers. The project fund was to be revolved by the federation to include new farmers with the activity. The business plan prepared by the federation was INR 5.07 million. The programme had contributed INR 3.31 million and the rest was contribution from the community. Human Resources • Members of Federation for providing backward and forward linkages. The federation was delegated responsibilities of financial planning, channelizing resources for cultivation and identification of experts for providing technical support and potential buyers for excess produce. • Women farmers from Women Self Help Groups as beneficiaries for cultivation, processing and marketing of produce. • Family members of SHG for encouraging women farmers in cultivation. • Project team (SPMU and DPMU) • Members of Facilitating Non Government Organisation. They were mobilized through counseling, training, mutual interaction, participatory approach, motivation, campaigning etc. Technical Resources Technical resources have been utilized for making the initiative viable and sustainable. The technical experts from Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya (JNKVV), Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) and senior technical experts from Department of Agriculture have been supporting the activity.These resources were used in providing both on and offsite technical training to women farmers and community resource persons for developing them as master trainers. These master trainers were the critical unit identified from the programme villages to provide timely support for achieving the ultimate objective of economic empowerment of beneficiaries. Other Resources Support in the form of accessing hybrid seeds, processing machine etc. has been generated by the Department of Agriculture. Cost Associated The total project cost was 5.07 million INR. Out of which 3.31 million INR was given from the project and the rest was the community contribution.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Improving livelihood status of women farmers involves numerous stakeholders like the Federation, women farmers, the programme implementers, technical experts, community resource persons, line departments, service providers, marketing professionals and agencies providing backward and forward support. Developing a livelihood is simple in nature in the sense that it does not involve major players to compete with whereas developing a livelihood enterprise is complex in nature as it involves many players netted with external environment. The project has experienced remarkable success and has improved the quality of life of women beneficiaries covered by the programme. The most successful outputs of the initiative are:- Evolution of sustainable Federation The federation has evolved as a strong cementing unit for supporting livelihood activities of its member WSHGs. Linking their produce to markets, accessing backward support for cultivation, managing technical and financial resources. Increased food sufficiency of women farmer families The initiative involves members from poorest of poor sections of the society. Adoption of improved agricultural techniques has enabled them togenerate ample produce resulting in sufficient food security. Prior to the initiative, the women farmers were hardly in a position to generate food for more than 120 to 150 days leading them to migrate in search of other livelihood options as wage earners. Availability of Cash income Women farmers through use of improved agricultural techniques are generating excess produce by utilizing their lands optimally. The excess produce is sold in open markets by the federation to large buyers reducing the margin of intermediaries, thereby obtaining attractive and wholesome prices for their produce. This has resulted in giving the women farmers some cash income. Involvement of new farmers Improved productivity has led to motivating other farmers from the same village. Other farmers also have been linked with the initiative. The initiative which started with 1497 women farmers with a cultivation area of 748.5 acres now has expanded to 3000 farmers with extended cultivation area of 3000 acres in the next year. Other left out farmers from the same village have shown their willingness to take up cultivation of minor millet in the coming season. Increased efficiency of outputs The initiative has given a boost to Baiga women farmers in cultivation of land through modern methods. The change in behavior of Baiga women farmers was an important indicator where the initiative has impacted upon.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The success of the initiative is the outcome of regular & concurrent monitoring of the activity at all levels. The process for monitoring and evaluation of the activity was as under:- Activity Monitoring The first level of monitoring was activity monitoring. The whole initiative was monitored on physical and financial parameters. At this level it was ensured whether number of beneficiaries expected to cover were being covered or not and whether the financial resources were deployed timely or not. The activity monitoring was done through the existing staff placed at DPMU (District Programme Management Unit) and SPMU (State Programme Management Unit). A monthly report was generated to keep a vigil on physical and financial performance. Process Monitoring The next level monitoring was process monitoring, done through visiting the operational area by professionals from SPMU and DPMU. Regular feedback was taken from the member farmers, community resource persons and the community on activity implementation. The technical experts were also involved in field visits to get first hand feedback on the system and processes, its accuracy and identifying the need for improvements in implementation. Outcome Monitoring The project also introduces the concept of outcome monitoring of the activity. The activity was monitored on various indicators set for sustaining the activity. The outcome monitoring was done through the evaluation reports prepared by Joint Review Mission (JRM) team constituted by IFAD.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Obstacles - 1. Lack of knowledge/skills/confidence among women. 2. Resistance and lack of support from family and community. 3. Complex nature of collective livelihood enterprise. 