Promoting Gender Sensitive Public Service delivery through Women Development Army
ministry of Women , Children and Youth

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Women constitute half of the Ethiopia population. It is a fact that any political, economic and social activity that doesn’t involve and benefit women cannot be fruitful because such an activity is based on half the manpower, half the knowledge, half the effort, etc…of that which is available in the country. Though women’s rights to equal participation and benefits, with men, can’t be seen separately from the overall economic and political progress in society, it is an established fact that women’s rights need special attention in the change process. In this regard, the biggest victory for the struggle of Ethiopian women is the establishment of the FDRE Constitution which proclaimed their full rights, followed by the Women’s Policy, the ratification of the Family Law, the amendment of the Criminal Code in a way to stop abuses committed against women, etc… These provisions have a significant role to play in the effort to answer Ethiopian women’s quest for equality. The struggle is to ensure women’s participation and benefits in education, health and other developmental fields. The achievement that Ethiopian women have grasped, so far, can be termed as truly encouraging. This proves the fact that our country has embarked on the democratic path but it needs to be said that the work done so far and the achieved results, when measured in relation to the challenges women face in this country, have a long way to go before Ethiopian women’s issues are satisfactorily addressed. Thus, ensuring women’s equality and their equal participation in the economic, social and political fields is a basic question that needs to be addressed with special attention.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The government of Ethiopia has created enabling and encouraging environment or the proliferation of grass-roots associations that rally behind worthy causes like promotion of women’s rights. In this regard one notes the proliferation of Women’s Associations. Women’s Associations are established from Federal to Regional, Wereda and Kebele levels with the objectives of protecting and promoting the rights and ensuring wide participation and economic independence of Women. Women Development Army (WDA) is an innovative approach of empowering women. It is an approach that originated in some parts of the country and now has become a nationwide phenomenon. WDA basically constitutes a group of 25-30 women representing similar number of households and living in the same neighborhood or village. By this structure 11.3 million members in 450,000 groups with 1-to-5 Network 1,905,101 women are organized in the country. This innovative approach helps all women are membership in the women association at all level of the country. The main aim of the associations is to solve the socio-economic problems of their members and to ensure that members are indeed beneficiaries of the ongoing development in the country through adequate participation in the process. The core of the associations is the one to five groupings where model facilities/women gather other members in a group of five in their neighborhood. The associations are the fruits of the mobilization efforts undertaken by the women’s machinery in various administrative levels together with local level administrators. The members meet once a week or even more depending on the consensus within the group to discuss about their socio-economic issues and other related matters.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
- As the Army is organized within the neighbourhood, their day to day communication and formal discussion program is challenging the gender stereotyping and encouraging women to be active in decision making at household and community level; - Regarding education sectors, the Army is promoter of Adult education where all illiterate women in encouraged to attend the program which is enforced by frequent follow-up of every household;  Besides, the Army members are also motivating their school children by providing prize for high scorer students;  Women participation in and benefits from the ongoing agriculture extension program is maximized by the Army group engagement; - The Army are able to participate in the community policing through their 1 to 5 networks; - The Army members’ initiated saving and pave way to lend to their members; - In Urban area Army groups are involved in various group IGAs and play their role in rotation;

