VPIS
National Authority for Qualifications & Quality Assurance of Education and Training

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Kingdom of Bahrain has limited resources and recognises the need to shift to a diversified economy. A key asset for achieving a regionally competitive economy is its pool of human capital with a culture of pursuing the highest educational achievement for everyone. Bahrainis strive hard to achieve their educational goals. Increasing demand for a skilled workforce has caused a rapid growth in private vocational education and training providers, leaving parents, individual learners and employers to negotiate unfamiliar educational and training terrain with complex certifications, varying quality standards and uncertain outcomes. Many certificates are of uncertain value. Other than internationally accredited qualifications there has been no national mechanism to quality assure providers and offer impartial assessment. Another concern is that funding was not directly linked to quality. Training is funded through the levy fund from Ministry of Labour (MoL) and High Council for Vocational Training (HCVT) or Labour Fund (Tamkeen). Many employers enrolled employees on courses lacking quality or solid outcomes. Their core interest is to recover the training levy they have paid, while training providers maximise profits by providing courses irrespective of real worth. Levy reimbursements are based on enrolment numbers, not on skill acquisition and achievements. Thus, the national economy is deprived of solid returns on human capital development. The sustainability of economic reforms is compromised despite the huge outlays from the training levy system and from whom want meaningful training and education. There was no clear public policy to ensure transparency in the vocational training market. No single organisation was accountable for the quality of training provision. The National Authority for Qualifications and Quality Assurance of Education and Training (QQA) was founded in 2008. Part of its role is to quality review all education and training institutions in the kingdom and publish review reports, making its work transparent to all stakeholders. Consequently a multi-party government consultation strategy, Vocational Provider Improvement Strategy (VPIS), was established to improve the VET sector and maximise the utilisation of levy and other training funds by directing contracts to the better providers, supporting weaker providers to improve, and sanctioning those who fail to improve. This links licensing and funding to performance. Prior to VPIS, the MoL inspected licensed providers mainly focussing on the adequacy of premises and staffing. Tamkeen had its own criteria to monitor its contracted providers. QQA has been reviewing institutes since September 2008, awarding grades and judging the quality of the VET provision. In addition, HCVT approves courses and payment requirements for employers. There was no coordination among these three parties, and limited inter-agency work to develop the vocational sector. Private providers are accountable to the MoL without whose approval they cannot operate, and are significantly influenced by levy and Tamkeen funding. Nevertheless, there was no comprehensive policy framework in the vocational sector to drive improvement, nor formal mechanisms to bring these stakeholders together in an overall strategy to increase impact. The VPIS initiative brings these key stakeholders together to better manage the national funds and serve the public and economy at large.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The education reform programme, shaped by the Education Reform Board (ERB) under the chairmanship of the Deputy Prime Minister has been under way since 2005. It crosses all three tiers of education, implementing the Secondary Vocational Education Project (SVEP) and establishing several important institutions and agencies including Bahrain Polytechnic, Bahrain Teacher Training College, and the QQA. The importance of a strong education and training system in preparing Bahraini nationals for the challenges ahead cannot be over- emphasized. Clearly recognised in Vision 2030 are commitments to improve the status of the teaching and training profession and the quality of teaching and training, to provide high quality skills training for Bahrainis, and to promote improvement and accountability throughout the education system. The National Economy strategy (NES) sets out a number of initiatives aimed at education, notably to improve policy, regulatory and funding arrangements and to improve the quality of learning outcomes across all three sectors of education. Implementing a vocational improvement strategy is a key milestone in raising the quality of Bahrain’s vocational sector. This includes making explicit connections between recommendations of the Directorate of Vocational Reviews (DVR) of the QQA stated in the review reports, the licensing decisions by the MoL, and funding decisions by HCVT and Tamkeen. All parties affirmed their commitment to the improvement of vocational education and training, in line with vision set out in the NES Initiative. In 2008 the DVR began reviewing providers licensed by the MoL and Ministry of Education (MoE). Each provider’s strengths and areas it needs to develop were diagnosed. However, review is not an end in itself, what happens afterwards is of major importance. If no action is taken in terms of directing training contracts to the better preforming providers, supporting weaker providers to improve, and taking sanctions against those who fail to do so, the impact of the review is seriously compromised. To this end, the QQA, MoL and Tamkeen were charged with