‘Peoples Participation through Panchayeti Raj Institutions in WASH’
State Project Management Unit, State Water and Sanitation Mission, Jharkhand

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
We wish to nominate State Project Management Unit, Drinking Water and Sanitation Department, Government of Jharkhand for its marked contribution for bringing in ‘Peoples Participation through Panchayeti Raj Institutions in WASH’[P4I]to enhance public service delivery standard ’ for the FY 2011-2014. Till 2010 Drinking Water and Sanitation Works were viewed from a traditional, supply driven Public Works point of view. ‘Community participation’ was an element of lowest priority in Drinking Water and Sanitation Work. There was little quantitative and qualitative progress in DWS work. Creating sustainable Water and Sanitation facility with proper Operation and Maintenance Mechanism for Rural Poor was a myth. Major problems and issues at hand before the DWSD, GoJ was as under: Water works was primarily depended upon Hand pumps without any protocol for operation and maintenance. DWSD used to put Hand pumps arbitrarily, often nearby the house of an influential locale. This may be termed as ‘Operational Privatization’ of a ‘Public asset’.The nearby household used to access unlimited Ground Water without any financial stake and provision for Operation and Maintenance. Rest of the village continue to drink unsafe water from natural sources without any interest or stake on Government support meant for them. Most of these hand pumps would either die in a short span of time due to inappropriate site selection, over use and/or non-responsive behaviour of its scheduled owner. Otherwise it would create an immediate water shortage onneighbours’ field and act as a ‘bone of Contention’ for economically and politically under privileged. Sanitation works under the Total Sanitation Campaign were being conducted in what is generally referred as ‘Supply Mode’. Flagship program of Sanitation was allocated based upon what can be best described as ‘Personal Contact’ rather than ‘Need assessment’ or ‘Co verification/justification’ by fellow rural household. Target driven incentive transfer without assessing beneficiary interest and social milieu led to poor repair and maintenance. Engagement of agencies without community consent for construction support without Behaviour Change made the flagship program vulnerable to in appropriate accounting and dismal performance. ‘Missing Toilets’ and ‘Slip Backs’ as referred to thenon-available/functional IHHLs in subsequent literature is a contribution of this period. Creating sanitation assets without ownership, protocol and Community approval left the state in an utterly bad shape. Inadequate process andlimited reach of Rural Water and Sanitation schemes primarily affected economically disadvantaged section in hinterland of the State i.e. Rural Poors. As a social group, women became the first victim of the situation. The key parameters that may capture the status of Water and Sanitation during this period are as under: SL No Particulars Parameter Status as on 01.04.2010 1 Community Participation VWSC Formed with Bank Account 0 2 Provision of Safe and Sustained Water Number of Rural Pipe Water Supply Schemes 105 3 Provision of Sanitation Facilities Open Defecation Free villages 0 4 Financial Sustainability of DWSD Schemes. Number of PWS generating revenue from users 10 VWSC Managed PWS Schemes 0

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Drinking Water and Sanitation Department initiated formation of Village Water and Sanitation Committee in 2010.The change process began with appointment of ShriSudhir Prasad, an IIT Alumni of batch 1979 as Principle Secretary of Drinking Water and Sanitation Department during the Financial Year 2011. Shri Prasad, with his demonstrated faith on participatory action anddecentralized local Governance pressed upon formation of VWSC as Executive Committee of Gram Panchayet. Summary of multifaceted strategic approach adopted over the last 3 years is given mentioned below: 1. Ensure End users participation in Decision Making: Formation of VWSC as last mile institution within PRI framework. VWSC mandated to have 50% Women Participation; JalSahiya’, A Village Women [JalSahiya] works as treasurer and is responsible for convening monthly meeting of VWSC. 2. Hand Holding Support to VWSC:Engagement of Civil Society Organizations [CSO] as Block Resource Centre [BRC]to ensure participatory process. CSOs engaged as BRC conduct IEC activity and act as a link between District unit and Gram Panchayets. 