| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
1) [1st phase] Generation of big data on complaints (From 2005): The e-People opened in 2005 by unifying online complaints windows of different governmental organizations, and the 110 Call Center is merging complaints call centers by stages. As of 2013, approximately 3.6 million complaints cases are accumulated annually in big data.
2) [2nd phase] Establishment of the complaints analysis system (From 2008 to 2012): The complaints analysis system was proposed in 2008, after a two-year feasibility study, and was selected as one of the e-government projects. The establishment and enhancement of the system took place from 2010 to 2012.
a) In 2010: Established infrastructure for analyzing big data on complaints(KRW 1.66 billion)
b) In 2011: Established a foundation for mutual utilization of the complaints analysis system among different governmental bodies( KRW 1.37 billion)
c) In 2012: Enhanced complaints analysis functionality ( KRW 920 million)
3) [3rd phase] Support for the political decision making process using the complaints information analysis system (From 2013): A foundation for mutual utilization among different government bodies was established in 2011, and the list of government bodies that may utilize the information has been expanding since 2012. The analysis of complaints related to the government’s major policies is provided to relevant organizations so that the citizens’ voices can be incorporated into policies.
a) Expanding a list of user organizations: The list included 20 organizations in 2012, and expanded to 42 central governmental organizations in 2013. All 17 Offices of Education and 6 local governments started mutual utilization in 2014, and our goal is to include all local governments by 2015.
b) Improving the analysis and utilization of complaints related to major policies: Complaints related to major policies, such as national projects, regulatory reform, and public safety, have been analyzed and provided to relevant organizations since 2012. Also, search and analysis function of complaints related to national projects has been available since 2014 so that the citizens’ voices can be heard in the promotion of national projects.
4) [4rd phase] Operation of the complaints alarm system using big data (From 2014): All central government bodies started using the complaints information analysis system in 2013, and incorporated analyzed data into their political decision making process. When complaints were filed against many organizations at the same time, however, it was difficult to grasp the overall circumstances, and thus to properly respond. The ACRC, in order to overcome this challenge, introduced the complaints alarm system using big data in 2014.
- The complaints alarm system using big data follows the following process:
a) Complaints monitoring: The complaints information analysis system is utilized for real-time monitoring of complaints. If complaints are filed beyond a certain standard and continue without resolution for a certain period of time, an alarm will be issued.
b) Alarm issuance: An alarm will be issued in three levels according to the intensity and condition of complaints. The first level is “Attention” if multiple cases or a sign of collective complaints arise. The second level is “Caution” if there is a constant increase of cases or a sign of complaints diffusion. The third level is “Warning” if the scale of cases seems serious or a sign of rapid complaints diffusion arises.
c) Sharing of alarm and response: The government shares an alarm via an electronic official document and the complaints information analysis system in real time. Once an alarm is issued, relevant organizations will take the necessary steps by following an established procedure, and will report it to the ACRC. The ACRC will constantly monitor whether complaints are resolved after implementation of the measures.
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
1) Generation of big data on complaints: Korean citizens
- This project could be implemented, thanks to big data accumulating approximately 3.6 million complaints cases every year. Hence, the biggest contributors have been Korean citizens themselves, who provided ideas for improving policies and administration in the form of online complaints.
2) Establishment of the complaints information analysis system: ACRC, Ministry of Security and Public Administration (MOSPA), National Information Society Agency (NIA), Daumsoft Inc.
- The ACRC proposed the establishment of the comprehensive complaints analysis system on big data, and is in charge of managing and operating the system. The MOSPA supported the budget for establishing e-government; the NIA provided technical support; and Daumsoft Inc. participated in system establishment and maintenance.
3) Incorporation of citizens’ voices into policies: ACRC, administrative organizations of various levels
- The ACRC contributed to laying a foundation on which the citizens’ voices could be incorporated into policies through establishing and operating the complaints information analysis system, initiating techniques in complaints analysis, and consultation. Administrative organizations of various levels utilize the complaints information analysis system to incorporate citizens’ opinions into their political decision making process.
4) Complaints alarm system utilizing big data: ACRC, administrative organizations of various levels
- The ACRC reported to the Korean president in 2014 on its plans to introduce the complaints alarm system utilizing big data, and to grasp and respond to the citizens’ difficulties and distress at an early stage. The Commission also requested the interest, cooperation, and participation of all organizations for the successful operation of the complaints alarm system in a cabinet meeting. The complaints alarm system has been established itself as an effective complaints resolution system to help resolve any inconveniences and damages experienced by citizens through systematic cooperation between the ACRC and administrative organizations of various levels.
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
1) Financial resources: KRW 4.7 billion
- The government has spent KRW 3.95 billion of its budget into the development and establishment of the complaints information analysis system from 2010 to 2012. The budget was appropriated to support the introduction of Korea’s e-government project, because the establishment of the complaints information analysis system proposed by the ACRC was finally chosen as a part of the MOSPA’s e-government project in 2008.
- After the complaints information analysis system was successfully developed and established in 2012, a general account budget of KRW 750 million was additionally injected into system maintenance between 2013 and 2014.
2) Technical resources: Advanced data mining and real-time series analysis technologies
- The initiative employs an advanced data mining technology for analyzing meaningful information using natural language-based unstructured complaints data. It also utilizes a real-time series analysis technique and a keyword clustering solution in order to analyze the accumulating big data on complaints.
3) Human resources: 28 dedicated employees from 3 divisions, and 5 external technicians
- The ACRC, in order to accumulate big data on complaints and operate the analysis system, has allocated 28 dedicated employees from 3 divisions: 12 from the e-People Division for operating online civil complaints data gathered through e-people; 9 from the 110 Call Center for operating the government-run civil service center; and 7 from the Complaints Information Analysis Division for analyzing big data on complaints accumulating via e-People and the 110 Call Center.
