Transporting Citizens 24/7: Seoul Owl Bus Program
Bus Policy Division, Seoul Metropolitan Government

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Failure to provide safe public transportation for the socially weak and the economically struggling. Seoul City has carried out several innovative public transportation measures over the years, from building Subway Line 1 in 1974 to reforming public transit entirely in 2004. Though these measures undoubtedly progressed some aspects of public transportation in the city, they failed to address the growing need for public transportation in the late night and early morning hours, a need especially prevalent among students, office workers, street sweepers, and the self-employed. On top of the stresses these groups experienced daily due to financial and other difficulties, they were also forced to pay for expensive taxis in the late night and early morning hours because no other transport options were available to them. Increasing frustration and discontent. Taxis in Seoul see the highest demand for their services in the late night/early morning hours, with demand outstripping supply. Some taxi drivers even charge extra fares on top of their already raised night fees, ignoring the law that forbids them from doing so. Though aware of the problem, the police and the government are limited in their abilities to control such practices due to human resource shortages and the difficulty of securing evidence to prove that such a practice is going on. Fostering wide consensus on the need for a 24/7 public transit system. Seoul has risen out of the ruins of the Korean War six decades ago to become a major player in the global economy. This heightened status demands a more flexible public transport system that reflects the city’s non-stop economic, cultural, and social heartbeat. In fact Seoul citizens had, for some time, expressed their strong desire for public buses that ran through the late night/early morning hours and charged reasonable fees—services already in operation in major cities of advanced countries such as Germany and the United Kingdom.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Uniting citizens, city officials, and experts in the search for a satisfactory solution. Seoul City actively engages with citizens through its diverse channels of communication (e.g., Dasan 120 Seoul Call Center, official blog, city accounts on social media sites, etc.). Citizens can share their complaints and recommendations through these channels, many of which are translated into policy measures in reality. The seed for the Seoul Owl Bus Program came from citizens themselves, through these channels. As citizens repeatedly complained about the lack of public transit in the late night and early morning hours, Seoul took active steps to solve the problem once and for all, gathering input from citizens, experts, and the private sector to bring about a satisfactory solution. The goals and strategic tactics of the Seoul Owl Bus Program are detailed below. Goals. (1) To ensure the mobility of citizens in the late night and early morning hours. (2) To alleviate the financial burden on economically vulnerable citizens who must use public transit at night. (3) To provide safe modes of transit for citizens, especially women, youth, and the elderly, in the late night and early morning hours when crime is more prevalent. Tactic 1: Foster wide social consensus on the need for a night public transit program. Seoul City actively gathers opinions from citizen groups in the earliest phases of policy planning to minimize social conflicts and facilitate smoother acceptance and implementation of new policy initiatives. The Owl Bus Program idea was first presented to citizens through Internet and mobile media channels, after which they were asked to give any suggestions or ideas they had for the program. These opinions were crucial to determining the routes, name, and information channels of the program. Tactic 2: Ensure success through quantitative analyses, field verification, and expert advice. With public consensus on the need for the Owl Bus Program realized, Seoul City officials then undertook quantitative analyses on data accumulated under the One-Click Electronic System, which gathers general statistics on citizens, and the New Transportation Card System, which tracks public transit fare passes and traffic statistics. The results of the analyses were then verified in the field to ensure the validity of the new Owl Bus Program. Analyses of the specific data gathered by the two systems enabled the city to identify problems unique to each area/region and mode of transportation. Such findings were then verified in the field to deepen understanding of the issues and with that conceive better solutions. The field verification results were also submitted to expert groups and NGOs for thorough review. The Owl Bus Program was finally launched in September 2013 with nine routes. Seoul continues to monitor the program’s progress to ensure its sustainability and reliability. Tactic 3: Leverage existing systems and resources to maximize sustainability and efficiency. Additional resources were needed to get the Owl Buses up and running, including new vehicles and garages. And as the Owl Buses began their routes from the suburbs, made their way to urban centers, and parked at public garages on the opposite side of the city, new methods of operation needed to be developed as well to maximize the efficiency and safety of these late-night, long drives. Rather than purchasing or building new facilities, Seoul City leveraged what it already had, putting back into operation fallow vehicles and opening up existing public garages as common spaces to be