National Disaster Magenement Institute

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Although the central government of Korea has been implementing a basic system of framework that effectively monitors disasters and calamities on a national level since 2005, unpredictable accidents by diverse causes such as climate change and severe social changes that lead to human casualty and property loss are becoming more prevalent in the recent times. Thus far, the Korean government, together with the local government, has implemented situational information sharing system with various disaster related agencies and comprehensive situation management system for local government to support activities that mitigate damage caused by disasters. Despite such efforts, based on in-depth analysis and onsite inspection, the Korean government discovered many issues in the disaster information system implemented by various local government and public agencies as follows: ① Decentralized IT system Each government or public agency implemented their own disaster information system but neglected to integrate these system to respond to emergencies. ② Limited information collection methods Because all of the government agencies were dependent on limited source of simple information gathered from measurement sensors and CCTV videos for disaster management, there was much difficulty in comprehensively determining the situation of an emergency; in areas with little to no equipment installed, no information on disasters that occurred was available at all. ③ No consideration for the characteristics of each region for IT system Even though regional elements such as coastal or mountainous area and seasonal aspects meant different management activities, the current system can only provide singular content and functions, making flexible response to disaster impossible. ④ Lack of mechanism for communicating with the public Even when information provided by those around the site of the disaster is the most accurate and fast, there was no scientific way to make use of such information and also no way to quantitatively gauge the level of fear and anxiety felt by the people.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Due to the complexity of the problem, the solution was no less complex than the problem and many important events led to the solution proposed by the Park Geun Hae administration which consists of system integration of disaster and safety related information, implementation of flexible system of information collection, implementation of customized delivery of information to the public by each government agency and monitoring of information provided to the public. The following events have been of major importance in the formulation of the solution proposed. ① Strong interest in disaster and safety by the current administration Since the inauguration of the Park Geun Hae administration in 2013, major policies emphasized were the happiness of the people and safety. As such, objective of the administration become the building of a comprehensive social safety system, displacing the previous natural disaster oriented policy. ② Strong leadership based on Government 3.0 policy Til now, Information possessed by the government was not easily available to the public nor easily shared between government agencies. But the Government 3.0 policy which emphasizes the integration of information dispersed in various government agencies based on the principle of mutual communication, paved the ground that allowed integration and processing of information. It became possible to begin the implementation of a customized delivery system that can easily collect disaster related information and perform risk analysis based on such information to finally provide the customized and processed information to each individual ③ World’s most advanced ICT infrastructure and the development of big data/smart technology No matter how good the environment is for using the best of information, it is useless without the proper technology and vehicle that can systematically link and display such information. Korea possesses one of the world’s most advanced ICT infrastructure that include the highest penetration rate of terrestrial and wireless broadband Internet connectivity, smartphone users and world’s first commercialized LTE network; moreover, big data and smart technology have been developed and commercialized for many areas. Such advances have provided the vehicle to systematically integrated decentralized information to interconnect various organizations; the big data technology in particular, provides the necessary technology to collect and utilize information provided by the people.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
While many aspects make this initiative truly creative and innovative, the following elements have been the keys. ① Connectivity platform between IT system: platform that delivers timely information to needed places using the Internet without requiring implementation of separate database ② Connectivity to diverse information collecting devices: real-time connectivity technology with various devices for gathering onsite information such as UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) and smartphones ③ Big data based information support for making judgement of various situation: utilize information provided by the people in disaster management by analyzing information collected from social network services ④ Customized management service: set up management function and customized content for each situation such as region (coastal or mountainous area) and disaster type (typhoon, fire, etc.) selection

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Below are the major elements of the action plan developed and carried out to implement the strategy outlined thus far. ① Concept for implementation designed and the prototype developed in 2013 - Status and issues of the previous disaster information system identified - Current state of ICT technology and applicability reviewed - Prototype of disaster management system based on big data and map developed ② Pilot operation of the system and further development·stabilization of functionality in 2014 - Pilot operation in 30 central·local government and public institutions; onsite demands collected - Disaster information management platform and user management function developed - Pilot application to situation management for natural and social disasters; errors corrected ③ Pilot implementation and mid-to-long term roadmap established in 2015 - Pilot implementation of H/W and S/W system and operation carried out in 3 local government agencies - Connectivity test of situation management function between central and local government - Collaborative public·private·academia council for mid-to-long term system implementation established ④ Nationwide distribution of the system and public exhibition of the service in 2016 - Sequential distribution nationwide - Publicly disclose the content of the customized disaster information service