developing and implementing a comprehensive vocational improvement strategy. An MOU was signed between the parties (QQA, MoL, HCVT and Tamkeen) affirming their commitment to this project. The strategy neither guarantees the provision of, nor obliges providers to seek, financial or other type of support; the improvement lies entirely with the providers themselves. The strategy creates an environment whereby providers who exhibit capacity to improve may find the opportunity to do so through sources of financial and other support made available by Tamkeen. The main focus is on promoting improvement rather than punishing failure. As commented on above, it explicitly connects the activities of the QQA, MoL and Tamkeen. In implementing VPIS, all parties established effective networking between governmental entities. The outcome has been significant. QQA has completed two cycles of reviews so far, and improvement has been noticed among training providers and their quality review ratings have improved over time, as noted on the QQA annual reports for the past five years. Additionally, in order to strengthen providers’ performance, Tamkeen funded two Training and Education Performance Support programmes (TEPS 1 and 2), and linked all bidding to the QQA reviews outcomes. The MoL has also started taking actions of limiting levy payments for those institutes deemed to be Inadequate in QQA reviews. Moreover, the MoL formed a committee in January 2012 to revise the current law governing the licensing of the ‘Private Educational and Training Institutions’ (Law 25) in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The initiative brings together the key stakeholders, making them responsible for the performance of training providers, and improving the quality of the sector as a whole. This transformed decision-making processes within governmental sectors. The four entities developed common KPIs’ and success measures with effective reporting and monitoring mechanisms. This changed the bureaucratic culture dominating government in this region. By having common KPIs’ without conflicts of interest, VPIS created responsive teams to take effective actions around a common purpose. For the first time regionally, fair and transparent reports on the quality of vocational institutions are openly published, informing decision making and giving citizens access to accurate and unbiased information. Furthermore, policymakers now have a valuable tool to support decisions around licensing vocational training providers and regulating levies and funds, based directly on quality review outcomes. Targeted support programmes that match the identified needs of all institutions, according to the review reports, are delivered. This pioneering approach of identifying the quality of training services and openly reporting on them, alongside informed funding, regulation and capacity building, has created a unique mechanism with a holistic and horizontal approach to the delivery of public services and management. This modernises and transforms public services.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The VPIS started with Bahrain’s Economic Vision 2030 in mind, where it refers to developing a productive, globally competitive economy, shaped by the government and driven by pioneering private sectors. The provision of high quality vocational training and the establishment of continuous improvement amongst training providers are seen as crucial to achieving this. The process began in 2008 by reviewing providers licensed by the MoL and MoE. Providers’ strengths and areas to be addressed were diagnosed. A vocational improvement initiative is an important part of the NES: 2.3.3.1 Implement a vocational improvement programme … to raise the quality of training and student outcomes at Bahrain’s vocational institutes … Article 2.3.3.1 includes reference to the explicit requirement for decisions by the MoL and Tamkeen to be based on QQA review report outcomes. The MoL, HCVT, QQA and Tamkeen declared their commitment to VPIS, signing MOU in 2009 with backing of the Economic Development Board (EDB). VPIS was formed in October 2009 with three main objectives: to implement a comprehensive vocational improvement programme, to develop connections between QQA reports, MoL licensing, and funding decisions by MoL and Tamkeen, and to establish an improvement strategy for vocational providers. VPIS first met in March 2010, with QQA hosting meetings and collating review data and reports. In 2010 the committee revised its terms of reference, assigned roles and responsibilities among the three main parties as well as the EDB, MoE and the HCVT. During June to September 2010 the committee agreed on KPIs and deliverables, with reporting frequency. The time line for the KPIs was agreed to cover the period till 31 – 12 – 2014. On September 2010 a portal was made available at EDB to upload VPIS working documents, data and reports. From June 2010 the QQA has shared with Tamkeen the common areas for improvement, to enable Tamkeen to design specific workshops for vocational training providers through its TEPS programmes. These were designed to target trainers, administrative staff, top management and owners of institutes serving in the education and training sector. The first TEPS programme covered July 2010 to June 2011 and TEPS2 covered September 2012 to April 2014. In 2010 Tamkeen started to include the outcomes of review reports within its tenders’ evaluations, scoring service providers with QQA published ratings, recognizing ’Satisfactory’” as the minimum acceptable grade. Tamkeen also launched in 2010 further supporting programmes to funding providers in improving infrastructure, IT systems and quality procedures. In October 