3. Placement of Support Structure: Lack of functional authority and technically capable human resource was a major challenge to improve performance of flagship schemes in WASH Domain. Apart from BRCs that facilitate work at Block Level, professionally managed District and State Project Management Unit were placed since 2012. 4. Path breaking Devolution of Power:Delegation of Power to PRI Functionaries has been notified on 2013.Before this there was no power vested on PRI. Institution Functionary[Casual Leave & Administrative control] Function [Administrative Sanction of Schemes] Gram Panchayat Plumber, Pump Operator, Hand Pump Mechanic less than Financial outlay of Rs.10 Lakh PanchayatSamiti Junior Engineer and Assistant Engineer Financial outlay of Rs.10 Lakh to 25 Lakh ZilaParishad Executive Engineer Financial outlay above Rs.25 Lakh to 50 Lakh 5. Adoption of Good Practices and Stakeholder Engagement:During the last 4 years International Agencies and Donor organizations including WSP-SA, Water-Aid, Plan International, WWSCC-GSF ,SRTT-CInIwere engaged as capacity building partners for the Village Community and Officials. They helped in defining Standard processes for enhancing community participation in Water and Sanitation programand Conduction of IEC and Capacity building events. 6. Sensitive Water and Energy Tariff Policy:User charges and connection fee has been made mandatory in Rural Pipe Water supply schemes. PWS Scheme is now considered complete when 50% of the targeted number gets access to the scheme by depositing minimum Rs.310/- connection charges. Commercial establishments pay at least 3 times. DWSD offers matching grant of the same amount collected by VWSC from User Fee on annual basis to ensure proper O & M of the System. SPMU worked to lower tariff of electricity unit charges for VWSC managed Water Supply schemes from Rs. 4.40 to Rs. 1.10 per unit. 7. Concurrent Monitoring and Grievance Management: A real time project Monitoring facility with a network of 212 High definition and User Friendly GPS was installed 2013.This enables community and officials to report scheme progress with digital verification note. A centralized Call Centre has been made operational with Manual Operators and IVRS system that records any Grievance regarding DWSD supported Water and Sanitation program in the State and take needful steps to address the same.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
In rural Jharkhand, Women are responsible for arrangement of water for household use. Also it’s women who face adversities due to lack of sanitation. Further they are the part of population who stays back to the village. Women led VWSC was the fundamental innovation that led to creations of systems and process of public service delivery within the mandate of Panchayeti Raj. Further when seen in the light of comparative effort made by other government departments to Delegate Power [DoP] to PRIs in terms of Funds, Function and Functionary,the initiative stands unique for a state where Soci-political and administrative set up for last 10 years has been best described as ‘disturbed’ . With empowered Village and PRI taking up further Socio technical innovation has been much faster, easier and transparent.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
A conscious step was taken by VWSC to build on capacities of existing Women Savings & Credit groups. In absence of PRIs,some ‘Not for Profit’ agencies have worked in the state to promote Self Help Groups. Experienced and credible NGOs in this field were roped in by DWSD for faster transformation. Inter Personal Communication was conducted by DWSD right at the door step of Rural Community.This innovative social andinstitutional framework is working as incubation centre for need based socio-technical process innovation at the last mile.Chronology of Key techno managerial interventions tried by DWSD to roll out VWSC managed WASH programplanis mentioned below; Particulars of the Initiative Started From Present Coverage Women Members to take up Field Test Kit based Water Quality Testing 2012-13 2000 habitations Transfer of Operation & Maintenance of PWS to VWSC 2010-11 2804 schemes transferred Involved women Members to take up Tube well maintenance & Masonry work. 2011-12 Started from Saranda Action Plan; more than 400 women trained and employed Engaging VWSC to prepare Micro Plan on water security and sustainability work 2011-12 164 VWSC have taken up this work on pilot basis Engaging domain experts at District and block Level 2013-14 7 New Professional from leading Institutes engaged Collaborative project with DWSD, CSR and VWSC 2013-14 2 project with ECL and TATA Steel under execution Adoption of Community Led Total Sanitation as Strategy for Sanitation 2013 Across the State ; 90 Gram Panchayaet taken up on priority basisin 14-15 