shared by all participating bus carriers, thereby enhancing the feasibility and efficiency of the program. The city also utilized existing bus management and information systems, which allowed for better monitoring of the service. Tactic 4: Provide incentives for the active participation of bus carriers. Seoul headed off some expected difficulties early on by inviting civic participation in the program from its conceptualization and planning stages onwards. The city also offered incentives and support to persuade bus carriers of the value of the program, and increased dialogue with citizens and bus carriers alike to foster mutual understanding and cooperation. In particular, Seoul City offered various incentives for bus carriers to gain their participation in the program, such as improving employees’ working conditions and the safety facilities and systems for buses in operation. Higher allowances were arranged for bus carrier personnel monitoring and managing buses in the late hours. Program proceeds were shared with bus carriers in a structure that encouraged the latter to make improvements voluntarily. A service evaluation system was also introduced, with participating bus carriers receiving higher points and incentives.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
Policy success ensured, thanks to civic participation and scientific management. The true innovation of the Seoul Owl Bus Program is the extent of civic participation in the entire process and the reliance on scientific data and analyses for rational decision-making on the services offered. Decisions of municipal governance and administration in Korea have traditionally been made on the basis of decision-makers’ intuition or according to the demands of dominant interest groups. As most cases lacked transparent, systematic procedures, the policies formed out of them more antagonized citizens and deepened their distrust in the government than anything else. The Seoul Owl Bus Program, by contrast, sought to ensure the transparency and systematicity of the decision-making process from very early on, with a view to finding the most satisfactory solutions for citizens. Although interest groups representing taxi and bus businesses opposed the initiative strongly at first, optimized routes, based on scientific analyses, soon changed their minds and turned the program into a success. Presently, over 6,000 passengers use the Owl Buses on a nightly basis. The program has not only alleviated the financial burden on late-night/early-morning commuters, it has also made it safer for these commuters to move to their destinations and has bolstered citizen trust in the city government. A city and an economy running 24/7. The Seoul Owl Bus Program is also a symbol of an active urban economy that never sleeps. With the globalization of the economy, Korean industries and businesses are awake around the clock, but the public transit system had failed to adapt to this societal and economic reality. By guaranteeing affordable and safe travel for citizens in the late and early morning hours, the Owl Bus Program has become a core element of Seoul’s burgeoning and globalizing economy. The program has not only enabled students, the self-employed, and others to commute at affordable prices, it has also created new jobs and fostered technological innovation.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
1. Field verification and civic participation: November 2012 to January 2013. Seoul City identified the level of demand for night public transit through conducting research on public transport use in the late and early morning hours in Seoul from December 2012 to January 2013. The city then gathered opinions from citizens and experts in the process of shaping the operation plan. The draft plan was shared with the public on the Internet (e.g., the city’s blog and official website), through mobile channels (e.g., social media like Twitter, etc.) and via other channels to foster public awareness and consensus. 2. Coordinating stakeholders’ opinions and interests: January 2013 to March 2013. The draft plan spurred some tension among citizens, bus carriers, other business organizations, and the Bus Policy Division at the City Transportation Headquarters of the city government. In response the city organized numerous meetings with these stakeholders to convince them of the value of the plan before its actual implementation. 3. Quantitative data analyses on passengers and routes: January 2013 to March 2013. Quantitative analyses were conducted on New Transportation Card System data, the nighttime taxi database, and on the database of KT, a private telecommunication service provider. Specifically, Seoul analyzed the number of passengers at each bus stop, passenger behavior by the hour, and the density of passengers in each area. The results were then used to determine the optimal layout for night bus routes. The routes were then shared with the public on the Internet and through mobile channels. After numerous review and feedback meetings, two of the routes on the draft plan were confirmed in February 2013. The participating bus carriers were chosen in March 2013, and the trial operation began on April 19, 2013. 4. Two night bus routes in trial operation: April 2013. The two trial operation routes crossed Seoul from east to west, and from south to north, via such popular areas as the Hongdae district, Jongro, and Gangnam Subway Station. The intervals between the buses were about 25 to 30 minutes. The Bus Information System and a smartphone application based on the system were used to inform passengers of bus schedules in advance. 