| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
SCMS is developed in five phases (2010 to 2014):
Phase 1 (2010)
1) Main system development: strategy, concept and design using GIS platform mapping, and web application
2) Hardware and software procurement.
3) Database development using Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) approach to capture 3 types of street crime (unarmed gang robbery, unarmed robbery and snatch theft) accompanied by 13 types of crime data attributes.
4) Stakeholders: 12 LAs and 42 police stations labelled as street crime hotspots. They contributed 70% of total street crime in Malaysia in 2009.
5) The critical parts of the development are:
• Develop GIS maps (building footprints, street names, etc.)
• Initiate integration of GIS maps in SCMS into PRS of RMP data centre located 1.5km from SCMS data centre.
6) Produced Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for system administration, GIS application and crime location capture using PRS
System is fully operational on the 1st January 2011
Phase 2 (2011)
1) Upgrade SCMS system application and hardware.
2) User interface were upgraded to flex (flash support) for better multitasking tools and visualization.
3) Expanded to 9 police stations.
4) Captured 7 crime types (motorcycle theft, car theft, van/lorry/heavy, break-in (night), break-in (day), armed robbery and armed gang robbery)
5) GIS database development for additional police stations
Phase 3 (2012) -
1) Major upgrading on hardware and network bandwidth.
The upgrading was to achieve speedier and better geo-processing execution to accommodate high concurrent users and high speed bandwidth using fibre optics connecting the SCMS and PRS servers.
2) Expansion to additional 23 LAs and 168 police stations.
Phase 4 (2013)
1) Major expansion to include additional 74 LAs and 198 police stations.
2) Upgrading of SCMS architecture to respond and correspond seamlessly between the application of GIS software and hardware (server) to optimize system performance and to cater for high concurrent users' accessibility.
3) 3 additional crime types: assault, rape and murder
4) Introduced more user-friendly interface.
Phase 5 (2014) - Final phase development.
1) Expanded to additional 12 LAs and 137 police stations.
2) Develop new application for the public viewing for 12 LAs hotspots (Phase 1). This new application provides better means and mileage for RMP and FDTCP to share crime information on GIS maps with the public. The objectives are:
• to create better understanding of crime situations at the neighbourhood and community level
• to obtain public confidence and trust on crime situation and statistics, as the government is more transparent on its actions
• to improve safety perception
• to forge smart partnership between RMP, LAs and the community in combating crime
3) Hardware procurement to sustain capability until 2018
Currently SCMS has over 2,110 registered users
Total coverage:121 (80%) LAs of 151 LAs, and 554 (73%) of 764 police stations.
13 crime types
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
i. NKRA Safe City Task Force Team, FDTCP
This team conceptualised the design of SCMS, develop the system and administer its development. Currently the administrator of the system.
Comprised of 5 Town Planners who have expertise in :
• GIS technology, spatial modelling and analysis frameworks
• Networking and system architecture designs
• System configuration (Hardware and Software)
• Web design and User Interface Layout
ii. Royal Malaysian Police (RMP)
• Network and PRS administrator
• Desk Officer in integration and programme collaboration
• Coordinator, training the police personnel
• Provider of training premises
iii. Local Authorities (LAs): end-user
Town Planners at the local authority level assisted in the updating of GIS mapping. Uses SCMS findings to collaborate with other agencies to strategize and execute crime prevention measures
iv. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)
UTM is a public university in Malaysia. Uni-Technologies Sdn Bhd. a commercial company of UTM was hired to provide services and supply system softwares/hardwares:
• Supplying Software (GIS, Web Platform and SQL)
• Supplying Hardware (Server, SAN, Router and network)
• Provide services in programming and software customization for system integration
• Develop Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for system administrator, GIS application for RPM and LAs and Capturing Crime locations in PRS for RMP at Police stations
• Provide training
v. Training (Transfer of Technology)
Training involves both personnel from LAs and RMP nationwide. Training segments include:
i. Training on the use of Crime Data Capturing Tool in PRS to RMP personnel
ii. Hands-on training on the use of SCMS interface and analysis to RMP Personnel and LA officers
iii. Annual meetings with SCMS users to provide updates, advice, tips and identify issues and technical problems.
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Total cost of SCMS development: USD7.99million (RM27million), inclusive of data procurement, hardware and software purchasing, programming and training
Funding : from the Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA)
• Owner of NKRA Reducing Crime and all its initiatives
• Provides funding of SCMS development
ii. NKRA Safe City Task Force Unit, FDTCP, MUHLG
• Project manager and developer of SCMS
• Designed both application and network integration
• System Administrator and owner of the system
iii. Royal Malaysian Police
• End-user and co-owner of SCMS
• Provide services for crime data geo-coding (data capturing) using CDCT through Police Reporting System (PRS) interface at 554 police stations.
