Licensing of Animals and Animal Products for Movements within the Kingdom of Thailand
Department of Livestock Development

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Division of Veterinary Inspection and Quarantine (DVIQ), Department of Livestock Development (DLD), Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MACO), Thailand has the primary responsibility of animal health protection and disease control. These for maintain disease-free animals and meet increasing food safety and international quality standards for processed meat and other livestock products following to the 2013-2017 DLD Strategic Plan that set out an ambitious vision for the DLD, the leading institute in livestock development for the ASEAN and global markets. However, there appear to have been more cases of animal disease outbreaks (especially avian influenza) and fatalities resulting in increased mortality and morbidity in livestock populations. Moreover, animal diseases pose an economic threat to livestock producers - principally poultry farmers who saw 3,205,584 cases of avian influenza (AI). Epidemics affect not only farmers, but also the entire agricultural sector, up to and including the national economy. The AI virus appeared in Thailand in January of 2004, affecting poultry over a wide area. Historical veterinary epidemiological data shows that AI outbreaks were reported in 783 sub-districts, 298 districts and 60 provinces. There were 110 sub-districts, 59 districts and 21 provinces reporting H5N1 contamination in 2005. By 2006, only 2 sub-districts, 2 districts and 2 provinces were affected. In 2007-2008, outbreaks were reported in 4 sub-districts, 4 districts and 4 provinces. The avian flu outbreaks significantly affected both the poultry industry and its producers. Firstly, a reduction in consumer confidence led to a national drop in poultry demand. Secondly, the presence of AI triggered poultry trade embargos, with a subsequent detrimental impact on tourism as well. The government’s response was to draft legislation addressing the prevention, monitoring and control of animal diseases. Controlling the disease in animals is the first step in decreasing risks to humans. Monitoring the movement of animals and animal products helps prevent the spread of disease within a country. However, the DVIQ has been hindered in its efforts due to staffing problems. Only one to three DVIQ officers had been assigned for every 10-30 square kilometers, resulting in less than optimal surveillance and control activities in disease-affected areas. This problem also affected poultry farms, since there were not enough officers to support them. Furthermore, licenses were required to move animals and animal products within Thailand, as well as to import and export them. Before the age of IT, the only way to secure permits was to transport paper forms to local livestock offices, but traffic congestion made this process prohibitively expensive. AI outbreaks have been allowed to propagate due to the lack of operating personnel and inconvenient face-to-face contact. The development of an internet-accessible information portal was recommended in order to resolve these problems. The objective of such a system is threefold:  To prevent and monitor the spread of AI  To increase staff efficiency  To increase service levels and reduce cost

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The DVIQ, headed by Director Prapas Pinyocheep, D.V.M. and Dr. Burin Sorasitsukakul, a Chief of Animal Movement Control Subdivision, together with the DVIQ officers jointly initiated a software solution for the licensing of animals and animal products intended for movement within Thailand. Both speed and ease of use were of paramount importance in order to ensure effective control of livestock movement. The first iteration of the software was jointly developed by the Department of Livestock Development’s Information Technology Center (ITCDLD) and the Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The system standardized the processes of the ITC and the ICT in order to provide a nationwide uniform management platform. At first, the system was called “Electronic Service System for Animals and Animal Products Movement within the Kingdom of Thailand (e-Service)”; however, it was unpopular because it was not well-promoted and difficult to use. The system was subsequently improved to be easier to use and a ‘train the trainer’ policy was established to ensure that all necessary end-users had access and understood how to use the system. Since then, system demand has increased to meet the requirements of animal and animal product movement. The service is Internet-accessible, and therefore is available from any computer terminal or Internet-connected device anywhere in the world. E-Service offers both an effective method for the control of livestock movement, as well as real-time crisis-handling data in the event of disease outbreaks. To date, veterinary epidemiological data reveals that the spread of disease caused by animal movement has decreased since e-Service went live, but by an insignificant amount. To prepare for the possibility of transboundary animal disease outbreaks resulting from the anticipated ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) integration in 2015, software developers have continued to make important system improvements. The recurring AI outbreaks remain a serious threat to the region and have drawn the attention of AEC members to work closely and enhance cooperation in strengthening animal disease control programs.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