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The groups operate on the basis of common plans and objectives. The plans for discussion and the attendant activities which group members engage in collaboration include: fighting Harmful Traditional Practices (HTP), violence against women, Fight against early marriage: Female Genital Mutilation (FGM/C) and the fight to end the practice. The concerted effort by all concerned stakeholders has contributed to a decline in different forms of VAW in the country. FGM prevalence declined from 74% in 2005 to 23% for the 0-14 age group in 2011 (EDHS 2005 and welfare monitoring survey 2011), abduction declined from 23.3% in 1997 to 12.7% in 2009/10. On the other hand, the prevalence of early marriage has shown a significant decline from 21.4% in 2009/10 to 8% in 2012/13. The group also engages in community policing and various IGAs that help augment women’s income i.e. production of honey, production of fruits and vegetables, poultry production, animal fattening and dairy production. Different type of saving and credit facility mechanism like group, individual, social, agri input etc saving type is set up where women can avail themselves of credit from their own saving. With a view to support girl’s education, the group follows up and ensures that girls attend school and further members facilitate study time for girls and award them prizes for good performance. Moreover, material support is provided for girls that come from poor families. The women development army structure is proving to be a good promoter of adult education. Within each group, all illiterate women are encouraged to attend the program. There is close follow up as the structure of the group, composed of women within the same neighborhood and close day to day contact, allows frequent follow-up of every household. As the result significant achievements have been registered at all level of education such as: the gross enrolment rate of Kindergarten has increased from 2.2% in 2003/04 to 6.2% in 2012/2013 . Achieving universal primary education (including alternative basic education /ABE) is one of the MDGs where Ethiopia is well on track. An official report by MOE by 2003/04 G.C and 2012/2013 G.C) shows that primary school gross enrolment rate has risen from 68.4% in 2003/2004 to 96.4 % by 2012/2013. Whereas, Net enrolment rate for primary level (1-8) has risen from 57.4 in 2003/2004 to 85.9 % by 2012/2013. With regards to secondary school, an increase in the number of schools has led to an improvement in enrollment in the past fourteen years. The total enrollment of students at first cycle of secondary education (9-10) reaches 38.4% in 2012/2013 G.C from 22.1% in 2003/04. Second cycle of secondary school enrolment increases to 9.5 % in 2012/2013 G.C from 3.2% in 2003/04. The share of girls in grades 9-10 increased from 34.6% in 2004/05 to 47.3% in 2012/2013. In addition to common plans, members also draw on their own individual plans. The focus here is on the 16 health packages. The approach of creating networks of women with a model (exemplary) woman leader that shines in implementing the contents of the health extension package creates competitive environment among member households of the network to emulate their leader. As the result, improvements are made in the rate of skilled birth delivery as the WDA groups closely follow pregnant women among their network to use skilled delivery services provided in Health institutions. Child and maternal mortality rates have shown significant declines: current data shows child mortality has gone down to 55/1000 from a high of 123/1000 in 2005 and a drop to 59/1000 in 2011.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Time to time, the successful implementation and sound exercise of the Women Development Army has been advanced with the proactive and active involvement of local government or administrative structure. Basically, the government structure which is responsible for women’s affairs is undertaking different activities aimed at building their capacity. Line sectors, such as education, health, environmental protection, agriculture, finance and so on have demonstrated their effort and stack in order to quench the desire of those groups. The women’s machinery in every locality plays an important role in terms of supporting the WDA. In collaboration with all concerned stakeholders including the WDA, the machinery engages in planning, creating networks and coordination, follow up and monitoring of activities. Women’s associations actively engage in recruiting women to ensure wider reach and beneficiation. Sectoral office also support in planning and monitoring aspects.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Basically, the structures have been instrumental in the implementation of government policies and strategies and thereby promoting the human rights of women in the social, economic and political arenas. Surprisingly enough, it is cost effective and volunteer driven platform.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
On women’s economic empowerment, progress was made in strengthening the delivery of services of three key institutions providing business development services to women. With regards to secondary school, an increase in the number of schools has led to an improvement in enrollment in the past fourteen years. The total enrollment of students at first cycle of secondary education (9-10) reaches 38.4% in 2012/2013 G.C from 22.1% in 2003/04. Iimprovements are made in the rate of skilled birth delivery as the WDA groups closely follow pregnant women among their network to use skilled delivery services provided in Health institutions. Child and maternal mortality rates have shown significant declines: current data shows child mortality has gone down to 55/1000 from a high of 123/1000 in 2005 and a drop to 59/1000 in 2011. In addition, progress is noted in household level sanitation through improvements in water quality, proper handling and storage of water, hand washing, latrine use and disposal of faces and solid waste as well as environmental cleanliness at household and community levels

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Each local administrative structures has already integrated in the planning, implementation, M&E phases of the respected kebeles compounded endeavours through proper follow up and reporting system. As a result, they have working hand-in-gloves with the view to recording progresses and evaluating the executed activities