• Sub-administrator within RMP level (registering and monitoring personnel users)
iv. Local Authorities
• Provide and supply spatial data on roads, land use and commercial premises and licenses etc
• Update safe city measures implementation
v. Public (only in 2015 onwards)
• End-user to view crime information within their local neighbourhood areas
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Top five concrete outputs :-
i. Spatial analysis tool to detect the effectiveness of crime prevention measures
This tool analyses the effectiveness of the measures by comparing the number of street crimes recorded in the PRS before and after the implementation of the crime preventions measures. This analysis proved valuable for the LAs to decide whether to continue or discontinue implementing safe cite measures at crime hotspots.
ii. Hotspots and Repeat Location Finder (RLF)
Crime hot spots identification and RLF proved to be useful to RMP, and LAs to undertake strategic and cohesive crime prevention actions. RMP has better understanding on crime patterns and trends, thus able to make accurate decisions on human resource deployment and tactical operations on local and national scale.
iii. PRS Executive tool
The availability of Crime Data Capturing Tool and PRS Executive tool monitoring tools in the PRS surprisingly, have assisted RMP to be more efficient in detecting the inefficiency of Investigation Officers (IOs) at Local Police Stations in the opening of Investigation Papers (IPs). The result of this exercise, the number of IPs have increased by 56.4% in 2011, from 2,382 IPs in 2010 to 5,464 IPs in 2011. In 2011, SCMS had been accessed more than 10,000 times
iv. Decision Support Tools
Two decision-support tools were developed for SCMS:
1) Tool to identify suitable Locations for police beats and patrolling
Decision Support Tool has been developed for SCMS by the team in 2010 to identify areas most needed to undertake crime prevention measures under the Safe City Programme. The function of this tool has been further expanded to support RMP in identifying priority areas to establish police beat base and patrolling.
2) Tool to identify suitable location for safe city measures
Local Authorities (LAs) are responsible to implement Safe City measures by installing lighting, CCTVs, safety mirrors, safety alarms, safety mirrors etc. in crime hotspots.
SCMS provides tools to support LAs in identifying suitable locations for Safe City measures implementation. This strategy could generate big result fast in terms of crime prevention.
v. Aoristic and Timeline
Aoristic and Timeline analyses are to identify crime trend in relation to frequency of crime incidents at specific times (hourly basis). It is visualized interactively using bar chart on the GIS map to locate specific crime location at a specific hour. It provides findings to RMP and LAs to make better decision on crime prevention programmes.
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Approach to monitor and evaluate the implementation of the strategy :
i. SCMS Technical Working Committee
Ensure the SCMS development follows the terms of requirements of the stakeholders. Address technical issues and problems, find solutions to the problems and endorse major changes or deviations if contribute to the betterment of the SCMS. Meetings were conducted at every main stages of SCMS development (at least 3 times annually).
ii. SCMS Steering Committee
Advise on policy matters focussing on strategic collaboration, security, future planning and endorsement on major development changes and system administration.
iii. Safe City Programme Steering Committee, Ministry of Urban Well-being, Housing and Local Government, Malaysia (MUHLG)
Monitor the overall progress of Safe City Programmes (including SCMS). Ensure its effectiveness in achieving the national agenda in reducing crime.
iv. Outcome Evaluation Committee, Implementation Coordination Unit (ICU), Prime Minister's Office
This committee evaluates selected projects with the objective to assess public sector's projects give big impact to the public. The Safe City Programme which includes the SCMS has been evaluated by the committee in ensuring the effectiveness of the system in pursuing the national agenda NKRA reducing crime. It in turns has recommended to the government that the safe city programme and SCMS to be continued in the 11th Malaysia Plan (2016-2016).
v. Technical Workshops
Workshops are conducted for Users Acceptance Test (UAT) and Final Acceptance Tests (FAT) to avoid glitches on the system operations.
SCMS is also monitored and evaluated during training on the application of the system
vii. Monitoring tool - PRS Executives
The availability of Crime Data Capturing Tool and monitoring tools in the PRS surprisingly, have assisted RMP to be more efficient in detecting the inefficiency of Investigation Officers (IOs) at Local Police Stations in the opening of Investigation Papers (IPs). This tool helps to the police officers more attentive and effective.
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
i. RMP network has low bandwidth speed
RMP network (LAN) bandwidth speed is generally low, ranging from 2 Mbps to 128 Kbps causing slow website downloads from internet, and "timeout" issue. This issue is addressed by:
• Upgrading bandwidth capabilities at 218 police stations from 128 Kbps to 2 Mbps. RMP is planning to upgrade bandwidth capability to all participating police stations (554) in 2015.
• CDCT tool is designed as lite application during browsing the mapping contents. To ensure better download time, hardware servers have been improved with better memory cache and system optimization.
ii. High concurrent users' accessibility.
SCMS contains high graphical mapping web and real time processing (geo-processing). Optimization is carried out annually, by:
• restructuring the programming application and reconstructing better access to database through Relational Database System Management (RDBSM).
• Upgrading and innovating method of clustering (computing) to optimize and reduce time taken for geo-processing
• Restructuring services (Windows Services Applications), and upgrading cache memory through RAM expansion and user interface based on customization and add-on tools.
iii. Low level of GIS literacy amongst end-users and high turnover of RMP personnel
SCMS is designed to be user-friendly particularly to users with minimum GIS literacy. However continuous training programs nationwide are carried out annually to ensure sustainability of SCMS. Currently 3,500 end-users from the LAs and RMP have been trained.