Improvements to the e-Movement system were driven primarily by three factors: • Epidemiology • Data feedback analysis including PESTH (Political, Economic, Social, Technological and Health) and SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats ) • Strengthening networks and public involvement The e-Movement system was launched to address the following concerns: • Prevention, monitoring and controling the spread of avian Influenza • Increase staff efficiency and service levels • Reduce costs These goals will be realized in two ways. Firstly, by matching historical epidemiological data with feedback from area DVIQ officers as well as service users. Secondly, by applying the PESTH and SWOT methods in order to resolve conflicting methodologies of various other point solutions, and determine a strategic roadmap and action plan. By developing the e-Movement system and associated workflow processes, providing essential end-user training and adopting a service life-cycle management strategy, the various DLD organizations can better coordinate and control the movement of animals and animal products.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The implementation of the e-Movement came in three stages: • Engaging stakeholders & providers • Deployment of strategies • Widening service The first stage began during the severe AI outbreaks in 2004-2005, DVIQ in coordination between the following DLD agencies: • National Institute of Animal Health (NIAH) • Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services • Bureau of Quality Control of Livestock Products • Bureau of Livestock Standards and Certification • Bureau of legal affairs • Information Technology Center Department of Livestock Development (ICTDLD) Together with the private sector, these agencies formed a framework that provided prevention, monitoring and control of the spread of AI in the affected areas. Identifying the roles and responsibilities of each of the stakeholders, as well as which resources were available for sharing. After carefully weighing the issues, requirements were identified through PESTH, SWOT and a gap analysis of existing animal and animal product movement records at each stage. Objectives, strategies and the e-Movement implementation schedule were all prepared with these requirements in mind. The second stage set into action all of the agreed upon strategies drawn up by the team. For example, numerous outbreak databases were shared among the stakeholders and providers, allowing joint resolution of various tasks by the providers. In 2006, the DVIQ (supported by ICTDLD) provided for the installation, repair, and maintenance of the first electronic service system (e-Service), which was used to license animals and animal products for movement within the Kingdom of Thailand. The system was also instrumental in the prevention, monitoring and control of the spread of AI in the affected areas. The system has subsequently been improved by connecting it with the Customs Department’s National Single Window (NSW) database, which was used by government agencies for license and certificate management. This connection generated many benefits such as cost reduction, improved processing time of trade documents, better management of importers and exporters, and last but not least, international standardization between buyers and suppliers, who could easily apply for permits and licenses via the Internet. Because of this, the DVIQ’s e-Service platform won the 2011 National Outstanding Service Innovations Award. The third stage of widening service was implemented concurrently with the second stage. The E–Service system was enhanced to link to the electronic animals and animal products Movement system (e-Movement) in 2012. Its scope has since been broadened to include data connections between e-Movement and the DLD’s other service systems: • The National Livestock Identification and Registration System (NID) • Livestock disease reporting system • Disease-free status certification system • Farm standard and certification system • Slaughterhouse standard and certification system. All together, these systems will be available in: • 877 District Livestock Offices (DLO) • 77 Provincial Livestock Offices (PLO) • 54 Animal Quarantine Stations (AQS) The ultimate goal is the uniform nationwide availability and increased efficiency of livestock-related data via the e-Movement portal.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