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
① Agencies that developed the system : Ministry of Security and Public Administration (MOSPA), National Disaster management Institute ② Legislative enactment of relevant regulations and nationwide distribution: Safety Management headquarters of MOSPA ③ Collaborative organizations for pilot implementation of the system: Metropolitan City of Pusan, Metropolitan City of Daejeon, and Provincial government of Jeonbuk ④ Collaborative organizations for pilot operation: 42 disaster responsible departments from central·local government agencies and public institutions
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Refer below for cost and resource mobilized as well as details of project funding and financial support. ◦ 2013: 190 mil. KRW (R&D) - Smart Big Board developed and pilot system implemented ◦ 2014: 1.07 bil. KRW (470 mil. KRW in R&D + 600 mil. KRW for E-Government Support Project) - R&D Project: development of more functionability and stabilization of the Smart Big Board prototype developed in 2013; includes user management, expanded information connectivity, base survey for pilot implementation in local government, etc. - E-Government Support Project: selected as pilot project carried out by the Public Information Policy Division at MOSPA to further develop and expand the usability of the Smart Big Board based on the big data common platform developed in 2013 ◦ 2015: 1.45 bil. KRW (R&D) - Develop technology to respond to different types of disasters - Establish mid-to-long term roadmap for developing and distributing the Smart Big Board - Operate test-bed(pilot implementation) in local government

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
The following three output have been achieved since implementation of the action plan. ① Awareness heightened for the need to manage disasters by sharing information between various organizations on central government level - Report on Smart Big Board (cases of usage) made to the President in January 7, 2014 during the Cabinet meeting ② New disaster management paradigm that include the public promoted - Media coverage (34 news reports) such as 'Demonstration of the Smart Big Board for Advanced Disaster Situation Room (KBS)’ - Operation of promotional booth in social safety exhibitions (10 times) ③ Presented the direction for implementation of disaster management system for local government - Carried out consultation for determining the direction of implementation of customized system for individual organizations after successful pilot operation of the system by 42 public organizations in 2013 - Selected strategic regional organizations such as Metropolitan City of Pusan, Metropolitan City of Daejeon, and Provincial government of Jeonbuk for nationwide distribution of the system

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
As yet, no project monitoring and evaluation system has been put in place as currently, the main system for distribution is being developed after the development of the prototype. However, in order to make stable and effective use of the system, the following strategies are under review for implementation. ① Collect onsite demand in a bottom-up approach: hold public forum for local government and public institutions that participate in the pilot operation of the system to collect opinion on functions and content needed ② Research into evaluation index such as scope of damage before and after implementation, response time, etc., to qualitatively evaluate the efficiency gain made by implementing the system for disaster response planned for the near future

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
① There were difficulties in securing cooperation between the central and local government in the process of integrating information separately possessed by different agencies ⟹ The problem of lack of collaboration between government agencies was overcome by encouraging collaborative efforts and sharing of public information possessed by different government agencies through the principle of mutual communication and information sharing of the Government 3.0 initiative of the current administration. ② There was also confusion in the roles of the previous system and the new disaster information system caused by lack of understanding of newly developed concepts. ⟹ Government-wide understanding of the value of information (SNS information) provided by the people in disaster response was achieved through sustained promotion and education (mass media, promotional booth at exhibitions, etc.). ⟹ Credibility of analysis of disaster risks using social media information was strengthened.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
As previously mentioned, quantative assessment system has yet to be implemented but qualitative improvements can be summarized as follows: ① Reduction in human casualty and loss of property caused by various disasters and calamities ② Increased credibility of the people in government-led disaster management by active communication with the people ③ Stronger capacity in regional disaster response by distribution of disaster management system that is capable of providing the appropriate information for different user environment

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Without a doubt, this initiative needs to be continuously implemented and disseminated as welfare and disaster response is the cornerstone of any government that needs to be addressed. In the case of the Korean government, the development of content for the disaster information system and the platform upon which the system operates are independent of each other, allowing for sustainment of the initiative and easy replication. Specifically, by simply implementing the platform, any other country with the necessary content can make full use of this initiative. Such transfer is also made more convenient because the latest international standards for database, GIS and web operation have been adopted for the initiative.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The Korean society as a whole, has come to understand that instead of simply being the benefactor of disaster response and management, the people(citizens) can become the vehicle of disaster response. The dissemination of information and warning on disasters that have occurred through the use of social media and the increased frequency of use of geolocation technology have greatly affected the way people respond to disasters. And new form of information and value has been created by the integration of diverse and dispersed information. For example, information provided by CCTVs and onsite information disseminated by social media have come together to create a new type of information in determining possible disasters. Such convergence of sensory information and human information(SNS) can be used to complement the shortcoming of each other and allow maximal effectiveness in disaster management at minimal cost.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   National Disaster Magenement Institute
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Jinyoung Kim
Title:   Ph.D  
Telephone/ Fax:   821094936423
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   kim_jy@korea.kr  
Address:   136 Mapo-daero 6 floor
Postal Code:   121-719
City:   Seoul
State/Province:   Mapo-Gu

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