- Five technical experts from Daumsoft Inc. are providing technical support for the maintenance and operation of the complaints information analysis system using advanced data mining technology in a business partnership with the ACRC.
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
1) Mutual utilization of the complaints information analysis system could save the government KRW 270 billion
- A total of KRW 4.7 billion of the government budget has been spent on the establishment and operation of the comprehensive complaints analysis system on big data. If 41 central governmental organizations, excluding the ACRC, and 17 Offices of Education are to build an identical system of its own, it would require a total of KRW 272.6 billion. However, mutual utilization of a single system among those organizations would cut government spending by about KRW 270 billion.
- Furthermore, expanding mutual utilization of the complaints information analysis system to include all local governments would save the government several hundreds of billion KRW.
2) The complaints alarm system using big data shortened the complaints resolution period by half
- Since the complaints alarm system was introduced in March 2014, a total of 38 alarms had been issued as of October 2014. The issuance of alarm led to active government-level responses and swift incorporation of each feedback into government policies, resolving public inconveniences at an early stage.
- Each issuance of alarm lasted 2.6 weeks on average before resolving the complaint concerned and lifting the alarm. The complaints resolution period has been reduced by half, compared with 5.2 weeks on average that had been spent for simulating six similar complaints before the introduction of the complaints alarm system.
3) Incorporation of citizens’ voices into policies could restore public trust and save social conflict costs by KRW 2.4 trillion
- With the foundation for mutual utilization of the complaints information analysis system being laid, all governmental organizations have analyzed complaints under their jurisdiction and incorporated them into policies, which helped the government to restore public trust. The ACRC, since the implementation of the complaints alarm system, has been monitoring each organization’s response to the alarm issued, which has led to remarkable achievements such as the improvement in the systems and administrative procedures concerned, with the policy utilization rate reaching up to 89%.
- As the public demand has increasingly been incorporated into governmental policies and national projects, it is estimated that at least KRW 2.4 trillion, 1% of the annual social conflict costs of KRW 246 trillion stemming from over 4,200 collective complaints, can be saved every year.
(Annual social conflict costs of KRW 246 trillion × a contribution factor of 1% = KRW 2.4 trillion)
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
1) Monitoring of mutual utilization of the complaints information analysis system: The demand for a system upgrade is being surveyed regularly to provide the state-of-the-art. A random inspection is conducted to monitor the system utilization progress of government bodies. Based on the results, those with poor track records must participate in biannual education programs about system utilization. Customized consulting is also provided to enhance complaints analysis capabilities.
2) Monitoring of incorporation of citizens’ voices into policies: As public opinions regarding major governmental policies have been analyzed and provided to organizations of various levels since 2012, a decision on whether to incorporate citizens’ voices into policies of each organization is being monitored biannually.
- The policy utilization rate among all administrative agencies on aggregate stood at 60.0% in H1 2014, compared with 43.7% in 2012 and 48.9% in 2013. A reward program for organizations with best practices has been put in place starting from 2014 in order to promote more active feedback into government policies.
3) Monitoring and assessment of the operation of the complaints alarm system: The complaints alarm system using big data has been established in order to promptly resolve complaints on a governmental level that are beyond a single organization’s control. Therefore, it is imperative to secure cooperation of all organizations. To that end, the government is promoting active participation of each government through monitoring and assessment of the operation of the system.
a) Monitoring of responses taken by relevant organizations: Once an alarm is issued, the relevant organization must immediately take the necessary steps and notify the ACRC of the results within 30 days. If complaints continue to arise despite the response, the organization must take follow-up actions or seek consultation with other relevant organizations to devise fundamental solutions.
b) Monitoring of the operation of the complaints alarm system: The ACRC biannually monitors the operation of the complaints alarm system to see if the consequential policies really work. In addition, the ACRC reports the achievements, best practices, and items to be improved in cabinet meetings and vice-minister meetings to improve effectiveness of the system.
c) Assessment of governmental organizations: The level of response taken by each organization following the issuance of alarm is reflected as a key performance indicator for organizations so that the system can settle down without delays as an effective complaints resolution system.
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
1) Grounds for collection and analysis: There had been no legal ground for a analysis of big data without the consent of the relevant organizations that were authorized to handle each complaint collected.
- Against this backdrop, the legal ground for the collection and analysis of big data on complaints was set up in 2008 in the Act on the Operation of the ACRC. Based on this, the challenge has been resolved with the consent of each governmental organization.
2) Concerns over leak of personal information: There have been concerns over a possible leak of civil petitioners’ personal information in the process of collecting and analyzing big data on complaints.
- Thus, the complaints information analysis system collects all data except personal information (name, address, e-mail, phone number, etc.), preventing any leak of such information from the collecting step.
3) Absence of precedents on the complaints information analysis system and the early complaints alarm system.
- It was a unique and unprecedented idea to comprehensively analyze big data on complaints and incorporate them into policies. Until 2008 when the project was initially proposed, the natural language-based data mining technology had not been developed in korea.
- The private sector initiated the development of a Korean text analysis system in 2009 and based on that case, the public sector also began in the following year.
- An alarm in the field of complaints has been unprecedented both domestically and globally, requiring the development of a whole new system.
- First of all, a number of similar alarm systems have been benchmarked to come up with levels of alarm, management standards, and an operating system. Previous complaints diffusion cases have been simulated via the analysis of big data on complaints in order to set up criteria for alarm issuance for certain circumstances.