Integrated and Controlled Crop Production (ICCM)
Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
In case of no control measures taken, an average of 35 % crop production is spoiled by pests, and since many decades chemical control has been the only control measures since it gives the best and quickest solutions. Use of huge use of pesticides has began to threat men health, environment, and trade because of residues. By 1995, Integrated Pest Control management studies in 16 crops have been initiated by Government units to decline the use of pesticides, but the results have not been satisfactory since there was lack of legislative background. Beginning from 2006, several regulations have been issued. • Pesticide use has taken under control by forcing farmers to record the pesticides they use • Pesticides have began to be sold by prescriptions. • Pesticide operators are licenced. • Use of biological control agents regulated • Use of aerial application banned • More than 80 active ingredient banned parallel to EU decisions • Advantages have brought in action for biological control and biotechnical control measures • Several well designed residue analysis laboratoris established. • Penalties performed for misuses of pesticides, etc • Mass trainnings have done for farmers as well as for technical officials. • Advisory offices for farmers established In spite of several radical regulations issued, actions taken, sufficient results could not be optained: • Pesticide residues went on as a great problem affecting the exports in vegetables and fruits • Education of technical staff was not satisfactory • Although women were working in fields and orchards, they could be taken in no trainning programmes. • Since the chemical control was the predominant measure, environmental pollution, natural balance, resistance and residues affected adversly • Residues were still problems for the human health • Producers,exporters and consumers were being affected from residues.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Ministry of Agriculture, General Directorate for Food and Control Administratives started the initiative about the safe use of pesticides, controlled use, and to decline the mass use and decide to start a new project as Integrated and Controlled Crop Management (ICCM ) project. Dr. Kadir Melan was assigned as the Countrywide Coordinator of the Project in 2009. At the first step, negotiations and pollings had been made among farmers and technical officals to lay down the problem in all aspects to determine the situation. In 2010, in 10 crops and in 16 province important for fruit and vegetable production Integrated and Controlled Crop Management (ICCM ) project has been started. Related with the project Project Executive Board and Project Steering Groups have beeen established. Related with the project, responsible persons were determined in Provinces (Plant Protection Division Heads) , Counties (County Agricultural Heads) and in farmers’ levels. Agricultural Advisors of public institutions like Agricultural Credits Cooperatives, Exporters, Crop Suppliers, Big Market Chains, Suppliers, Producers, etc are all involved in the project. All participitators had been trainned related for the safe crop productions. Trainning of the trainners has done at various biological and phenological periods with practices. Trainning of the trainners has taken to examinations and those succesful have certified as Integrated Pest Control Expert Trainned technical staff has established Farmer Field Schools in their villages they are responsible and has done trainning of the producers and villagers as well as their families in these schools. Through “Knowledge Contests “ champions of “Integrated Pest Control Family” in the provinces has determined and they have taken for the countrywide contest to be the champion of the country. Samples were taken for residual analysis 3-5 dys before the harvest and crops have been certified.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
• The project is the most detailed project ever made. • The project is the most organized project, covering many sectors involving in crop production. • Support of all sectors involving in crop production had taken. • Legal aspects have rapidly and fully established. • Pesticide use has begun to be fully controlled. • Huge benefits, advantages and support have given to farmers who use biological control agents and biotechnical control measures. • Farmers had made to belive in project, by giving them blue flags that they produce safe crops. • Farmers began to earn more money, and began to have no problems in exports of their production. Trainings (Training of Trainer) were conducted teoritically and practically based on the plant phenology and the biologies of pests and diseases. Blue Flags were hung in project implemetation sites to attract the attention of other growers. Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) were established in the villages and growers’ trainings were conducted practically in these schools. Farmer families IPM contests were organized in project provinces and winners of the provinces attended final contest and so winner of provinces was identified. Residue analyses were made 3-5 days before harvest in project sites. Residue free crops were certified and given logos.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The project will not be succesful unless all the partners involved in. Therefore meetings were made with Non-Governmental Organizations, Turkish Agricultural Credit Cooperatives (TACC), Agricultural Chambers, Consumer Associations, Market Chains, Fruit Juice Producers, Universities, and Farmers Associations. This integration had been made. Project area had determined. 