| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The goal of the best practice was to integrate the informal sector in door to door collection and to upgrade their livelihood. By authorizing the informal sector wastepickers to collect municipal solid waste, the municipality allowed erstwhile street waste pickers to get first and rightful access to waste. The waste they collect is less contaminated as compared to picking out of containers or dumps. More waste can not only be recycled but it also fetches better prices in the market. It is also an effective health initiative as wastepickers collecting out of containers often had to battle stray dogs, rodents and pigs. Wastpickers now find themselves authorized service providers with a legitimate, recognized and respected role in waste management. They have better equipment and rather than being associated with the waste they collect they are seen as waste recyclers.
It also strives to make residents – the waste generators take more interest in what happens to waste after it leaves their homes. This decentralized method of waste management has been shown to be effective in source reduction of waste and curb the “use and throw” attitude that is unsustainable in the future. Corporatized models of waste management are centralized and weights based and are in direct conflict with a decentralized model where the waste generator is made aware of the waste they generate. Thus many societies now compost their waste and/or run biogas plants that make excellent use of organic waste and prevents it from going to the landfills
To get the initiative off the ground, the kkpkp trade union leaders engaged with the elected representatives, and the residents of Pune. When the initiative first started only 2/3 elected representatives accepted this model. Currently however SWaCH works in most of the city. First, a free collection service was offered and gradually a user fee was raised. Waste collection drives and programmes were conducted all over the city and widely publicised in the local news papers by SWaCH and PMC. Continuous expansion drives were carried out to cover all the areas where there was administrative, political and citizen support. A website, newsletter, media coverage, innovate music programs, all become effective and necessary tools to continue to highlight the benefits of the model.
Stage I: Establishment of model and signing of MoU
Stakeholders: PMC, KKPKP and SNDT Women’s University
Role/Activities: PMC help in visioning and facilitation of the model, pursuing model in the General body of PMC, KKPKP – facilitation of the model , consensus development between and amongst the member as well as potential members; Managing and administering the collaborative pilot experiment in 2006 – of door to door collection of waste via waste pickers; with support from SNDT University.
Stage II: Establishment of SWaCH cooperative
Stakeholders: PMC and KKPKP
Role/Activities: PMC facilitation of administrative and legal procedures, kkpkp agreement on the guiding principles of the cooperative
State III : Operational phase
Stakeholders: PMC & SWaCH
Role/Activities: PMC facilitation and monitoring , SWaCH Service delivery, dealing operational matters, training and capacity building of the staff and members, continuous expansion, reaching out citizens
Stage IV: Expansion of the service
Stakeholders: PMC & SWaCH
Role / activities: PMC suggestion on expansion, SWaCH facing the field level practicalities on potential of expansion
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
• Pune Municipal Corporation is the key stakeholder in implementing the initiative as a finance provider for administration and management cost
Responsibilities of PMC
To make route plan of ghanta truck, cyclerickshaw, push carts and hotel truck with concerned staff of PMC and SWaCH Cooperative
Lisioning with supervisor of SWaCH Cooperative and ensure all theS waste gets lifted daily
To create awareness among the citizens for giving segregated waste to waste collectors and its proper disposal
Gloves, masks ,scarves, chappals, aprons, caps and raincoats are provided to the waste collectors
Separate dustbins has been provided for collecting and delivering the waste separately for the disposal
Separate vehicles for transportation of wet and dry waste separately have been provided
Once in a year medical check up of persons who are involved in waste collection and transportation and disposal. Medical insurance
• SWaCH Cooperative
Responsibilities of SWaCH Cooperative
Oversee cooperative operations to ensure service efficiency, quality, and cost-effective management of resources.
Developing efficient Grievance Redressal system
Coordinate the resolution of specific policy-related and procedural problems
Identifying waste pickers to work in the area by following appropriate processes of the cooperative.
Expansion to 100% Households in new pockets and existing pockets that are being partially covered by current swach waste pickers
Setting up systems of attendance and replacement in case of absenteeism for waste pickers. Wastepickers – Earn livelihood and provide environment friendly labour
In this user fee based model citizens are the important stakeholders and wastepickers are directly accountable to them
• Other supporting organisations and partners in networking – Janwani, Parisar, Centre for Environment Education (CEE), Kalpavriksh, Karve Institute of Social Sciences, Local Mohalla Committees, Alliance of Indian Waste pickers (AIW), Global Alliance of Waste Pickers (Global Rec)
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The PMC as per the MOU signed with SWaCH and is liable to pay the following amounts each year to cover the administrative expenses of the initiative.
Schedule of Payment from PMC:
Year 1 - Total amount – INR 17,000,000.00
Year 2 - Total amount - INR 16,400,000.00
Year 3 - Total amount - INR 16,400,000.00
Year 4 - Total amount - INR 16,400,000.00
Year 5 - Total amount - INR 16,400,000.00
Total Amount of the 5 years - INR 82,600,000.00
There are approx. 100 staff members of the cooperative whose salaries are covered by the installments given by the PMC to the cooperative. In addition to this, several engineering colleges, schools, local corporates have been engaged with the initiative to assist in better designs of equipment, training of staff and wastepickers, and with small donations. SWaCH is also part of the national and global alliances of wastepickers that have been supported by WIEGO (women in informal economy globalizing and organizing) to disseminate the learnings of the model as well as learn from experiences around the world.
Costs to the Pune Municipal Corporation
The Pune Municipal Corporation entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with SWaCH in 2008 for a period of five years. As per the terms of the MOU, the PMC was to provide office space and to bear the costs of the following from the municipal budget as per a schedule.