Regular guidance note to VWSC for Demystification of Technology 2011 instruction notes released and regular guidance issued Awarding performing PRI Institution & Individuals 2011 Honoured on Jharkhand Day Nomination sent to different platform Regularization of Program Review at state level 2011 Bi-Monthly Program review in presence of ACS Computerization of Grievance Management System 2012 In operation with mandate of solving Tube Well problem within 72 hours Regular Field Visit by DWSD Officials 2012 Monthly field Visit and review is mandatory CSR Convergence initiative for assisting VWSCs 2012 26 CSR contacted; 14 participated and expressed their commitment New Website for DWSD 2012 The website helps VWSC leaders to reach DWSD Mobile Water Testing Laboratories For WQ Test 2013 Scientific Water Testing Facility is being provided at the door step of Villagers Mobile Water Treatment Plants 2012 5 Vehicles started proving cheap potable failure Open defecation free Village achieved through participation of VWSCs 2012 Around 400 Villages took resolution to stop open defecation and constructed toilets on their own

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Particulars of stakeholder engagement during the last two years (2010-12) are given below; Name of the Stake holder Engaged From Brief Accounts of Work done & Terms of Engagement PRADAN 2012 Community Managed Rural Water Supply Scheme is implemented through VWSC as pilot program in 20 Villages across 6 Districts BASIX 2012 Helping department with professional manpower support to establish and strengthen State Water and Sanitation Mission TSRDS 2012 Community Managed Rural Water Supply Scheme is being replicated with the help of UNICEF in 3blocks of 1 District Water Aid 2012 Developed communication materials and training modules for the JalSahiyas and trained around 600 Jalsahiyas; developed community based participatory water security plans in around 30 villages in SanthalPargana region of Jharkhand. GSF 2011 NRMC Delhi as executing Agency of Global Sanitation Fund is working to create ODF villages under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in 4 districts through Nine partner Organizations WSP 2011 World Support Program engaged to extend Research, Monitoring and evaluation support in sanitation domain Block Resource Centres 2012 16 Civil Society Organizations were Selected as Block Resource centre through transparent process to scale up community involvement through appropriate IEC work CLTS Foundation 2012 Facilitated international workshop and seeded foundation of Community based Total sanitation Movement in the state World Bank 2012 World Bank was roped in for a special project grant of 600 Crore over the next five years UNICEF - UNICEF provides strategic support to the department by enabling CCDU: They were involved in demonstration Projects
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
SPMU,DWSD receives Fund from Government of India and Government of Jharkhand under Flagship schemes and state Plan support. Year wise financial support available for the Department during the period is given below: Head 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 NRDWP 260.00 354.00 463.00 551 NBA 55.21 33.66 25.88 58.21 Total 315.21 387.66 488.88 609.21 However, Women Led VWSC initiatives was primarily planned and implemented through Project Management Unit and hence expenses on State and District Level Project management Units have had a direct bearing on the initiative. During the period approximate expense on the institutional structure i.e. Human Resource and administrative Expenses from Government Fund is given below: Head 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 NRDWP Support 0.27 2.44 5.76 7.55 SBM [NBA]IEC 1.74 2.12 4.54 8.36 SBM [NBA] Admin 1.52 1.34 1.75 3.43 Additional Support was mobilized from stakeholders and International donor agencies from time to time for training and capacity building. The initiative is presently being supported by 12 State Level, 62 District Level and570 Block Level Human Resource in 24 districts of Jharkhand . Additional 10 State level human resources and 40 district level human resource are placed with separate World Bank supported cell that is functional since 2013.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