16 provinces were selected for their high rate of fruit and vegetable production, as well as greenhouse establishments. Programs have been made with government technical staffs in project studying provinces, counties, and farmers’ base. Introduction Meetings were organised in villages with the participitation of Project Coordinator, Represantatives from the General Directorate and project teams consisting of technical staff of provinces, as well as Research Institutes. Participitation of majority of producers into the project was provided in the villages for easy marketibility of the products. Technical staff of Provincial Directorates involved in the project and Agricultural Engineers of project partners were designated as project personal and Project Support Office (consulting office) was created. Blue Flags were hung in project implemetation sites to attract the attention of other growers. Trainings were conducted teoritically and practically based on the plant phenology and the biologies of pests and diseases. Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) were established in the villages and growers’ trainings were conducted practically in these schools. Farmer families IPM contests were organized in project provinces and winners of the provinces attended final contest and so winner of provinces was identified. Meetings were organised with private sector and Non-Government Organsations (NGO) represantatives and technicians (Technical Days), Field days were organised and so project activities and outputs were explained. Residue analyses were made 3-5 days before harvest in project sites. Residue free crops were certified and given logos. Provincial and county coordinators have examined the activities regularly, inspection and monitoring activities were done and monthly activity reports are arranged. Project activities are observed regularly in the provinces, counties and villages by coordinator and check the problems solved. Questionnaires were made with technical staff and growers at the beginning and at the end of trainings and contributions of the project and needs were identified. Dissemination of project activities and to create demand for ICCM crops, project was introduced to consumer and public and project activities took place in the written and visual media. Project activities were evaluated in annual meetings and new work plan was prepared.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
This Project has been implemented with the cooperation and calloboration of MFAL and Turkish ACC and Agricultural Chambers in the counties. The project was supported by United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation for 2012-2013. Research Institutes, Universities, Trade exchanges, Exporters' Associations, Manufacturers of plant protection products, Unions of Agricultural Chambers, Consumer Associations, Markets, Paste, fruit juice etc. manufacturers, Federations, Associations, Unions, Non-Governmental Organizations are other stakeholders of the project.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Agricultural engineers of MFAL and project stakeholders were involved in the project. Trainings were realised by experts from the Research Institutes and Universities. Project expenditure was budgeted by the Ministry of Agriculture and FAO. Government Contribution MFAL through the Plant Protection service, was the Government counterpart institution responsible for the implementation of project activities. The Government: • designated the national project coordinator whose salary was covered by the Government; • designated technicians to participate in the workshops. • nominated participants for study tour selected according to the FAO procedures; • assisted in the identification of national consultants; • covered the cost of the procurement and preparation of educational material, of sampling and analysis of residues in food and quality control of pesticides products used by the farmers network identified in this project (paid by GDFC) as well as other logistic inputs. • paid for the daily allowances of the government technical staff involved in the trainings. • provided facilities as offices, meeting rooms, communication and transportation services, and to give access to the available practical and technical information on matters related to crop management and plant protection, as requested and needed by project staff. FAO Inputs • One international expert in ICM in greenhouse vegetables and fruit orchards for 20 days in two missions, • One international expert in ICM in grapes for 20 days in two missions, • One international expert, specialist in IPM and participatory training, and for project formulation for nine weeks in three missions, • One international expert, specialist on pesticide residues for 20 days in two missions, • National training coordinator for training activities on ICM and IPM for 8 months, • National expert on legal matters for revision of phytosanitary legislation for two months • From time to time financial support was made for the project activities of the project partners.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Output 1. Capacities developed on IPM and ICM in pilot areas of vegetables, fruits orchards and grapes of the country. Four ToT trainings on greenhouse vegetable production, one ToT training on open field vegetable training, four trainings on grape production and three on fruit production were carried out at different phenological stages of the crops. Benefits from these trainings were evaluated by tests applied at the beginning and at the end of each training. Trained technical staff (agricultural engineers) were given IPM trainer certificates. Theoretical applied training were given to growers in FFSs by technical staff. Output 2. Farmer families IPM contests were organized in project provinces and winners of the provinces attended final contest and so winner of provinces was identified. Greenhouse tomato and pepper growers videly used biological agents and yellow and blue visual traps for the control of the pests. Use of mating distruption technic in grapes has expanded. Output 3. Pesticide usage is under strict control of the Ministry and pesticide reidues in crops decreased. Detailed information was given to the growers about safe use of pesticides. Growers were trained that chemical control is the last method to be applied in IPM programmes. Residue analyses were made just before harvest in project sites. Residue free crops (under Codex value) were certified and given logos. MFAL started a country-wide pesticide residue control programme on all crops before harvest. Output 4. Dissemination of achievements of the capacity development program on ICM and IPM published by different sources (radio, TV, press) in the country. 