Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Development and Integration on Expressways under ITS Center
Expressway Authority of Thailand

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
The quality of life of people living in Bangkok has been deteriorated by traffic congestion causing social, economic, and health problems. The congestion has played a key role in creating financial destruction approximately 10,000 million Baht/year because of an unbalanced proportion between an increased number of vehicles and limited road capacity. As a result, the Expressway Authority of Thailand (EXAT) was established in 1972 aiming to provide an expressway network for better traffic flow in Bangkok.. The first expressway was operated in 1982 with 8.9 kilometres. There were 25,486 vehicles/day; Volume/Capacity (V/C) ratio was 0.2. Then in 1993, the second expressway was opened with 38.4 kilometres long. It caused the number of vehicles to increase to 348,833 vehicles/day, increased by 97%/year, V/C ratio was 0.5. This fulfilled the needs of Bangkokians and reflected the successful operation of EXAT. To continuously support the economic boost, EXAT later extended expressway network from 2 to 7 routes with a total length of 207.9 kilometres. The number of vehicles is now approximately 1.7 million vehicles/day, V/C ratio is 0.83. In fact, the distance increases only 1-2 km/year while vehicle’s growth increases 21% yearly. However, the more expressways and roads extended, the more traffic volume increased. An investigation shows that the average speed of vehicles using roads in Bangkok constantly reduced to 28 kph. in 2004 and to 22 kph. in 2012, decreased by 21%. Nevertheless, a comparative study between using expressways and alternative routes in 2011 showed that the average speed on expressways is higher than alternative roads and using expressways increase savings of travel time and fuel consumption about 26 Baht/trip. At the average speed of 80 kph., the number of vehicles using alternative roads was 9% whereas using the expressways was 31%. However, vehicles in Bangkok have been gradually rising every year creating an up-turned traffic congestion trend on expressways and surface roads in Bangkok. Although the easiest solution should be extending more expressways around Bangkok, EXAT had put a great effort on this idea for 42 years and finally found that it was not a sustainable solution. Also, it is extremely difficult to expropriate the high-priced lands and properties in this overcrowded city. Besides, there have been an increasing number of accidents and fatalities on the expressways every year. Especially, when the Kanchanaphisek expressway opened in 2009, the fatalities from 2008-2011 were 5, 11, 15, and 16 respectively. Though EXAT has provided the latest equipment to facilitate the operation , e.g. Variable Message Signs (VMS) and Emergency Telephones along the expressways, there is less integration between the equipment and staff causing inefficient operation. For instance, when an accident happens and is not reported immediately, this will delay the operation and rescue processes resulting in an increased number of traffic congestion, injuries, even fatalities. Moreover, the expressway users cannot obtain the updated traffic information, be less prepared to avoid the incident or be less concerned when they reach the incident area. This will cause delayed trips, accumulated queues, or even, the second accidents.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
Since 2004, EXAT has developed Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) as a tool of integrating traffic information on the expressway network in order to handle real-time traffic management systematically and to provide and update traffic information simultaneously to the expressway users. The EXAT executives foresee this importance of the ITS development and innovative services, and then dispatch staff to study ITS aboard as a supporting tool to solve traffic congestion conveniently, quickly, and safely. The ITS system is an integrated traffic information system from vehicles, roads, and the expressway users by using Information Technology, computer and telecommunication engineering, and traffic engineering. The system will process the data and report traffic congestion and other accidents on the expressways so the users can plan their journey, avoid traffic jams, and be aware of the accidents which can help decrease traffic delay and protect the second accidents. In terms of the traffic personnel, they must have enough traffic information and traffic congestion conditions on the whole expressway network in order to operate, notify, and support the operation team efficiently. So the important goal of EXAT traffic operation is to reduce fatalities from the accidents and alleviate traffic problems on the expressways. Since 2007, necessary facilities such as Variable Message Signs (VMS), Smart VMS signboards, Matrix signs, Emergency Telephone System devices, CCTV cameras, Call Center System as a part of ITS system have been fully integrated and linked them with 6 Control Center Buildings (CCBs). So EXAT executives, technical staffs, and related external organizations such as Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning (OTP), Thai Traffic Police, Thai TV Channel 3, and universities can obtain real-time traffic information. EXAT has not only provided experienced rescue team and traffic staff, but has also offered applications and necessary facilities along the expressways to deliver better services to the users with full capability by integrating human resources and systems together. The operation employs Plan-Do-Check-Action Process in collaboration with experts’ comments from various fields. EXAT also verifies its operation with international standard continuously. EXAT established the Intelligent Transportation System Center (ITS Center) in 2009 (officially opened in 2012), and integrated the applications and the facilities under ITS Center. EXAT has founded the ITS Master plan in order to develop and install ITS applications in the future. However, the ITS development in EXAT is the first implementation, and it is very complicated. The installation may have had a risk or errors. Thus, EXAT has separated the system into 7 subsystems such as Travel Time Estimation and Travel Time Prediction System, Automatic Incident Detection System and so on. The development was then verified against domestic and