Cost-Free Road Construction The government of Banjarbaru City
District of Landasan Ulin Banjarbaru City

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Banjarbaru is one of the cities in South Kalimantan - Indonesia, which stands as an autonomous region on April 20, 1999. The population growth has always been increasing annually since 2008 until 2012 amounted to 4.88%. Banjarbaru strategic position as a liaison city for other surrounding cities is the main attraction for immigrants to settle. Banjarbaru also lies between Central Kalimantan and East Kalimantan provinces as well as the location of the Noor Syamsudin airport.In the future, Banjarbaru is expected to be a representative city as the government center, with huge and smooth roads, connected to many routes from other cities in South Kalimantan. Beside, the road opening tends to improve the welfare of surrounding societies. Since its establishment, the government of Banjarbaru City continues to strive and is committed to improving public services.There were some major problems faced by the authorities in realizing such efforts, namely: a. Limited funding. The City Local Budget is relatively small to cover all needs of education, health, infrastructure, social and others (the amount of the budget in 1999 was only around IDR 2.5 billion (± USD 166,569.40); b. The insufficient road infrastructure in Banjarbaru City.Road Infrastructure in Banjarbaru relatively short and narrow, with a width of only about 2-3 meters away and there are still many areas that are inaccessible by road so it is difficult to develop the communities’ economic condition. c. The increasing demand from the societies for the infrastructure provision in the area. The demand and needs of the community for the infrastructure provision have been increasing mainly due to the development of new housings and residences. Road as part of the transportation system has an important role especially in support of economic growth, social and cultural rights as well as basic services such as education and health that can be developed through regional development approach in order to achieve a balance and equitable development. d. The lack of public participation in assisting the government and authorities in providing such infrastructure facilities.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
With a strong commitment to the public interest, especially in terms of improving infrastructure, the government of Banjarbaru City plannedthe road-widening program and new roads construction program to improve the accessibility of Banjarbaru societies by allocating either through the local budget or special allocation fund for road infrastructure. The government of Banjarbaru City, along with all communities through the planning discussion forums (MUSRENBANG), programmed such remarkable plan involving communities. One of the visible options was to ask the residents to donate some of their land for the road construction works. As a means to channel requests and the views of the residents in order to do a thorough and effective approach, the authorities established the Community Empowerment Institution (LPM). It is an institution formed on the initiative of the communitiesin order to escalate their roles in assisting the governments’ program. As a form of appreciation, the authorities issued a regulation on organization administration of LPM. The approach taken by the local authorities to implement the policies and socialize the program is by actively building the strong relationship with the communities through informal meetings and gatherings. The meetings and gathering invite not only the community leaders but also the whole community members, religious leaders, as well as common residents.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
This program continues to be implemented with the involvement of more community participation. This creative and innovative program was originally aimed for a city scale, however, in the development, it has been implemented in the district level, as it was applied Landasan Ulin District. The authorities in Landasan Ulin District has been able to apply the program of Cost-Free Road Construction by opening new roads and widening old routes surrounding the district without having to provide any compensation for the communities. At the time of the program initiation, the price of the land was very high due to the high compensation rate given by PT Angkasa Pura II in order to do the land acquisition for Syamsudin Noor Airport development. The authorities used the participative method in order to build the trust from the societies. The initiative can be described as follows: 1. An approach to the service improvement from top-down-planning to bottom-up-planning method; 2. An improvement and an increase of the public participation in the whole process of the program, including the planning, the implementation and the evaluation; 3. The activity is the ultimate result of mutual cooperation between the authorities and the communities.