A. Status of VWSC promotion and ensuring women participation holding regular meeting facilitated by DWSDstands for Department’s interest and involvement [detailed below]; No. of Villages VWSC Formed Bank Accounts Opened Number of Women Members Minimum No of Annual Meetings 29413 28177 26250 160000 100000 B. Presently More than 60 Rural Pipe water Supply schemes are owned and managed by VWSC. Given below is the list of selectVWSC affair. Name No of Connection Revenue collected From Monthly Charge Avarage Collection Total Collection Noamundi Bazar 215 215 150 32250 1100000 KolhanHatin 292 292 100 29200 680000 Siulibari East 489 350 62 21700 900000 Bhurkunda 850 600 62.5 37500 1400000 Chirkunda 230 230 61 14030 403123 Nirsa 235 200 62 12400 1300000 Gopalpur 630 500 62 31000 660311 Meru 153 100 65 6500 103000 C. Creation of Open defecation Free Village, Gram Panchayet and Block has been made possible by act of empowered VWSCs; below we mention a list of 6 successful Sanitation Schemes implemented by VWSCs S. N. Sanitation related Success Stories District 1 Use of Slip back toilets by JalsahiyaYashminSamad in KashyaPanchayat East Singhbhum 2 Use and Maintenance of Community toilet in Bero Village Ranchi 3 Gadri Village - Story of ODF Gadri Village, Ranchi Ranchi 4 Hutar - ODF Village, Ranchi Ranchi 5 ODF Village Kawatia, Ranchi Ranchi 9 ODF Village Bakshi, Lohardaga Lohardaga D. Empowered VWSCs are provided with Funds to take up water and Sanitation schemes of their choice. During the last 3 year Fund transfer to VWSC by State and district units are as under; SL No Year NBA NRDWP Remarks [All Rupees in Crores] No of VWSC Fund Transferred No of VWSC Fund Transferred 1 2012-13 1576 11.62 NA 1.45 Given For IHHL, O & M of Hand pump, PWS and Soak Pit construction 2 2013-14 8949 33.20 NA 14.74 For World Bank Project VWSCs are the executing authority and they are inviting Expression of Interest.Participatory Water Security plan has been prepared by more than 40 VWSCs. VWSC members successfully placed their plea for Energy tariff reduction and succeeded in getting the 3 times over a period of 3 years.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
1. SPMU Monitors the strategy through Online MIS, physical verification as per protocol and concurrent evaluation by qualified third party. 2. Regular Physical and Financial data are entered into online MIS created by Ministry of Drinking water and Sanitation on monthly basis. 3. SPMU website has provision to receive grievance related to non-functional Hand pump. 4. GPS based Real time monitoring system for water and Sanitation schemes is carried out by Designated Junior engineers and Hydro Geologists. 5. As a routine process Call centre records and responds to the questions by VWSC members on regular basis. 6. Status of Fund transfer and Availability with VWSC is being monitored online in association with Bank of India from 2014-15. Based on these six sources we understand that incorporation of VWSC has made a positive contribution to WASH sector initiatives in following manner: 1. Tube well repairing time improved from 15 Days to 5 Days (As feedback received from the field); 2. Project Conceptualization to O& M transfer time reduced to 6 to 8 Months (Compared between VWSC involved project supported by PRADAN and normal projects); 3. Improvement in construction time of Toilet and sanitation facility (From demand to supply cycle used to take more than a year while presently it is completed in three months). 4. Any Complain is addressed electronically on the same day and physically within 2 working days. 5. At State Project Management Unit, DWSD representatives get regular call from the participant villagers, GP representatives and other individuals/institutions. Data of greivance received for the year 12-13 and 1st quarter of 13-14 isgiven below for trend . [Figures For 2014-15 are projected based upon present status]

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
As we have discussed earlier the administrative and Political setting of the State itself was the major obstacle in this process. There was initial inertia internally from DWSD as well. However , lack of peoples participation ,Knowledge and idea are the key issues that is faced by any instructional change or Business Process reengineering initiative were typical hurdle of this initiative as well.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The effort made by DWSD is also reflected in movement of a few Key indicators as per the parameter fixed by Government of India. Key Result area is given below; SL No Particulars Parameter Status as on 31.09.2014 1 Community Participation VWSC Formed with Bank Account 26250 2 Provision of Safe and Sustained Water Number of Rural Pipe Water Supply Schemes 350 schemes working; more than 5000 in pipeline 3 Provision of Sanitation Facilities Open Defecation Free villages 98; Additional 100 Villages are expected by year FY end 2014 4 Financial Sustainability of DWSD Schemes. Number of PWS generating revenue from users 58 VWSC Managed PWS Schemes 70