• supervisory and management
• training costs and citizen IEC costs
• collection equipment and safety gear to the collectors
• welfare benefits for SWaCH collectors
• a subsidy of Rs.5 per slum household covered per month
The costs to the PMC as per the proposal were Rs.4.16 per household per month
Costs to the service users
Service users pay the SWaCH collector, a monthly user fee amounting to a weighted average of Rs.20 per household per month.
Costs to the SWaCH Collectors
• SWaCH Collectors contribute 5% of their monthly earnings from user charges towards the maintenance costs of the organisation.
• SWaCH Collectors spend Rs. 1000/- per head per annum on the maintenance of their push carts
The total cost to the PMC towards doorstep collection via SWaCH has been less than Rs2/- per household per month. This is atleast 8 times lower than any other city in India. The amount paid by citizens as user fee directly to SWACH wastepickers at the weighted average rate of Rs 20/- per household per month, is easily over ten times the cost incurred by PMC.
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Benefits to the residents of Uruli-Phursungi (Previous open dump site)
In its first two years of operation, SWaCH helped divert 42 percent of wet waste from the landfill, into the lands used for farming as fertilizer
Every year SWaCH members divert 35000 metric tonnes of materials into recycling before it reaches the landfill.
Benefits to the Pune Municipal Corporation
The PMC saves Rs.7 crores 22 lakhs in waste transport costs each year (90 MTPD diverted into recycling x 365 days x Rs.2200 per tonne)
Savings of Rs.30 crores in door to door waste collection contracts (Rs.10000 minimum wage x 2300 workers x 12 months = 27 crores + minimum 10% overheads of service provider)
Savings of 1 crore in tipping fees to waste processing operators
The cheapest door to door collection service in India
One of the highest recycling rates in the country
Impetus to segregation at source, as the person interested in segregation is brought to the door step of the person with the duty to segregate waste.
Benefits to SWaCH service users
Affordable door to door collection service
Service directly accountable to service users
Responsive complaint redress system
Benefits to SWaCH Members
Dignity and worker status
Protection and upgradation of livelihoods of waste pickers
Employment creation for urban poor
Regular hours of work
Access to collection equipment and safety gear
Environmental benefits to all residents of Pune
Reduced health risks.
Enhancing recycling and climate change mitigation.
Compliance with waste laws, especially Government of India Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000.
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Weekly report format.
Sanitary inspector and Nuisance Detection Squad fine collection report.
Notices to Societies for non segregation.
Notices & fine to plastic bag sellers.(<50 microns)
Publication of Ghata trucks route maps
Third party auditing
Indicators defined for auditing
Based on these an independent body ensure procedures are followed
Friend of cleanliness
Local residents become involved with the project
The detailed tasks for monitoring and evaluation will include the following work
1. Streamlining waste collection: Ensuring all existing pockets of 150-250 are maintained, there is no leakage of waste.
2. MIS Data generation: Compiling monthly/quarterly updates of collection coverage, weights of recyclable waste collected, total organic waste and total waste processed in-house.
3. Citizen interface: Interacting with citizens to ensure all creases are ironed out.
4. Outreach: Conducting meetings, discussions, public programmes about E waste, Garden Waste shredding, composting, V collect, Recycle clothes, Nirmalya.
5. Outreach material: Designing, producing, distributing leaflets, posters, films, power point presentations.
6. Coordination with PMC: Daily, weekly and monthly meetings as per schedule with PMC administration at ward, prabhag and central level for secondary waste collection coordination processes
7. Waste pickers interface: Interacting with waste-pickers, conducting weekly, monthly and quarterly meetings, ensuring access to welfare schemes etc.
8. Training: Organising training programmes on organic waste processing, Sanitary waste disposal, safe waste handling, E waste etc.
9. Trouble shooting: Handling absenteeism, grievance redress, secondary system coordination and follow up etc.
10. Feedback and Monitoring : Documenting feedback via sms, emails, hard copies etc.
11. Reporting and Documentation: Reporting increase coverage pocket, area, ward, prabhag, household wise as per predefined formats
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Collection of user-fees from the citizens (better citizen outreach)
- A letter from Municipal commissioner requesting citizens to cooperate with SWaCH members and pay the user fees was issued.
- Continuous interaction of the waste pickers and SWaCH staff with the citizens to explain the model and collection of user –fee
1. Citizen Outreach Activities – Pamphlets ,Newsletters
2. Citizen Feedback
3. 24x7 Helpline number – 9765999500 for queries, complaints and feedback
4. Interactive website http://swachcoop.com/about-swachpune.html
Segregation of waste by the citizens
- Distribution of pamphlets and explaining the necessity for segregation citizens to segregate their waste by organising events, through radio programmes, and awareness strategies etc.
Very limited number of recycling points (sorting sheds) for waste pickers to segregate recyclable waste
- Effective engagement with private companies that have provided money to construct sorting sheds. However, this continues to be an issue
Conversion of a wastepicker to service provider
- Meetings and Follow up meetings at the Vasti level (slum level), consultations, presentation on the benefits of the SWaCH model with KKPKP helped in legitimizing the model
- Trainings for waste pickers on various issues related to their work including Communication, Health measures; Use of Equipments, Songs etc
- Awards and recognition for SWaCH members
- Case studies, Films, Reports and Documents that trace the change in conditions of work of waste pickers subsequent to the formation of SWaCH
Political will to support the model
Consultative meetings of SWaCH members with party leaders and elected representatives
Support of the PMC officials
Occupational Health and Safety of the wastepickers
- Medical Camps and health checkups for waste pickers; vaccination drives
- Enhancing their livelihoods through sale of ST Dispo Bags for collection of diapers and sanitary napkins
- Health insurance is paid for by the municipality