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Several activities conducted in the planning stage include: a. Building a strong mutual relationship among the Banjarbaru City Authorities, the LPMs, and the communities in order to hold the trust from the public to donate their land for the program. The actions were done through several informal meetings and gatherings; b. Involving various stakeholders ranging from community leaders, religious leaders, municipality and village leaders, and landowners to plan the opening of new roads and the widening of access to existing roads; c. Establishing an implementation team coordinated by the Community Empowerment Institution(LPM). The team actively conducts the socialization and persuasive approach to landowners affected by the program; d. Involving the communities in the planning process in a way to accommodate the aspirations of the people in the targeted locations. Implementation Phase: a. The intensive meetings and visits from the Municipal Head to societies, not only at some informal gatherings but also at semi-formal meetings at religious moments. Theauthorities instill the pride feeling to the communities for the good initiative of donating the land for the great cause of helping the government; b. Settling an agreement and contracts with the landowners by accommodating the small compensation for the taken land. Such compensation sometimes takes the form of crop replacements; c. Actively involve the community in the implementation activities. Residents are encouraged to participate more on the activities conducted in this phase, including performing the measurements on the land affected by the opening or widening of roads, installing boundary markers for the road, as well as making the trenches. The residents along with the LPM, and Municipal Head also do land clearing.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
a. The Initiator: This activity started from the desire of the Government of Banjarbaru City to promote economic growth, social and cultural rights as well as basic services such as education, health and housing in order to achieve a balance of regional development and equitable development. b. The Actors: The main actors of this program are the Community Empowerment Institution (LPM) at District and Municipality levels, The Neighborhood and Residents Apparatus Forum, and the communities’ leaders. c. The Stimulators: Through BAPPEDA (Regional Development Planning Agency) and the Department of Public Works (Public Works Department), sub-district and village officials, Chairman of RT / RW and community leaders as well as the government of South Kalimantan also provide advice for grants for this activity. The following parties are involved in this program: No. Parties Roles Actions 1. Community Empowerment Institution (LPM) The Coordinator of The Execution Team Encouraging communities’ mutual aid 2. Neigborhood and Residence Leaders Forum Actively involved in the program designing Collecting the list of landowners and scheduling the socialization activities 3. Community and Religious Leaders Actively involved in the socialization activities and persuasive approach to landowners Mediating the socialization activities 4. PT. Angkasa Pura II and other private parties Partners of the program Providing supporting access for the program 5. Landowners The main donators of the program Donating the land required for the program voluntarily without any monetary compensation
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Government Banjarbaru programmed the road widening and new roads construction to improve accessibility of Banjarbaru society by allocating either through the local budget or special allocation fund for road infrastructure. The government of South Kalimantan Province appreciated the plan by allocating the grants of IDR 2.5 billion (± USD 204,867.66) to be managed by the community. The government of Banjarbaru city also give the stimulant grants of IDR 500,000,000 (five hundred million rupiah) (USD 40,973.53) from the local budget of Banjarbaru City in 2012 and 2013. The fund is managed to finance such activities for heavy equipment rental, the cost for landfill, the culverts, and the crops replacement belonging to communities affected by road and field operating costs. The community provides the land for the construction and road widening without monetary compensation.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
a. The total width of the road widened from 2000 to 2014 is 1,415,194 m2 or 141.52 Ha; b. The new road openings from 2000-2014 managed to connect 20 villages through 73 access roads; c. The total public participation in the form of land donation is worth IDR 212,279,100,000 (two hundred and twelve billion two hundred and seventy-nine million one hundred thousand) (assuming the land price of IDR 150,000/m2); d. The width of the road expanded from 8-10 meters to 10-22 meters; e. The number of residents donating their land is as much as 2,000; f. The advanced innovationin LandasanUlin District, in cooperation with the Community Empowerment Institution (LPM), managed to receivethe grants from the Banjarbaru Authorities with the amount of IDR 500,000,000 (five hundred million) used as a stimulant in developing new areas surrounding the Syamsudin Noor Airport; g. The successful opening of the new roads has covered the area of 89,250 m2 as well as the 30,000 m2 for public facilities, making the total land donation of 119,250 m2. Assuming the land price of IDR 150,000/m2, the total donation is worth IDR 17,887,500,000 (seventeen billion eight hundred eighty seven million five hundred thousand);