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Many a times Government develops program and officials function with a fundamental assumption that ‘Poor’s don’tknow’.Also an intentional or unintentional delay in sharing program information affects quality of program implemented. In village context many information remain with Mukhia. ButRural Community living at the hinterland are often becomes victim of this information asymmetry. This can be best treated with presence of a Community based Institution affiliated to Local Self Governance Institution. This acts as fundamental building block helps generating demand side information. Also presence of such an institution acts as Learning Group and helps making democratic decision without missing efficiency . Presence and regular meeting of such a body acts as an inbuilt concurrent social audit tool. VWSC is a community based institution mandated by Panchayati raj Act working as 1st point of referral. Power to VWSC as well as other tier of PRI has been transferred. JalSahiya and other workers are engaged on job work basis. They are receiving regular engagement and economically viable proposition in local area.More than 50VWSCs collecting revenue from Water connection on regular basis; this helps them to sustain financially. There is increasing need of water and Sanitation service in the state. Even CSR are looking VWSC as an upcoming investment opportunity.With increasing emphasis on PRI and due professional support VWSC initiative address the need of transparent people centric governance at the last mile.Being need driven initiative, sustainability of Women Led VWSC as a mandated but finacially independent body in Jharkhand is assured

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Many a time’s failures of Flagship programs are simply passed on to beneficiaries with a seemingly lame logic Poor’s Don’t Do.And as a vicious cycle often Government programs banks on this fuggy logic to run the program in Red Tape. Even finding of papers related to 13th Finance Commission mentions that program fails for lack of ownership by the participants. SPMU,SWSM experienceof experimenting with aWomen led community based institution with due delegation of power and responsibility like VWSCis the critical gap in all flagship programs. There has either been an individual based approach [lacking peer commitment] or an over dependence on NGO centric community Mobilization approach [keeping minimal to be done or achieved by the community]. Involving community to do the things and getting professionally rewarded for their achievement seems to be a more sustainable and driving arrangement for Social and Administrative reforms. Coming to infrastructure projects and business sustainability in Rural India there is a long standing view [read ‘Myth’] “Poor’s’ don’tpay”. The view is well adored by certain political and administrative schools. The school essentially works to lobby for Free Water, Sanitation and Hygiene facilities. As a result without community commitment, stake and participation Indian WASH sector has been dubbed as ‘Graveyard of Public investment’. In places where VWSC took responsibility of Pipe Water Supply Receipt on account of Connection Fee and Monthly Water Taxes has been much better than the once run by DWSD itself.VWSC ensures due supply, monitor usage and charge separately for Household and commercial connections.DWSD Pays an equal amount to the VWSC on annual basis as matching grant. This is encouraging VWSCs to charge at an appropriate rate and recover investment and O & M cost. We learn, subjected to Service and sensitive pricing as per local condition, poor’s are the first to pay when it comes to ensuring basic services like Water and Sanitation. To sum it up establishment and performance of professionally managed SPMU under State Water and Sanitation Mission has proven that, Myths can be broken, Acts can be demystified and Reality can be when there is Trust, Connectionand Responsive Action. With rightful Delegation of Power to VWSC, SPMU,SWSM, Jharkhand has proven that less of Government and More of Governance of the People, For the People and By the People is the right way to prosperity.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   State Project Management Unit, State Water and Sanitation Mission, Jharkhand
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Kallol Saha
Title:   State Coordinator  
Telephone/ Fax:   +919471710631
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   kallosh74@gmail.com  
Address:   Office of Chief Engineer cum Executive Director, 1st Floor, Program management Unit, Beside Doranda Police Station
Postal Code:   834002
City:   Ranchi
State/Province:   Jharkhand

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