5. Deciding on a brand: June 2013. As news of the new night bus program began to spread, particularly among blog and Twitter users, citizens became interested in what the new program should be called. The city, therefore, held a public naming contest to decide on the name, with the “Owl Bus Program” receiving the most votes. The letter “N,” symbolizing “Night,” is used to indicate an Owl Bus, followed by the identification number of each area or bus stop. Bus number N61, for instance, indicates that the bus travels to areas 6 and 1 (Guro-Yangcheon and Dobong-Nowon, respectively). The new brand and numbering system were adopted on bus stop signs, route maps, route numbers, and bus numbers. 6. Expansion to nine routes: September 2013. Contrary to initial worries that few passengers would use the buses, the 3-month trial operation ended with 188,100 passengers using the buses in total, or 2,090 passengers a day on average. The program garnered a satisfaction score well above 80 percent, and was even labeled “Seoul’s best policy initiative to date” by the public. In a survey on the service, 88 percent of participants expressed a strong desire to see the program expand. Seoul thus added seven more routes to the Owl Bus Program.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Seoul and the Bus Policy Division at City Transportation Headquarters. The Bus Policy Division at the City Transportation Headquarters of the city government continues to receive suggestions for night buses. The 146 employees of the division were assembled into local investigation teams and dispatched to determine passenger use of public transit in 20 areas of Seoul in the late and early morning hours for 2 months. The investigations revealed the strong need for a more systematic and comprehensive plan for accommodating citizens’ transportation needs in the late/early morning hours. Seoul, in turn, launched thoroughgoing analyses of transportation demands and gathered advice and opinions from citizens and experts in the process of conceptualizing the night bus program. Public and private sources of data, and communication with citizens and other stakeholder groups. Seoul entered into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with KT, a private telecommunication service provider, to gain access to and analyze data on areas and routes with significant transport activity during the later hours. The call volume data provided by KT enabled Seoul to analyze the number of complaints registered and the number of passengers by hour and bus stop, and helped to determine specific bus routes. Seoul also sought out advice from experts, citizens, NGOs, and other specialists in deciding bus routes. Partnership with bus carriers, police, and other organizations. Seoul sought out the active cooperation of bus carriers in ensuring the safety and convenience of the night buses. In particular, the city encouraged the carriers to screen night drivers carefully before selecting them for the routes and provide safe driving training as well as perform maintenance work on the buses in advance. The city also asked local police precincts to provide assistance in cases of bus malfunctions and to carry out the Safe Company Service to ensure women and other vulnerable passengers return to their homes safely after alighting from the night buses.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Financial resources: Joint Proceeds Management Fund. The Owl Bus Program required a significant new financial commitment, particularly in the aspects of payment for drivers and other involved personnel, installation of new safety features such as speed bumps, and creation of new bus route maps and the required signage. Seoul leveraged the Joint Proceeds Management Fund, maintained by semi-public bus carriers together, to cover the cost. The fund enabled Seoul to operate 45 buses, assign 36 drivers and 18 monitoring agents, and make other necessary changes at no cost, rather allowing for contribution to the fund. Technical resources: Making the best use of existing resources and data. Existing systems provided the data upon which the Owl Bus Program plan was based. The New Transportation Card System, for example, provided considerable data in many areas including the number of passengers by hour and bus stop, while the call volume data provided to the city by KT allowed for further analyses leading to optimized program operation. Seoul also updated its Bus Management System to ensure better monitoring of night buses in operation, and created the Bus Information System and a related smartphone application for easier access to bus schedules by the public. New screens were installed inside buses to provide real-time updates—via the Bus Management System—on bus schedules and others to passengers and drivers. Human resources: Experienced all-round personnel. Transportation experts conducted systematic monitoring and analyses of bus operation data in the beginning phases of the project, discerning the improvements needed and how to go about making them. These experts played a vital role in determining the feasibility and design of the Owl Bus Program, and now that the program is underway, regularly convene to conduct systematic analyses of time-series data and coordinate improvement requests. Owl Bus drivers are comprised of only experienced and skilled day bus drivers who are selected for their exemplary driving records (no accidents), their years of experience driving buses, and their high scores on passenger satisfaction surveys. Owl Bus drivers are given additional training and go through a testing period before they are assigned to night buses. The Owl Bus Program actually created more jobs not just for drivers, but for mechanics as well, given the increased level of bus maintenance needed. Monitoring agents—who are responsible for vehicle coordination and cooperation with police in the event of an accident—were also newly hired as part of the Owl Bus Program. Physical resources: Vehicles and public garages. Seoul City saved the cost of purchasing new vehicles for the program by instead putting fallow vehicles and reserve vehicles back into circulation at no extra cost. This also helped to minimize the initial investment. Moreover, the city made use of existing public garages on the outskirts of Seoul, which include parking spaces and lounges for drivers. The use of these public garages enabled the city to secure active participation from bus carriers as well.