2009 MoL started to act on limiting levy payments for institutions deemed Inadequate and subjected to a monitoring visit by the DVR review team. From February 2011, DVR began sharing reports with MoL on providers who scored Inadequate well in advance prior, which enabled MoL to form an internal committee to support these institutes to help them improve. In early 2012, MoL took legal advice to revoke the licenses of providers scoring Inadequate twice consecutively. This is not yet finalised, so on January 2012 a Joint Committee was formed from all major stakeholders (VPIS members, Chamber of Commerce, Labour Unions, and Society of Private Training Institutes) to review and revise Law 25. A final draft was presented in December 2013, which will be finally approved. So far, 22 meetings have been conducted by VPIS. The key outcome of the above various initiatives is an effective communication and reporting mechanism that has been continuously refined and used to report on their KPIs’ to the other partners. The KPIs’ were reviewed and update on September 2014 resulting more challenging targets, and including specific KPIs’ for the General Directorate of National Qualification Framework (GDQ) of the QQA.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
A strong education and training system in Kingdom of Bahrain is the responsibility of the main VPIS stakeholders. Initiative 2.3.3.1 (vocational improvement implementation plan) was put forward by NES, to run from 1 January 2009 and to 31 December 2014. The QQA Chief Executive was appointed to lead this initiative. An MOU was signed by the four main parties, affirming their commitment to the strategy. The MoL is the main licensing and regulating body for most privately owned training providers. A license is granted on the basis of various practical issues including the sustainability of premises, qualifications of their staff and the outcome of the MoL inspection. Although providers obtain some work directly from companies or individuals, their main source of income is the levy fund, administered by the HCVT. MoL agreed to use QQA review outcomes to inform the awarding of training contracts as well as preventing HCVT levy contracts to provider judged Inadequate by QQA. Tamkeen also plays an effective role in the strategy, as it provides funding for capacity building and support programmes for all institutions. Tamkeen uses the generic areas for improvement diagnosed by QQA to organise capacity-building programmes. Since July 2010, Tamkeen has sponsored 58 workshops addressing different improvement areas diagnosed by QQA review reports, with nearly 1,000 training opportunities provided for Bahrainis working in private VET institutions. Tamkeen has also declared that institutes must be rated at least ’Satisfactory’ by QQA to be eligible for participation in Tamkeen’s projects to provide training programmes for provider such as career progression programme (CPP). Tamkeen is one of the largest purchasers of training locally, and dealing with most VET institutions in the country. This prerequisite therefore increases the need for institutes to improve their scores in order to benefit from funding.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Each of the four major stakeholders have well established human and physical infrastructure and have internally financed all activities related to this initiative as part of their own annual budget. For the implementation of the capacity building support, TEPS1 and 2 programmes were launched by Tamkeen, who allocated about BD700,000 to the scheme. Tamkeen has collaborated with international training institutes to design, implement and project manage these programmes. An evaluation system is in place to measure the effectiveness and satisfaction of the beneficiaries. The findings suggest that participants of both TEPS 1 and 2 are very satisfied by the learning outcomes of these workshops. The QQA makes all review reports, examination results, review instruments and annual reports available to the public through a user-friendly website that is frequently updated and well maintained. Review reports, once approved by the QQA’s board of directors and the Cabinet of the Prime Minister, are shared with stakeholders during regular VPIS meetings for further action, sent to providers, and made available to the public. QQA has held several self-evaluation awareness workshops, forums and conferences to share and spread best practice amongst training institutions and individuals. Some panel reviews, which require local and international specialists, are supported internally through the QQA budget. MoL has formed a committee to follow up on all Inadequate providers and ensure that they are progressing on their action plans to address the QQA’s review visit recommendations. A budget is allocated to pay overtime to staff who attend these visits outside normal working hours. Additionally, the MoL has started awareness visits to newly established institutes to ensure that they follow QQA review requirements and cooperate accordingly. This is a result of recommendations made by the VPIS team. The MoL is introducing a web-based portal to provide better access to citizens and other stakeholders about institutions status, programmes, and QQA rating. The QQA and Tamkeen will have direct access to this portal, as discussed and agreed on at VPIS meetings.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