1. In additional to its regular duty in the prevention, monitoring and control of animal diseases spreading and following up affecter complains since first outbreaks of AI, the Division of Veterinary Inspection and Quarantine (DVIQ), the Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services, the Bureau of Livestock Standards and Certification as well as the Bureau of Legal Affairs and their officers served as the coordination and communication center in implementing joint efforts by all other stakeholders through previously agreed upon guidelines. 2. Information Technology Center Department of Livestock Development (ICTDLD), which assisted in installation, repair, and maintenance the first electronic service system (e-Service) while making improvements to e-Movement. 3. The poultry farmers and traders consulted frequently for feedback on service levels and system responsiveness, so that improvements could be made wherever necessary.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The manual permitting process was upgraded to an electronic service in 2004. Three resources were pivotal in mobilizing the initiative – IT, training and management resources. The DVIQ and ICTDLD jointly employed a software company to develop, upgrade, maintain and support the first electronic service system including e-Movement. The development firm provided system training to DVIQ and relevant DLD agency staff members, as well as poultry farmers and traders to ensure a solid understanding of the system’s basic operations. Upper management ensured a good blend of all necessary resources to create the right approach to realize the initiative’s principle goals of effective prevention, monitoring and contagion control. Management-driven performance goals helped achieve a high level of efficiency while operating with a smaller staff, and cost were controlled with no loss in end-user satisfaction. The following principal approaches were involved: • participation encouragement from allied DLD agencies at every level from districts to provinces • incorporation of data, information technologies and knowledge management to provide a database for a thorough assessment • sufficient funding was allocated to the project

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
The integrated e-Movement platform was successful in three ways: 1) The older, manually operated process took an average of 15 calendar days for the approval and issuance of permits, whereas the e-Movement system offers a 48 hours turn-around time. Consequently, more permits could be issued faster and with less manual intervention. This resulted in faster service at lower costs to both poultry farmers and traders, as well as reduction of unauthorized licenses. Animals and animal product movement can be better monitored while curtailing illegal movements. 2) The total number of AI outbreaks has decreased annually until 2009, when the count fell to zero. Since then, there have been no further outbreaks. Risk management currently includes the following activities: • Animal checkpoints are used to control the movement of vehicles transporting poultry or poultry products • strengthening veterinary services to provide useful diagnosis by clinicians and laboratories • early warning systems, for improved surveillance strategies to control the re-emergence of AI and other diseases Several poultry farmers successfully recovered from the huge losses they suffered due to disease outbreak. They have restarted and sustained their poultry production by applying best practice operating techniques and using consistent standards. At present, there are 179 poultry producers spread across the country that have been certified by the DLD for exporting. As a result, public job creation has improved national income distribution. 3) Thailand has returned to its position as one of the major exporters of livestock products, exporting significant amounts of frozen poultry meat, cooked and ready-to-eat poultry products to Europe, The United States of America, The Middle East, Japan and Singapore. Traceability systems ensure compliance with international standards, and in 2014 the international trade in poultry meat has risen to US $3,333.30 million. Moreover, Thailand is on the fast track to become the world's leading exporter of processed poultry.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The e-Movement system has been in production since 2006, overseeing the service process and evaluating the implementation during the operation. Evaluation is done partly with the use of end-user satisfaction questionnaires. Service assessment is done across different levels of the operation, including District Livestock Offices, Provincial Livestock Offices and 54 Animal Quarantine Stations covering Thailand's 77 provinces. In the first three years of e-Movement’s operation, only 229,144 receiving licenses were issued. By 2013 that number had risen to 2,595,167 licenses – an eleven-fold increase. A 2013 satisfaction survey of 2,000 e-Movement users showed that 81% rated the service as outstanding. No survey respondents rated the system as poor. In addition to overall satisfaction, the survey also collected customer opinions about the user-friendliness of the system interface, practicality of the system, politeness and effectiveness of the system support personnel, system responsiveness, as well as travel, administrative and time savings. The satisfaction level for all areas was in excess of 80%. In order to further increased user satisfaction, the system developer added an enhancement allowing the DVIQ support staff to capture and analyze end-user interactions. The DLD website (www.dld.go.th/aqi) offers other services such as e-mail, news, information from assorted database feeds.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