4. Enhancing the competence of women.. The target women in rural areas of Tejaswini programme area, especially, in Dindori district mostly belonged to Baiga tribe, were below poverty line,mostly illiterate, with little control over resources and decision making. They also lacked the skill to perform challenging jobs and therefore were perpetually deprived. Even the members of the WSHGs who had grown confident, and were beginning to prove their worth, faced resistance and disbelief from their family members and the society at large. Their contribution was not being acknowledged. Providing spaces to these women, involving them in economic activity and their recognition within the family and the community was a major obstacle. Also, the initiative involved women farmers from Baiga community, a Primitive Tribal Group, which practice traditional cultivation. Changing mindset of Baiga women farmers and making them amenable to adoption of improved agriculture practices was a challenge. In this background, there was an apprehension that the women farmers would face resistance from their family members as well as the community vis-à-vis their livelihood enterprise. These obstacles were overcome by adopting the following measures - 1. Necessary skills were imparted to the women farmers through trainings and exposure visits to other haats /markets. 2. Sensitisation programmes for confidence building and awareness generation of Baiga women farmers. 3. Sensitisation of family members and the community. This ensured cooperation and support from them at every stage. 4. Identification of Community Resource Persons and their skill enhancement . 5. The policy of mutual benefit, a win-win situation for everyone viz Women Farmers, Federation, Programme Management and Department of Agriculture.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
Some of the areas where the initiative has made a difference in delivery of public services are:- Delivery time of services Creation of networks has helped in improving the delivery time of services to women farmers. The induction of Community Resource Persons (CRPs) from the same village and their skill enhancement has given the programme an opportunity to develop a strong interface with women farmers and provide the solutions to their problems at their doorstep. These CRPs are acting as a bridge between the women farmers and the federation. The involvement of technical experts from the district has expedited the service delivery process. The federation “Nari Chetana Mahila Sangh” has been delegated all the responsibility by the programme to ensure smooth implementation of the activity. Better beneficiaries feedback All the women farmers have been provided skill training by a team of agriculture experts about the use of fertilizers and pesticides and also the entire cultivation process. They also have the support of CRPs who resolve their queries immediately. The system has developed better beneficiary feedback management process. Increased profitability for the stakeholders Cultivation of millets was a win-win situation for women members, federation and the implementers. The women farmers have benefitted by improving productivity on their land resulting in food sufficiency and generating cash incomes from their excess yields. The federation has attained profits and the implementers have fulfilled their commitment to empower women. Creating an enabling environment for women The remarkable success of the initiative has changed the mindset of the community about the skills and the competence of women farmers. The family members and the community have started recognising the competence of women folk. They are now involving their women in the family and community decision making process. Improvement in measurable indicators The cultivation of minor millet has made an astonishing impact on the lives of women farmers. It has improved the food security status of women farmers and has supplemented their cash incomes. The status of women farmers is now being recognized by their male counterparts. The impact has been measured both on tangible and intangible parameters. These are:- Tangible Parameters a. The status of food security has increased from 120 days to the entire year. b. Availability of cash income to meet their domestic requirements. c. Started with 1497 women farmers, now extended with another 1500 farmers with increased agricultural lands. Planning to link other 4000 women farmers with the activity. d. Women participation in Gram Sabha (local Governance) has increased. e. Benefitting 16500 households directly and indirectly the entire households of 41 villages. f. Creating employment opportunities for 41 village level Community Resource Persons. g. The profits were shared between federation and members. The total production of millet was 2245.5 quintals in year one. Each woman farmer was able to produce 1.5 quintals from their piece of land. Out of which 20 kgs was contributed to the federation and 130 kgs were kept by the women farmers. The initial year had observed less productivity from land due to their initial insistence on using traditional cropping method. Even with this hitch the farmers due to use of improved technology could improve the productivity up to 1.5 quintals from 0.5 acres of land. Intangible Parameters: - 1. The most important benefit from the activity was developing indirect control of women over resources political, managerial, institutional; financial leading to attitudinal/behavioral change in family/community towards them. 2. Women have become more confident and assertive, commanding respect and decision making power both in the society and the family. 3. Remarkable improvements in quality of life. 4. Positive interaction with the federation members, local buyers & the local/district administration has improved their interpersonal/negotiation/management skills and these women are increasingly contributingtowards development village economy. Their contribution in economy has convinced the villagers about their competence and suitability to represent them in the local government i.e the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI), a critical unit for local governance. This faith and confidence has resulted in a huge member of WSHG member contesting and also winning the next PRI elections not only in the villages covered under the activity but also in other villages too as a huge ripple effect.