10.000 leaflets on ICM and IPM were prepared, published and delivered. 100.000 booklets describing the main principles of ICM and IPM were prepared and delivered. Meetings on ICM and IPM with the Producer association and NGOs were organised. 50.000 leafets on safe use of pesticides and 10.000 CD were prepared. 15.000 leaflet were prepared on the collection and utilization of empty pesticide containers. Articles and news on project activities and achivements on IPM and ICM were given in the websites of Provincial Directorates. 1.000 books on biological control and 1.000 books on biotechnic control were published and delivered. 5.000 books on Tomato, Pepper, Cucumber, Eggplant cultivation and IPM were published and delivered. 5.000 books on Cherry, Peach, Apricot cultivation and IPM were published and delivered. 5.000 books on Grape cultivation and IPM were published and delivered. 600 CD were prepared on ToT programmes (on courses in ToT programmes) Output 5. The existing legislation and certification system updated according to the regulations of EU on this matter. Veterinary services, plant health, food and feed law No. 5996.was revised and put into use. IPM directive was updated. An IPM project for 5 years was prepared. 2023 IPM objectives were established.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Project activities were weekly monitored and controlled by the provincial and county coordinators. A baseline questionnaire was applied to the growers and their present status and training needs were identified. Benefits from these trainings were evaluated by quiz applied at the beginning and at the end of each training. Qustionnaires were applied at the end of each training programme to evaluate the contributions and performanse of project coordinator, experts from the research institutes and universities, national and international consultants. Monthly project activity reports were prepared by the provincial directorates and sent to project coordinator. Monthly project activity reports were submitted to Project Steering Committee. Problems that were encountered during the implementation of the project were solved by project coordinator with the guidance of high council. Project activities in the villages, counties and provinces were observed by the project coordinator. Project coordinator organised meetings with technical staff and growers to identify the needs and to ovecome the problems. Expansion of project implementation and creation of demand for ICCM (EKÜY) products the project was introduced to consumers and public, and project activities took place in the written and visual media. Biological Control Symposium and Biotechnological Control symposium were held on in 2012 and 2013 respectively. Meetings were made with private sector for the mass production and release of biological control agents, pheromons and traps. The First Plant Protection Products and Machines Congress was organised, present status has been evaluated, studies carried out have been disscussed, and needs were identified. Project activities were evaluated in the annual meeting and new work plan was prepared. Project activities were evaluated and a five year of work plan and 2023 IPM objectives were established.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Bad experiences in the IPM projects carried out in the past were existed as the most important obstacle for the acceptance and application of ICCM project. Project activities were described to administrators in the Ministry, partners of the project, Non-Governmental Organisations, representatives of markets, food manufacturers, associations, unions etc. They were convinced that residue problems can be solved by this project and later. Suspicious in the staff of provincial directorates were removed in the meetings, technical staff were motivated, Their capacities and experiences were developped by ToT trainings. Superior efforts of the project coordinator has been very effective for the acceptance of the project and obtaining positive outputs. Farmer Field Schools (FFS) were established in the villages and growers were given applied training. Blue flag application, residue analysis just before harvest in project sites, certifying of residue free crops (under codex value) and giving logos facilitated the marketing of crops. Therefore, the project has been adopted by the growers and project activities were expanded Meetings were held on with exporter unions and traders and project activities were introduced. So that marketibility of the products increased.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The project has contributed to improve ICCM through the reduction of pesticide use and increased practice of environmentally friendly pest control methods in selected pilot areas of the project. Such a reduction of pesticide use has also increased producers’ incomes and will also benefit the whole ecosystem. The results obtained will serve as guidance for future development of ICCM and IPM in other crops and agricultural areas of Turkey. 