End-user adoption was one of the biggest obstacles to system popularity. This was bred partly out of a lack of understanding about how the system worked. To address this, a training program has been established to help both officers and farmers to better understand the system. The DVIQ has appointed a team of specialists who work around the clock to coordinate and solve problems. Secondly, infrastructure-related problems, such as insufficient data storage capacity and an unreliable commercial power supply have been remediated by increasing storage capacity of the main database server and adding power conditioning and backup generators to support the hardware. In the unlikely event of a system failure, the DVIQ relies on a manual paper trail of forms and permits to ensure that the supply chain will not be interrupted. Local area officers must document the reason for switching to the manual tracking & permit process.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
Thanks to the modernization and integration of information services such as the e-Movement portal, Thailand has successfully eradicated AI as of 2009. This status of eradication has been continually checked and verified by nine reference laboratories of Veterinary Research and Development Center, including the NIAH. Thailand has become The premier Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of avian influenza in South East Asia. As cited in the PVS Evaluation Report, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) rated the e-Movement; Thailand’s animal movement control system received a score of 4 out of 5. Poultry farmers can now run a healthy business and the poultry industry can flourish. As a result, farmers and entrepreneurs see less administrative work, lower overhead costs and reduced travel expenses. Local area officers work more comfortably, provide faster service and can perform other tasks to better meet the needs of the people. Moreover, the DVIQ can establish action plans and contingencies to control disease spreading that result from animals and its products movement. This also reduces the likelihood of serious public health threats such as zoonosis (the transfer of animal diseases to humans). All of this results in increased customer confidence in the trade and export of livestock products such as frozen meat and prepared foods to other countries, potentially generating more than 50,000 million baht per year. Exports in 2014 are projected to generate more than 100 billion baht (US $3.3 billion). Sending much needed revenue to Thai farmers and increasing the country’s GDP. Use of the e-Movement portal has resulted in the issuance of over 2 million animal transport licenses. Improvements in supply chain routing and delivery have resulted in a mileage savings of about ten kilometers per customer, or about twenty million kilometers and a fuel savings of about two million liters (about 60.3 million baht). Information service modernization has helped customers to reduce energy costs and generate less polluting greenhouse gasses from the burning of fossil fuels. Additionally, paper consumption has been reduced by an estimated two million sheets, which beneficially impacts the problems of deforestation and climate change. Finally, process modernization has curtailed the problem of license forgery and made search and retrieval of animal movement data much more efficient. This ultimately benefits future program planning and control, disease prevention and fosters improved animal husbandry.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The e-Movement system helps to better organize data and keep the public informed by streamlining the licensing of animal and its products transport. It has helped to eradicate the avian influenza virus and reduce the chances of further disease outbreaks. The e-Movement portal is accessible by 877 DLOs, 77 PLOs and 54 AQS checkpoints. In the unlikely event of a disease outbreak, the appropriate personnel can use the e-Movement system to immediately report the situation to all offices. This is an effective way to disseminate vital situational information to emergency response teams and stakeholders. Furthermore, the DVIQ also receives information from other DLD systems such as the NID as well as the Farm standard and certification system. This helps government officers manage more facilities with greater efficiency, thanks to the integration of traceability systems with other government ministries. The e-Movement system connects to the databases of the Customs Department’s NSW and the National Bureau of Agricultural Commodity and Food Standards (ACFS). In the future, additional connections will be established with the Divisions of Finance, Planning, Bureau of Legal Affairs and ICTDLD. The overriding concern of both the Thai government and DLD executives is providing reliable, speedy access to critical data. This is accomplished by the delivery of time-sensitive information to officers and farmers through numerous information channels such as mobile applications, E-mail and others. DVIQ officers also use these communication channels to reach their local peers as well as all ten groups of AQS to establish a central point of control