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Sustainability of the initiative Cultivation of minor millet was started in April 2013. It is more than 2 seasons since then, the initiative is not only sustaining but also flourishing in 41 villages with 3000women farmers benefitting almost 16500 families. The cultivation area has also increased from 0.5 acre to one acre. Another 6000 women farmer from the same 41 villages have shown their willingness to join the activity. The initiative is sustainable and transferable also due to the following reasons:- • Owned and managed by Federation • Its adaptability to local climatic conditions • Profitability. • Selection of suitable, viable economic activity • Collective organized farming • Use of improved agricultural practices • Involvement of experts and extensive training • Generation of local employment • Bulk purchasing, Risk mitigation, Market support • Improved status of food security The sustainability of the initiative on various parameters is:- Financial Sustainability The initiative is financially sustainable. The total yield was 8.99 million INR as against the investment of 5.07 million INR. The investment cost also includes the financial provisions for training and capacity building of master resource persons under the aegis of federation in the initial year. However, this will not be required in years to come,further increasingthe amount of profits. Social Sustainability The cultivation of minor millet has become a lifeline for farmers in Dindori district.Cultivation of millet has brought affinity among the community and the women farmers. Economic Sustainability The initiative is economically viable. It produces attractive returns on the investment incurred by the farmers. The per capita investment was INR 3389 and the per capita profit attained was INR 2611 excluding the input cost. This gain was accumulated only in a short duration of three months. This enables farmers opportunity to take another crop in Rabi or Kharif season. Environmental Sustainability The cultivation of minor millet is adaptable to socio-eco-cultural environment of area. Transferability of the initiative 1. The initiative was a huge success in 41 pilot villages. The demonstration effect of the performance of the women farmers in the initiative paved way for motivating and linking more women farmers from the existing villages in the next year. 2. Various other activities on similar models like Scientific Rice Intensification (SRI), Tulsi cultivation have been undertaken by other women farmers under Tejaswini programme. The Department of Agriculture has adopted the same technique to benefit the farmers other than the Tejaswini programme. 3. The initiative is a unique one and in developing countries like India where feudalism and patriarchy persist, its relevance in creating a sustained path towards reaching the ultimate goal of women empowerment has been proved. 4. The initiative can be replicated worldwide wherever women need empowerment (especially in patriarchal societies) by adopting the same strategy. 5. The scope and applicability of this initiative can be widened by formulating and implementing policies for transfer of resources and assets to women individually or collectively.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The most important learning from the initiative is that if an activity is implemented with a collective effort it would lead to success. The federation is also looking to tap the local and nearby market for extra produce by using value chain and distribution logistics. The success of the initiative has motivated other farmers of the area who are willing to join hands to improve their economic status with the federation. Also, other federations who were exposed to cultivation of minor millet have come up with similar plans for using improved agriculture practices. Salient Learnings from the activity are:- i. Interventions can prove more effective in improving/developing the society if implemented by women. ii. Women can excel in economic activities if imparted the right skill/training. iii. Women can utilize and deploy resources in a better manner to develop society and its economy. iv. WSHG and federation are extremely powerful institutions for empowering women. v. Women empowerment is incomplete if men are not involved. vi. Any activity can be viable if taken collectively. Some specific learnings that made the activity self sustainable are as under:- a. Bulk Purchasing Bulk purchasing has resulted in reducing the input cost and increasing the incomes. b. Risk Mitigation The cultivation of millet taken up individually by each women farmer has reduced the chances of crop failure by making each woman farmer responsive . c. Local employment Development of local resource persons as master trainers is the key to success. d. Quality of Outputs Individual cropping has improved the quality of millets due to concentrated efforts of individual farmers. Use of vermin compost has kept its nutrient value intact. e. Self esteem The result achieved by the farmers has resulted in developing huge confidence and these members now have a say in family and community decision making due to the results achieved by them. f. Involvement of experts and master trainers The most critical learning of the initiative was the involvement of experts and development of master trainers. Their support on selection of hybrid seeds, use of appropriate fertilizers and pesticides and training the women farmers on weeding and other related areas had helped the farmers to cultivate their lands accordingly. The development of master trainers from each village and providing them skill training also helped a lot in improving the productivity. These master trainers were available with the farmers at any time when the farmers needed support.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Madhya Pradesh Women Finance and Development Corporation
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Title:   Ms.  
Telephone/ Fax:   91-755-2551331
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Postal Code:   462011
City:   BHOPAL
State/Province:   MADHYA PRADESH

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