The strategy team met regularly and included all primary stakeholders’, including government agencies and citizens. Both strategic and tactical matters were discussed, with responsibilities being assigned for resolving issues and reporting progress. The main objective of the strategy was to raise the quality of training and learners’ outcomes of vocational institutions in the Kingdom. The team ensured the flow of data and information among members. A shared sense of responsibility, common objectives and high commitment were demonstrated. Meetings were conducted professionally and focused on outcomes, so that all members engaged and delivered. The effectiveness of this team could be adopted as a model across other work groups to improve cooperation among governmental agencies. The above objective was converted into success measures and KPIs’. The agreed approach was to use incentives to reward well-performing institutes in QQA reviews, support Inadequate providers, and take action against those who did not improve by stopping their levy entitlement. Each of the stakeholders had specific KPIs’ that helped to achieve the overarching objective. Tamkeen, through TEPS 1 and 2 workshops and other capacity building activities, provided effective capacity building, with most workshops based on common areas for improvement diagnosed through QQA reviews. MoL created an internal committee to address the issues of Inadequate providers. The committee followed up on Inadequate institutes to monitor their progress in addressing QQA review visit recommendations. HCVT linked each institute’s levy entitlement to a successful outcome with QQA reviews. Before VPIS, most training providers lacked commitment to improve their quality of offering and did not make effective use of available improvement resources and capacity building opportunities. As a key success of this strategy, MoL started the initiative of revising its current licensing Law (Law 25). VPIS members were major players in articulating this law, with representative from employers, training providers and NGO’s invited to participate on the final draft. As a result, comparison of QQA’s Cycle 1 and 2 review reports clearly illustrates that significant number of providers have improved. The baseline at the start was 69% of providers scoring ‘Satisfactory’ or above. The KPI was set for 80% by end-2014; currently the performance measure is 82%, with 42% of providers having improved their grade by at least one step. Meanwhile, VPIS have observed that there is a correlation between institutions who have utilised training and growth grants and those who have addressed QQA recommendations and improved their provision.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
From the outset, VPIS realised the importance of keeping track of progress in achieving objectives as determined by NES under Article 2.3.3.1. The team decided to report on progress with measurable indicators and brief qualitative explanations. Objectives were split between members, each being asked to propose success criteria and KPIs’ satisfying their own activities but linked to the strategy. After several meetings consensus agreement was reached on KPIs’ and measures of success. A monitoring matrix and quarterly reporting template were produced to monitor progress and evaluate activities. Progress reports have been the main agenda item of every VPIS meeting, with each member submitting, prior to each meeting, a report on activities towards achieving targets. Very important was the regularity of meetings over the five years. KPIs’ determined the efficacy of the committee and were regularly tracked and performance percentages against measures of success have been regularly presented. Areas of concern were shared and notes were added to clarify matters for further discussion or appropriate actions. The strategy has been converted into four KPIs’, one for each government entity, as follows (last report was in June 2014): KPI 1 (Tamkeen): take-up of Tamkeen’s schemes by vocational providers • Target: 80% or more providers by end-2014 • Base figure 21; current progress (June 2014) 56% KPI 2 (MoL): MoL's quarterly reports on training providers’ adherence to legislation • Target: 95% of providers compliant with MoL inspections by end-2014 • Base figure: not available; current progress: 84% (on 62 inspections) KPI 3 (HCVT-MoL): Improve utilisation of the levy • Target: 60% of the utilised amount will be on accredited programmes by 2014 • Base Figure 11%; current progress: 13.6% KPI 4 (QQA-DVR): Review all eligible providers, all review reports to be approved and published • Target: 100% reviewed by October 2014. , 100% of reports approved and published by December 2014 • Current progress: 90% Measures of success are: 1- Percentage of providers judged Satisfactory or better by 2014 • Target: 80% • Current progress: 81.9% 2- Percentage of key areas of improvement addressed by providers • Target: 20% • Current progress: 26.7% 3- Percentage of Inadequate providers who improve their grades at the next review by 2014 • Target: 80% • Current progress: 72% (13 out of 18) 4- More accurate self-evaluation by providers (reduced difference between SEF and review grades). • Target: difference 0.75 or less • Base Figure: +1.55; current progress: .95