international studies and standards to ensure that the developed ITS concepts is proper and accurate. Outstandingly, ITS cost-effectiveness and a certain level of the accuracy have been found by ITS demonstration study. Accordingly, the ITS development on the Kanchanaphisek expressway was then developed as a pilot corridor project. The findings are used as a prototype for other expressways (generalization). This pilot project is the first actual ITS deployment in Thailand. The ITS implementation aims to integrate the subsystems, to provide real-time traffic information on the expressways, and finally to deliver fully automated services. The ITS development process consists of collecting real-time traffic data i.e. volume, speed and density on the expressways which will be analyzed and forecasted using advanced algorithms of mathematics. The results are displayed in different forms for better accessibility and serviceability which facilitate users’ decisions to plan their journeys, to avoid traffic congestion, and to drive safely within speed limits to reduce accidents.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
In 2004, EXAT governed 6 CCBs to regulate traffic flow. The CCBs worked separately, then staff were individually responsible for isolated expressways and got the work done manually, later took a longer time to report to rescue teams causing in overall delayed operations, finally reach the accident area by 15-30 minutes unacceptably. Since 2007, the facilities in CCBs have been integrated. The operation process is then performed automatically resulting a decreased number of involved staff. Later in 2012, EXAT officially launched a complete ITS system comprising 3 services; Traffic Management Control (TMC) - to monitor real-time traffic conditions, EXAT website - to provide statistical information for travel planners, and EXAT ITS Mobile Application - to offer advanced traffic information before and during travelling by a combination among innovation, traffic report and the newest communication technology. When facing an accident, the users can take alternatives meanwhile officers are informed the accident via the ITS system and get access to the area less than 10 minutes. This reduces fatalities by 5%. Consequently, the users are satisfied with our faster assistance, as notified by Excellent Innovative Service Award 2014, Prime Minister’s Road Safety Award 2013, and Special Prize for Creation and Design 2014.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Overall, EXAT has established a corporate plan of FY 2012 – 2016 under vision “A worthwhile Choice, Advanced Development, Care for the Environment” by determining the operational strategy for creating knowledge-based and innovation-based organization. The main strategic objective is to drive EXAT into a learning organization to achieve a High Performance Organization. The strategy is transformed into practice by developing proper action plan which is evaluated via State Enterprise Performance Appraisal (SEPA). Research and development activities as a framework for ITS development are included in the action plan. Thus, ITS development has been deployed using well-defined three following strategies. ITS Human Resource Development Strategy - EXAT has arranged two PhD scholarships for selected staff since 2004. EXAT also provided technical transfers for 9 technical staff and engineers at cooperative expressway agencies in Japan (2 groups from 2011-2012 under MOU), and dispatched 2 engineers under JICA, Japan. Cooperative Strategy - EXAT focuses on institutions and agencies with experience in expressway management through a Public-Private-Academic Partnership and being members of engineering organisations such as ATRANS and ITS Thailand. EXAT has also contributed MOUs with three Japanese expressway companies and technical collaborations with leading universities in Thailand and abroad. This has made EXAT accomplished several ITS projects; e.g. the Study and Development of ITS System Master Plan and ITS Center Establishment (ITS Phase 1) established in 2011. The study comprises short, medium, and long-term plans of ITS development. Then the ITS Center was officially opened in 2012 for installing and evaluating the ITS system. There are a number of projects which were initiated to support the operation of the ITS Center including studies of Travel Time Estimation, Automatic Incident Detection System, and Origin and Destination Survey using mobile phones. The findings help support the efficient operation of the ITS system. Also in late 2012-2013, the ITS Pilot Corridor Project on the Kanchanaphisek expressway (ITS Phase 1.5) and the development of ITS Center (ITS Phase 2) had been preceded by employing those findings to the actual use of the Kanchanaphisek expressway. The study provided calibration and validation of equipment purchased from abroad to work well with the local environment. This has made the accuracy of the ITS system improved over 85 percent which will be a generalization framework for other expressways. Benchmarking Strategy - EXAT has preceded the academic papers to show the process of ITS system development, methods and tools of the experiment including reviews of academic work from seminars in both Thailand and abroad. The studies have also been published in recognised journals to gather comments and feedback from academic experts. Finally, those outcomes are collected as EXAT’s Knowledge Management (KM). Consequently, the implementation of ITS center’s 7 subsystems was achieved, they are; Automatic Data Collection System, Smart Variable Message Sign (Smart VMS), Data Exchange System, Schematic Map System, Devices Monitoring System, Automatic Incident Detection System, and EXAT ITS System. After the ITS system on the Kanchanaphisek expressway is fully operated, the systems is monitored every day, Reveal preference surveys to improve ITS implementation and users’ satisfaction surveys are conducted regarding the requirements of SEPA in the category of customer and marketing focus. Aside from the internal evaluation, EXAT also managed surveys to evaluate users’ satisfaction relating the traffic information provided and the overall expressway services in 2013 and 2014 in order to improve serviceability. The results show that users’ satisfaction improves to 85 percent, far above the goal of SEPA which at 85 percent. The results will be used to improve services and ITS development to reach the HPO and be transferred to other expressways under the ITS Master Plan.