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Nine new night bus routes, thanks to civic participation. The growing demand on the part of the public for additional night bus routes led the city to conduct quantitative analyses on passenger movements and field investigations, the results of which formed the basis for the launch of nine new night bus routes. Telecommunication service provider KT provided the city with call volume data for the later hours, allowing experts to analyze the patterns and density of passenger movements throughout the city and carefully assess road and traffic conditions before deciding on the bus routes. The city finally established a new network of nine bus routes, resembling the spokes of a wheel, which connect the major urban and business centers to residential areas on the outskirts of the city. Field investigations of road and traffic conditions and analysis of passenger concentration also helped to determine the locations of bus stops along the routes. The new network of night bus routes is now crucial for the safe transportation of citizens in the later hours. Enhanced public trust in, and familiarity with, public policies. Civic participation was indispensable to the whole project from the beginning. It was, after all, with citizens’ input that Seoul named the program and decided on the new bus routes. The program is now praised by the public as one of the best policy initiatives of the city government. It has greatly enhanced the public’s trust in, and familiarity with, public policies. Greater convenience for the public, new value for bus operation structure. By making the most use of existing public transport resources and adopting new and efficient management tactics, the Seoul Owl Bus Program got off the ground with minimal extra cost while greatly improving public mobility and convenience and adding new value to the intra-city bus operation structure. The Seoul Owl Bus Program has generated a 300-percent return on investment, and proceeds are reinvested into the program to improve its quality and operation. Maximized operational efficiency, based on cooperation among bus carriers. The operational efficiency of the Seoul Owl Bus Program was achieved in part from coordination among participating bus carriers in starting schedules—all leave their garages at the same time—and from the establishment of new bus stops that would make it easier for passengers to transfer to different buses. In the beginning, the bus carriers were reluctant to coordinate their operations since no precedent existed in the bus industry for such cooperation. As Seoul began to provide incentives and other forms of policy support, however, the bus carriers became more willing to participate in the program over time. Such coordination has also been applied to rush hours during the day.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Throughout the entire process of developing and implementing the Seoul Owl Bus Program, the city government actively sought out opinions from citizens and experts. 1. Conceptualizing a night bus program and trial operation (November 2012 to April 2013). The city was extremely transparent with citizens about its plan for the Owl Bus Program from the beginning stages. From December 2013 to January 2014, experts surveyed citizen movement in the late and early morning hours to determine the specifics of the night bus plan. The results of the survey and the field verification were shared with the public over the Internet (e.g., the city’s official blog and website, social networking sites) as well as through mobile media, with the goal of giving citizens the opportunity to engage fully in the project. 2. Expanding the program and deciding on the brand (May 2013 to September 2013). Systematic and continuous monitoring is an integral part of Owl Bus Program operations. In the beginning stages Seoul conducted a poll with 500 citizens, including night bus users, to gauge areas in need of improvement. The survey participants gave the program a satisfaction score of 80 out of 100, praising it as “the best transportation policy launched by the city government,” and 88 percent expressed the need for expansion of the program. Thus more routes were added, bringing the total routes to nine. Citizen input was also sought in relation to bus routes. The original route of bus N61, for instance, covered the Nambu Circle and Dongil-ro, but was changed to accommodate the higher volume of passengers on Hyoryeong-ro and Neungdong-ro nearby the Nambu Bus Terminal and the entrance to Konkuk University. Likewise the original route of bus N13, Jangchungdan-ro, was changed to pass through Dongho-ro. These route changes were made based on citizen input and demand. 