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Like any other national strategy, the involvement of diverse organisations is a challenge where speed and coherence of output are concerned. Many policy discussions took place, and for members to portray the importance of suggested policy changes based on VPIS discussions is a challenge since some suggestions require ministerial decrees and some changes in law which take time and effort. Firstly, one of the main challenges facing the implementation of VPIS was the need to update some ministerial decrees and legislation. This proved to take longer than expected. Some practical steps were taken, such as support given to vocational providers found to be Inadequate through the formation of a follow-up committee in the MoL, and the monitoring visits conducted by QQA. These provided the support needed for the institutions. However, the decision taken by HCVT to link the levy entitlement created the need to revise Law 25 so that this linking has legal weight. Secondly, as there was no measurement of the status of vocational providers in the Kingdom of Bahrain and the quality of their offering, setting KPIs’ was difficult. Some agencies had no solid baselines to work with and that led to some ambitious KPIs’ being set. Through the learning process of different agencies’ experience, KPIs’ were reviewed for the second cycle and set more realistically, with mutually agreed KPIs’ and success measures being put forward. Thirdly, the working team initially considered a standing committee with long-term membership (and hence its continuity refer to green highlight). Ultimately, it became a fluid committee with members being co-opted as needed from relevant entities. Continuity is maintained through clear and regular reporting on progress towards the achievement of KPIs’ and existing project materials and updates were always available to orient new members.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
Firstly, the main benefit of the vocational improvement strategy is to contribute positively to the vocational sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain and as such provide the high quality skills and training needed to empower individual Bahrainis and drive the national economy. The sector has experienced positive improvements trends over the past six years. As shown on the QQA’s annual reports, the accumulated results of quality reviews conducted in both Cycles 1 and 2 indicate a steady improvement in the quality of VET provisions in Bahrain. To date, 82% of providers were awarded ‘Satisfactory’ grade or better on QQA reviews, with 42% of providers having improved their grade by at least one point since previous review. A clear correlation exists between institutions that have utilised training, growth grants, and effectively addressed QQA recommendations to improve their provision. The improvement can be attributed to various reasons, including critical analysis of the institutes’ operations and the measures taken to institutionalise a number of their operations. There is ample evidence that providers’ actions for improvement are triggered by the diagnoses and recommendations made by the quality reviews, and the fact that these reviews are open to public scrutiny. Actions taken by the regulatory bodies to make explicit connections between QQA’s reports and funding decisions are a major driver for institutes to take serious action. The regulatory bodies have their own monitoring system, but supplement these with the quality assurance review results and recommendations. A major shift in the culture of accountability and continuous improvement has been observed across VET providers. A recent quote from a major provider in the Kingdom Bahrain stated that “The QQA recommendations leads to first threshold of excellence” A second benefit is that the VET improvement strategy is finally vested in one homogenous organising committee with the explicit task of pushing through the reforms that are necessary for VET to play its part in realising the National Vision 2030 on behalf of the Kingdom. The task is owned by four main entities, who have seen the results of their very effective cooperation. This constructive networking among the parties concerned allowed them to fulfil the strategy’s objectives within the specified timeframe. A sense of shared of responsibility, common objectives and high management commitment were obvious throughout the implementation of the strategy. The progress of the strategy was tracked thoroughly and consistently during regular meetings over the past five years. A thirdly major success of the strategy is that the licensing body, MoL, has revised the current policy framework for licensing through Law 25. This overcomes previous deficiencies related to licensing and course approvals, planning and funding systems that are not fit for purpose. The new law incorporates quality assurance requirements, in addition to the evolving requirements of the labour market and the government’s Vision 2030. VPIS members were major players in articulating this law, alongside representatives from employers, training providers and NGOs who were invited to participate on the final draft of the law. Fourthly, this initiative has enabled Tamkeen, to steer its capacity building training programmes such as TEPS 1 and 2 workshops and other activities including funding support, based on decisions informed by the outcome of review reports and discussions conducted by the VPIS team to identify the common areas for improvement. As an enabler, the presence of Tamkeen has enabled the achievement of highly effective outcomes to the strategy objectives.