16 provinces where fresh vegetable and fruit production is common, were determined and technical staff and growers were informed about the project in these provinces. Concern of national and local media was attracted to the project. Blue flag application attracted the concern of other growers, consumers, exporters and demand for project crops increased. The project carried out in vegetables, grape and fruits. Growers requisted the project for other crops. FFSs were established in all project provinces and theoretical applied training were given to growers in FFSs by technical staff. Since the project crops were pesticide free, demand from exporters and traders and consumers increased to these crops. Consumers have showed great concern to the crops produced in project sites. Number of growers using biological control agents, pheromons and traps increased. The exams in ToT programs has been the most important indicator of success. Questionnaires with growers have revealed the success of the project. Grower Families contest were attracted great concern and it was requisted by the provinces to be repeated every year.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The project has been prepared as problem solver, applicaple, having acceptable results, sustainable and be available for expanding. Based on the obtained results of five years of implementation, IPM Regulation has been updated, a five-year IPM project (2014-2018) was prepared and IPM objectives have been established for 2023. ICCM project has been carried out in 24 provinces with 7.000 growers in 2014. A five year work plan has been prepared and activities have been aimed to implement in 50 provinces with 50.000 growers. In project sites amount of production inputs 48% decreased by using biological control agents, traps, pheromons, instead of pesticides. This result is the very important indicator of the sustainability of the project. The project applications will be financed by the Ministry. Outputs of the project will be used by the Ministry, Agricultural Credit Cooperatives, Agricultural Chambers Trading Exchanges, Exporters' Association, markets and consumers. The Ministry will publish the outputs of the project applications and this will be used for expansion of the studies throughout the country. Agricultural Credit Cooperatives will try to expand the project results and the crops will be marketed more easily. Crops having certificate and logo will be more demanded in the markets. Activities will be published and broadcasted in written and visual media, consumers will be informed and public concern will be created. Consumers will buy and consume fresh vegetables and fruits produced under this project as safety and healthy crop.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
To ensure a better development in IPM and ICCM the following points should be considered Sustainibilty of IPM and ICCM programmes is mainly depends on the support of the Ministry, so that IPM and ICCM programmes should be permanently supported and promoted through new projects on other products and other provinces. • Vegetables, fruits and grapes are grown for both export markets and domestic markets. • Pesticide residues on fresh foods are becoming major inhibiting factor for exportation. • IPM awareness should be created in producers and consumers. • Growers should be trained on alternative control methods. • Participation and support of private sector in IPM and ICCM programs should be provided. • Extension agronomists (agricultural engineers) should be permanently trained on IPM and ICCM and these information should be practically transferred to the growers through Farmer Field Schools. Because training in FFSs is learning by doing. • Although there are commercial growers in the project sites, in general, growers are smallholders and getting smaller. This causes difficulties for extesion services for reaching farmers. So, FFSs are an ideal system to train growers on IPM Programmes. • FFS should be included in the curriculum of the Agricultural Faculties. • Extension agronomists should be trained on th establishment and implementation of FFS. • Cooperation and collaboration among the Ministry, Private Sector and Non-Governmental Organizations should be improved. Technical days with the personnel of NGOs and private sector should also be organized on ICCM and IPM. • Turkish Agricultural Credit cooperatives and Turkish Agricultural Chamber Union should take more active role in IPM and ICCM practices. • Production, import and use of biological agents is inadequate level. Production and import of biological agents should be more supported by the govenment, and so their use should be expanded. • More support should be provided for biotechnical methods such as the use of pheromones and traps and their use should be encouraged. • Forecasting and warning pactices have limited to certain pests and diseases. Forecasting and warning studies should be more supported, encouraged and promoted. Forecasting and warning studies in the world can be taken as example. • Growers, consumers and private sector should be trained on the pesticide residues in foods and undesirable effects of pesticides on the environment. • Growers should be trained on alternative control methods e.g. hygien and sanitation, cultural measures, biological control, biotechnical control and crops produced by these methods should be more supported. • IPM awareness should be created in producers and consumers. • Much more leaflets, booklets, handbooks, books and CDs on IPM and ICM should be published and delivered around the country. • More TV Broadcasting program on IPM and ICM should be produced. • Web sites should be prepared on forecasting and warning systems, biological control, biotechnic control of the pests and diseases etc.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   PhD. Kadir Melan
Title:   Project Coordinator  
Telephone/ Fax:   (+90) 312 258 8412 / (+90) 312 258 84 28
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   Eskişehir Yolu 9. Km Lodumlu
Postal Code:   06530
City:   Çankaya
State/Province:   Ankara

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