3. Implementing follow-up measures post launch (September 2013 and onward). Seoul City has monitored the Owl Bus Program on a daily basis since its launch, and continuously gathers opinions from program users. In December 2013, the city once again analyzed data gathered under the New Transportation Card System, the results of which formed the basis for expansion and readjustment of bus routes, which in turn enabled the program to serve twice as many passengers as before. In February 2014 the city conducted a fact-finding investigation into the safety of night buses, requiring carriers to replace worn-out vehicles and provide updated and comprehensive safety training for drivers and related personnel. One month later the city undertook systematic analysis of traffic volume at specific hours and on specific routes over a set time period, based on which plans were devised to minimize bus congestion.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Objections from bus carriers and taxi companies. Although the city government made previous attempts—in 2007 and 2011—to adopt a night bus program, it ran into severe opposition from the parties most likely to be affected by the program: namely, bus carriers and taxi companies. Bus carriers were at first very hostile to the program, believing that costs would increase due to insufficient passenger demand. Taxi companies and drivers organized major demonstrations, arguing the negative impact such a program would have on their livelihoods. Persuasion and coordination. The success of the Owl Bus Program crucially depended on support from bus carriers and taxi companies. Seoul held numerous roundtable meetings with these parties, relentlessly searching for points in common. The city finally persuaded them that the majority of Owl Bus passengers were not wealthy enough to use taxis, and that taxi drivers themselves and their family members would also benefit from the program. Scientific solutions to the problem. ① Optimized bus routes. Seoul sought to assuage bus carriers’ worries by optimizing the network of night bus routes to meet demand most efficiently. The city entered into an MOU with KT from which it secured data on the volumes of calls made at different points in Seoul during the later hours. Analyses of three billion or so call data helped the city identify major hotspots with high numbers of bus passengers, and optimize bus routes accordingly, which in turn helped to minimize program cost. ② Maximized management and operation. Several initiatives were carried out to maximize operation of the Owl Bus Program, such as coordinating bus operation start times; designating bus stops in consideration of passenger transfer; and establishing 30 to 40-minute service intervals. These efforts allowed for much more efficient passenger transport. At the beginning of the program some citizens voiced worries over possible inconveniences such as delays, and bus carriers were standoffish because there was no precedent in the bus industry of the coordination that was required of them in order for the program to work. Systematic cost-benefit analyses shared with these parties finally persuaded them to accept the program and its innovative approach. The Owl Bus Program overcame a rocky beginning to become a huge success: it now transports around 6,000 passengers every night.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
Ensuring 24/7 mobility and activity. Daily buses serve citizens from 4:00 to 24:00 every day, while subways are in operation from 5:00 to 24:00. For the 4 to 5 hours after midnight, however, citizens had no way of returning home or commuting to work unless they owned cars. With the Owl Bus Program now in place, citizens can travel to and move around the city 24/7 for work or other reasons, and the economic, cultural, and commercial activities serving international clients can continue well past midnight. The buses also offer locals and tourists opportunities to enjoy Seoul’s impressive nightscape. Alleviating financial burden. The majority of Owl Bus users are workers, self-employed people, and students. Though these groups tend to have lower incomes than others, they were nonetheless forced to ride taxis or even walk to and from their workplaces or schools because, prior to the Owl Bus Program, no other option was available to them. With the Owl Buses, they can now get anywhere in Seoul for only KRW 1,850. The program helps each passenger save KRW 1.51 million a year. *Estimation formula: Daily average number of passengers x (night taxi fare (KRW 8,000) – bus fare (KRW 1,850) x 365. Daily average number of passengers: 2,130 during the trial phase; 6,381 from September 2013 to March 2014. Ensuring passenger safety. Owl Buses see their highest concentration of passengers between 24:00 and 03:00. This time period is also the highest for crime, since there are fewer eyes and ears paying attention to what is going on. The Owl Buses, however, help citizens return home safely during these peak hours for crime by offering a substitute to walking. Local police precincts also participate in the program by providing the Safe Company Service through which women and other vulnerable groups can be walked from their bus stops to their homes by service volunteers. Redistributing income. The Owl Buses help passengers save money. The program is estimated to have returned economic values amounting to KRW 14.1 billion in total to passengers in 2013 alone. *Estimation formula: Assuming that 6,300 passengers a day, who would have ridden taxis for KRW 8,000 each in the absence of the Owl Buses, rode the Owl Buses for KRW 1,860 each. Multiply the balance between the two figures, KRW 6,150, by 365 and by the number of passengers. Promoting development and advancement. The Owl Buses also promote urban development and foster and advance Seoul’s IT industry. As citizens are now free to move about the city even in the late hours, late-night theaters, late-night tourism programs, and late-night markets and shops are thriving. Wi-Fi access on the buses advances Seoul’s IT industry by fostering among citizens the use of online channels to achieve diverse tasks while in transit, such as mobile banking.