for the transit of all animals within that area. In the event of an outbreak, DVIQ officers must be on the scene within 24 hours. The DVIQ has been improving the permitting process for animal and its products movement since 1956, when manual permits were issued. In 2004 the DVIQ proposed the development of a technology-based tracking system. The system, then called “e-Service”, went live in 2006. In 2007, additional enhancements were made. In 2009, links were established with the Customs Department, and the name of the system was changed to “e-Signature”. The system was completed in 2011, and received innovation awards from the Thai government. In 2012, additional connections were set up with the NID, Livestock disease reporting system, Disease-free status certification system, Farm standard and certification system and Slaughterhouse standard and certification system. Following this, the service called was finally changed to “e-Movement”. In 2013 the system went nationwide and in 2014 enhancements were made allowing resellers to track the movement of their livestock assets. This system enhancement was called “e-Privilege Permit”. This licensing enables the DVIQ to provide standardization for all animal products from standard slaughterhouses and farms. The ultimate goal of the DVIQ has been developed a reliable service that the public can consistently trust, and that will generate confidence in the government’s livestock production processes and supply chains, as well as to maintain a stable, disease-free and lucrative livestock sector in Thailand.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The DVIQ is responsible for enforcing DLD laws. The DLD’s objective is to provide high quality, safe animal products that meet or exceed all relevant regulatory safety standards - food that is free of toxins and pathogens that may affect consumer health and trust. A high level of attention is paid to animal health and welfare while on the farm and during processing. All animals must be raised and transported humanely, not be subject to cruelty or stress and receive appropriate medical attention if they become ill. Moreover, the DLD mandates the method of slaughtering in accordance with halal standards. The DLD also pledges high service levels in its customer service staff. The DLD’s overall performance is effective and beneficial, while strictly complying with the statutory guidelines and other responsibilities mentioned above. The DLD plans to further enhance public services by bringing the IT systems of various bureaus together. Early versions of the system were developed in 2007, and it has since been modified and enhanced several times into its present-day version called "e-Movement". Huge improvements in speed, efficiency and quality standards have been realized by sharing data between the various bureaus within the DLD and with relevant external agencies. This has helped many agencies do their jobs better: 1. The Ministry of Public Health coordinates the responsibilities of animal health and meat hygiene. 2. The Ministry of Interior can help reduce the cost of medical treatment to the farmers in the event of a disease outbreak. 3. The Ministry of Education is better able to educate students. 4. The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has access to better data for animal epidemiology education. 5. Ministry of Commerce can more precisely regulate the prices of livestock products. 6. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) is able to coordinate with other organizations in case of a regional epidemic. In addition, the DLD has been nationally and internationally honored as a model of disease control. It has been assigned the responsibility of establishing the office of the OIE Sub-Regional Representation for Southeast Asia. The DLD also encourages our neighboring countries to attend training seminars in Thailand. If these countries have an epidemic such as an outbreak of foot and mouth disease, the DLD can assist by providing vaccines and other supplies to help control the disease. As a result of the DVIQ’s integration with other bureaus and agencies, avian influenza has been completely eradicated from Thailand, proving that many years of hard work has produced concrete results. Thailand’s livestock will be sold worldwide, and the country will once again be known as ‘the kitchen of the world’. For these reasons and more, the DVIQ won the 2011 Outstanding Innovation Award in the service category and the 2014 award for Excellence Standards in Service. Under the auspices of the DLD, the DVIQ will continue to increase service levels to ensure maximum benefit to the people, the nation and the world under the slogan "moving animals without lifting a finger."

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Department of Livestock Development
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Prapas Pinyocheep
Title:   Division of Veterinary Inspection and Quarantine  
Telephone/ Fax:   662 501 3473/662 501 3473 ext 104
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   aqi1@dld.go.th  
Address:   91 Moo 4, Tiwanon Road, Bang Kradee
Postal Code:   12000
City:   Muang Pathum Thani
State/Province:   Pathum Thani
Country:  

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