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Evaluation Phase: a. Conducting evaluation along with the communities in order to publicly inform the whole development of the program as well as elaborating the possible constraints and visible solutions. b. Performing direct observation or inspection to achieve actual information and to find immediate solution to some problems found in the field. c. Preparing reports for all activities to support the openness and the accountability of the program.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
• The main constraint is that people are reluctant to donate their land because they fear that this activity will not soon be realized; • The decreasing trend of public trust to government officials due to the past experiences or impressions; • The Community Leaders who become community role models tend to be the mouthpiece of disapproval to the program. Below are the community members who have been the agents of the program: a. Haji ZUHDI Haji Zuhdi(who were underprivileged and in need of fund to pay his kids education) owned the land of 3.5 hectares planned for the future assurance of his kids’ education at the college level. Although he had to postpone his kids’ education, he decided to donate his land for the program.The land was then utilized for schools and roads. Now his life has been very good and he is even able to pay for his kids’ college tuition. This fact inspired many other residents to be aware and to participate on the program. b. Ustadz MUHAMMAD At first, Ustadz Muhammad, as a role model of the society and the spokesman for the community, was not sure about the program success and sustainability. He then directly involved in the program and ensured the public participation in it. He volunteered to be the spokesman and became one of the motivators to the public so the program is finally implemented.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
a. The current width of the roads from 8-22 meters stimulated the development and settlement some new housing areas along the routes of the roads; b. The opening of the new roads accesses settled an impact on the increasing of the community's economic condition. The economic development of Banjarbaru city shows a positive trend every year, from 2010 (5.85%), 2011 (5.99%), to 2012 (6.18%); c. The increasing rate of land sale value in the surrounding areas of the new roads accesses. Previously, the rate was just about IDR 150,000/m2 (± USD 12.92). Now the price has been rising to the rate of IDR 300,000/m2 (± USD 24.58). As for the land sale rate along the main roads has been increasing from IDR 30,000/m2 (± USD 2.46)to IDR 1,000,000/m2 (± USD 81.95). This condition proves that the program has not been a threat, instead, it benefits the public; d. The active public participation in the program improves the sense of belonging of the roads from the societies.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
To ensure the sustainability of this program the Government of Banjarbaru City has been conducting the following things: a. Implanting the pattern of the activities into the local development planning documents; b. Strengthening the role of the LPM and the neighborhood and residence leaders forum at all levels of region; c. Replicating the program in all districts; d. Socializing the Road Development Plan briefly and intensively to the community and the government at provincial level; e. Gaining more support from Community Leaders and Religious Leaders; f. Gaining more support from the Community Empowerment Institution (LPM); g. Providingthe fund used for compensating the affected buildings/fences; h. Making the community to be the subject of development. In general, the spirit of this initiative can be replicated and applied by other regionshaving same preconditions status, allowing public to actively participate in the program. Some authorities from Sumatera, Java, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi islands have visited Banjarbaru city in order to learn more about the innovation.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
a. The value of good governance, especially the value of honesty, openness, active participation, and transparency of all parties involved insucceeding the program; b. The value of cooperation and partnership between the parties that has been a strong stimulus to accelerate the successful implementation of these activities. The community-based infrastructure development shall be the role model for the future government development programs. The public involvement will grow the sense of belonging and nurturing of the development products. This initiative is expected to bring changes in the perspective of bureaucratic reform including: 1. Improving the quality of public services; 2. Increasing participation and partnerships; and 3. Changing of mind-and-culture-sets.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   District of Landasan Ulin Banjarbaru City
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Nadjmi Adhani
Title:   Banjarbaru South Kalimantan  
Telephone/ Fax:   +62511-4705080
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   fhie.bedjo@gmail.com  
Address:   Jl.A.Yani Km.24,500 Landasan Ulin, Banjarbaru, Kalimantan Selatan
Postal Code:   70724
City:   Banjarbaru
State/Province:   South Kalimantan
Country:  

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