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The VPIS initiative has become a high level platform and institutional framework that has started to harmonise national policies and integrate services to promote a sustained collaborative culture among the key players in licensing, funding and quality assuring the national VET provisions. The initiative is sustained by the clear linkages it makes with Bahrain’s Economic Vision 2030 and the NES. The VPIS partners have a mission to continue raising the standards of Bahrain’s national education reform initiative. The assigned responsibilities and accountabilities within VPIS form integral parts of each government entity’s strategic objectives, with open and transparent reporting. The effective institutional mechanisms and networking among the key governmental parties responsible for promoting VET and up-skilling the Bahraini youth is sustained by integrating the initiative within the QQA strategy 2014-2018 (Strategic Initiatives 3.1.1 and 3.1.2), with clear performance measures and deliverables. The MOU between the key VPIS partners ensures that decision making is taken through a consultative approach, including the voices of business and industry represented by HCVT. The outcomes and impact of the VPIS are already embedded in the current regulations and funding arrangements and have become the working standard, and transformed approach VET providers and employers requesting training have to follow. This is sustained through acknowledgment, by these stakeholders, of the fair and transparent nature of the regulations introduced. The competition for funding among training institutions is now based on quality and value–added rather than the number of enrolments, which was not sustainable and caused unnecessary disappointment and dissatisfaction. The proposed revision of Law 25 of the ‘Private Educational and Training Institutions’ licensed in the Kingdom of Bahrain, which the VPIS had a key role in drafting and revising (particularly articles 27, 28 and 29), ensures the sustainability of arrangements in linking the outcomes of the review reports with levy reimbursements and other government funds. The proposed articles also state that, where ‘Inadequate’ training providers do not improve their provision in the second review, their license might be revoked. The interaction between the parties has been institutionalised, with the outcomes of review reports readily acted upon by the MoL and Tamkeen in granting levy and training funds, and supporting providers’ improvement plans. Bidding for Tamkeen funding and submissions for levy are now open only to those providers who receive a grade of ‘Satisfactory’ or better on their QQA reviews. Tamkeen also designs its capacity building programmes based on the common areas for development identified in the review reports. Funding for these programmes constitutes a significant portion of Tamkeen’s overall budget and forms an important part of their long-term strategic objective. The continuous commitment of top management and senior staff in attending regular meetings, participating effectively in discussions and monitoring the agreed KPIs’ reported by each member of the VPIS are further safeguards to ensure the sustainability of the initiative and its importance to the successful integration of a very vital government service that impacts the life of the citizens and economy of the Kingdom of Bahrain.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Although this initiative was initially steered by the EDB of Bahrain, the VPIS parties took the lead in setting the KPIs relevant to the initiative and in ensuring the continuation of the initiative as they have seen the positive effects of such collaboration in improving the effectiveness of their operations and upgrading the vocational education and training in Bahrain. One major lesson from this initiative is that cooperation and organized exchange of information and data can lead to better results. Continuous updates and communication between all relevant parties, aimed at improving the outputs of vocational institutions, is a task that takes painstaking policy decisions and procedural arrangements. Under its general MOU, this strategy has been able to organise and achieve many improvements with minimum formalities, enhancing outcomes and driving institutional change through sustainable policy decisions. Our recommendation is to widely publicise this strategy and its directly related work and results as a lesson for other entities. When developing such strategies it is important to revise existing policies and regulations to ensure that they are in line with requirements. In this case, this was achieved through the continuous inter-departmental updates and communications. There remains a need to revise some of the current laws and policies, expediting changes such as those to Law 25, to foster further improvement in Bahrain’s vocational education provision. The KPIs’ initially went through a number of evaluations to establish realistic baselines and expectations. However, as the development of the strategy matured with its tangible effects on the quality of vocational education, it is time for an overall review. Most of all, this experience teaches us that it takes more than one committed organisation to lead change of such importance. It is the combined, hands-on efforts by all the main parties and the linking of regulatory development that has led to the improvements seen. As the system is developing further, it is time to strengthen the participation of different parties such as learners, training providers and employers in developing the strategy, revising and enhancing it to ensure delivery of an effective and satisfactory public service. Although the QQA makes its review reports publicly accessible to all citizens, public awareness is not as high as expected. Therefore, the strategy members need to further reach out to all citizens to ensure effective communication of the achievements and strengthen the public trust in the vocational education and training available in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   National Authority for Qualifications & Quality Assurance of Education and Training
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Duaa Sharafi
Title:   Manager  
Telephone/ Fax:  
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   duaa.sharafi@qaa.edu.bh  
Address:   Manama Bahrain
Postal Code:   00973
City:   Manama
State/Province:  
Country:  

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