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Verified success, already being benchmarked by other government organizations. The Owl Bus Program, adopted to ensure the convenience and safety of citizens traveling in the later hours, has been widely praised as “the best traffic policy the city government has ever produced” and as “a policy sincerely serving the poor and the powerless.” The program topped the list of the 10 Hottest Policy News Items of 2013, and came in second in the 10 Best Policies of Seoul in 2013, as selected by citizens. The Owl Bus Program’s success can very much be attributed to the systematic, scientific approach taken throughout the stages of its conception and implementation. It was awarded the Presidential Award at the Local Informatization Policy Banquet and Awards in 2013, and has been featured by various news outlets in and outside Korea (including KBS and MBC of Korea, TV Tokyo and NHK of Japan, and CCTV of China), attracting delegations from various local and foreign government organizations and research centers intent on learning about and benchmarking the program. Since the program started in September 2013, city governments of other Korean metropolises, such as Busan, Daejeon, and Ulsan, have contacted Seoul, requesting information and materials on the background and management of the program. In addition, Seoul City officials were asked to give two special lectures about the program as part of the training courses for local government and public administration officials. Busan has similarly decided to extend the operation of its daily buses to provide service in the later hours. Ulsan and Daejeon are also now considering adopting programs similar to the Owl Bus Program. Guaranteed efficiency and adaptability, based on existing resources. The Owl Bus Program is an exemplar of sustainable policy programs, based as it is on existing and available resources. The globalization of the economy, culture, and industries today means that cities undergo rapid changes and witness the birth and decline of various industries on a daily basis. It is crucial for local governments to provide appropriate public transportation programs to support and manage these fast-paced urban activities. Moreover, such programs must be equipped with diverse and cutting-edge IT solutions to enable passengers to make the most of their time and conduct the required tasks on their mobile devices while in transit. The Owl Bus Program continues to garner increasing support as the most viable and sustainable transportation solution supporting the economic and social activities of citizens in the later hours.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Social consensus and civic participation as keys to policy success. The success of the Owl Bus Program is also based in large part on social consensus and participation from citizens, experts, businesses, and other diverse stakeholders. In the past, local governments almost single-handedly decided and managed policy programs. Despite strenuous efforts and campaigns in civil society to promote the dissemination of policy information and enhance the transparency of lawmaking and administration, local governments systematically shut out citizens from the policymaking process until very recently. There were simply no adequate opportunities, venues, or channels to systematize civic participation. Seoul could have ignored the increasing discontent among citizens forced to take taxis at night, treating it as yet another complaint from citizens struggling with personal difficulties and intent on taking out their troubles on the public. The city instead took these complaints seriously, launching thoroughgoing analyses and investigations to find substantial solutions. Without this communication between the city government and citizens, the Owl Bus Program would not have come into being. A new public administration paradigm. The Owl Bus Program, widely praised as one of the best things Seoul has ever done for its citizens, is a relatively simple program that did not require any elaborate measures to implement. This humble program, nevertheless, embodies the genuine efforts of a local government to listen to its citizens, identify what they need, and provide the solutions required. Prior to the introduction of the program, the inconvenience and discontent of the economically struggling who were forced to pay for more expensive means of transportation in the later hours were hardly considered. Most policies were dictated by the majority interest or by the ambition of government officials. The new Seoul City government has striven from the time of its election into office to put an end to this undemocratic tradition and practice, pursuing a new paradigm of public administration that caters to all, including the vulnerable and the poor. It was this new paradigm that led to a policy program that actually made a substantial difference in the daily lives of ordinary citizens. This new paradigm will most certainly induce more positive changes in the future, particularly in the relationship between the government and the citizenry.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Bus Policy Division, Seoul Metropolitan Government
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   Man Ho Lee
Title:   Manager  
Telephone/ Fax:   82-2-2133-2285
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   hj.shin@seoul.go.kr  
Address:   110 Sejongdaero, Jung-gu
Postal Code:   100744
City:   SEOUL
State/Province:  
Country:  

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