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The main aim of the associations is to solve the socio-economic problems of their members and to ensure that members are indeed beneficiaries of the ongoing development in the country through adequate participation in the process. However, the major obstacle is lack of capacity of individual women themselves, because, they are not educated and have been suppressed with longstanding and depravedly backward attitudes and gender disparity.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The group also engages in community policing and various IGAs that help augment women’s income i.e. production of honey, production of fruits and vegetables, poultry production, animal fattening and dairy production. Different type of saving and credit facility mechanism like group, individual, social, agri input etc saving type is set up where women can avail themselves of credit from their own saving. With a view to support girl’s education, the group follows up and ensures that girls attend school and further members facilitate study time for girls and award them prizes for good performance. Moreover, material support is provided for girls that come from poor families. The women development army structure is proving to be a good promoter of adult education. Within each group, all illiterate women are encouraged to attend the program. There is close follow up as the structure of the group, composed of women within the same neighborhood and close day to day contact, allows frequent follow-up of every household. As the result significant achievements have been registered at all level of education such as: the gross enrolment rate of Kindergarten has increased from 2.2% in 2003/04 to 6.2% in 2012/2013 . Achieving universal primary education (including alternative basic education /ABE) is one of the MDGs where Ethiopia is well on track. An official report by MOE by 2003/04 G.C and 2012/2013 G.C) shows that primary school gross enrolment rate has risen from 68.4% in 2003/2004 to 96.4 % by 2012/2013. Whereas, Net enrolment rate for primary level (1-8) has risen from 57.4 in 2003/2004 to 85.9 % by 2012/2013. With regards to secondary school, an increase in the number of schools has led to an improvement in enrollment in the past fourteen years. The total enrollment of students at first cycle of secondary education (9-10) reaches 38.4% in 2012/2013 G.C from 22.1% in 2003/04. Second cycle of secondary school enrolment increases to 9.5 % in 2012/2013 G.C from 3.2% in 2003/04. The share of girls in grades 9-10 increased from 34.6% in 2004/05 to 47.3% in 2012/2013 (MoE: 2009) In addition to common plans, members also draw on their own individual plans. The focus here is on the 16 health packages. The approach of creating networks of women with a model (exemplary) woman leader that shines in implementing the contents of the health extension package creates competitive environment among member households of the network to emulate their leader. As the result, improvements are made in the rate of skilled birth delivery as the WDA groups closely follow pregnant women among their network to use skilled delivery services provided in Health institutions. Child and maternal mortality rates have shown significant declines: current data shows child mortality has gone down to 55/1000 from a high of 123/1000 in 2005 and a drop to 59/1000 in 2011. Similarly, maternal mortality showed steep decline over the years: 673/100,000 in 2005 and to its lowest level of 420/100,000 in 2013. The WDA has been playing pivotal role in addressing other social ills, hygiene, natural resource management, introducing energy saving technology. Furthermore, successful results are being recorded in the areas of hygiene and sanitation. Accordingly, progress is noted in household level sanitation through improvements in water quality, proper handling and storage of water, hand washing, latrine use and disposal of faces and solid waste as well as environmental cleanliness at household and community levels.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Confidently enough, the initiative is functioning at the desired level. So far, various notable changes and remarkable experiences have been registered through proper implementation of the initiative. Owing to this fact, the government has put special attention, conducted experiences sharing programs and benchmarking activities. As a result, it is practically proved that the initiative is sustainable and transferable.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Basically women’s economic, social and political issues concern the whole society and should not be left solely to women. In the struggle for their initiative, women have played a frontline role. In the absence of women’s active participation in the struggle, it is impossible to expect that the issue will be addressed properly. Thus, the following lessons are learned; - Ensuring all women have sufficient awareness about the fact that as regards their emancipation they (the women) themselves are the main force that can solve the problem of oppression.  Helping women overcome the dependency syndrome and patronage that hinder their emancipation through their own efforts and struggle. - Helping women overcome their inferiority syndrome and develop an attitude that affirms that they can perform any task to bring about change in all sectors, just like men. - Ensuring that the fora become platforms where women from all walks of life have effective dialogue and discussions to promote their cause. Help farmers, urban dwellers, merchants, people engaged in small and micro enterprises, women professionals and intellectuals etc. Conduct discussions on women’s issues especially in their respective fields. - Overcoming backward attitudes and the demeaning challenge of inferiority complex that women endure while at the same time developing their confidence and ensuring that they, the women themselves, actively participate in the development and democratization processes in their communities. - Enabling women living in both rural and urban areas increase their income through value adding activities. Ensure their economic independence by helping them engage in work that creates job opportunities for others Help them become industrious and willing to do any work, compatible with their capacities and develop a culture of using their incomes frugally. - Young women must become role models for their peers and use all educational and training opportunities, adopt new democratic attitudes to become frontline leaders in eradicating harmful practices.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   ministry of Women , Children and Youth
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Zenebu Tadesse
Title:   Minister  
Telephone/ Fax:   +251935999078
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   zenebt2009@yahoo.com  
Address:   Addis Ababa
Postal Code:  
City:   Addis Ababa
State/Province:  
Country:  

          Go Back

Print friendly Page
video porno.. brasileiros xxx xhamster