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The initiative is started from the technical and users’ requirements to support traffic management, also facilitates organisations having access to the real-time traffic information. The ITS development is in cooperation with several schemes as follows: Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with best-practice organisations - the MOUs aim to exchange knowledge and experiences via technical-transfer programmes. This builds staff’s capability to be ready in the rapid change of technological environment. The best-practice organisations include Hanshin Expressway Co., Ltd., Metropolitan Expressway Co., Ltd., and West Nippon Expressway Engineering Chugoku Co., Ltd., Japan. MOUs with educational institutions on technical collaboration - they are the National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Chulalongkorn University, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, and Khon Kaen University. Cooperation agreements on traffic management by sharing real-time traffic information with related organisations - the organisations are Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning which establishes overall transportation plans and ITS development master plan, Traffic and Transportation Department which provides traffic information through EXAT Smart VMS, Thai Traffic Police which supports traffic information on the expressways for managing traffic flow, and Intelligent Traffic Information Center (iTIC) Foundation which reports traffic conditions. Cooperation agreements with public media – they are Thai TV Channel 3, JS100 radio station, and FM91 Trafficpro radio station, to broadcast traffic information on expressways. Additionally, EXAT has also created our media channels to communicate and obtain feedback and comments from users such as EXAT website and mobile applications. Internal collaboration - IT Department supports the IT connectivity, Maintenance Department provides suggestions on monitoring the system, Traffic Control Department and EXAT Call Center 1543 give requirements on the needs of routine operation, and Expressway System Engineering Research and Development Division coordinates among those mentioned departments creating the effective ITS system development in EXAT.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The resources that used to develop the ITS system consist of financial and human resources. For financial resource, EXAT has allocated fiscal budget for developing ITS research studies, tests, demonstrations, seminars and technical conferences, and ITS system deployment and applications every year. In FY 2013, the budget allocation of the ITS system (this includes comparative study of various types of sensors, a study on cost-effectiveness, a study on calibration and verification) was 0.93% of total annual budget. The budget was divided into three portions: permanent employee wages 0.46%, seminars and conferences, demonstrations and trainings 0.01%, academic works and studies 0.01%, and equipment and installation 0.44%. The allocated budget was purposely applied for research studies to find out the needs of initiating a Master Plan in development as well as conducting analysis and testing of system, technology, and traffic devices (e.g. sensors, VMS). The budget also included supplying related tools and equipment for maximum effectiveness of the ITS system performance. In FY 2015, the allocated budget for ITS development and installation as well as research study is dramatically increased to 2.5 %, because ITS deployment has been proven to alleviate traffic congestion successfully. EXAT will keep tracking the budget allocation continuously. For human resource, ITS development actually requires multi-skill personnel from multidiscipline. The Expressway System Engineering Research and Development Division is assigned to be in charge of the ITS development directly. The key personnel in this division are composed of engineers and experts in various fields such as traffic and transportation, computers, telecommunications, and information technology. To gain the mentioned expertises to build up staff’s capability, those key persons are purposely assigned to work together to determine the needs of the system, the integration of traffic data, and the appropriate technology and methods in collecting and processing real-time traffic information. Accordingly, sharing of knowledge and expertises are made, and then various tests, complex analysis and new algorithms development can be successfully done. The professionals then evaluate such traffic information for the actual use of traffic management and then present the analysed traffic data to the public. The process of human resource development requires relevant knowledge from related departments within EXAT and from universities and private companies in the light of technical collaborations. Besides, external organizations as partners in ITS development also provide EXAT a support via important tools and equipment. For example, Intelligent Traffic Information Center (iTIC) Foundation, a non-profit organization that serves as a traffic information center of public and private sectors, advocated EXAT servers for connecting traffic data in order to improve the data quantity and quality of real-time traffic information to be more accurate and updated. The main objective of iTIC is being the center of traffic information that distributes such information to the public for reaching the maximum benefit in reducing traffic congestion and increasing road safety for the people and the nation.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
The most successful outputs can be divided into 4 aspects by focusing on each major stakeholder. They are; Firstly, ITS Human Resource Development has been achieved. In 2012, EXAT received over 10 ITS specialists and engineers. They have been assigned to prepare Knowledge Management (KM) such as Thai and English ITS textbooks, internal technical manuals, and several articles and papers for academic conferences in order to support the ideas of sustainable and transferable ITS development and finally to gain a Learning Organisation (LO). Secondly, ITS applications have been accomplished. The applications include Smart Variable Message Sign (Smart VMS), Schematic Map System, and Automatic Incident Detection (AID) System in order to provide such as traffic conditions, CCTV information, toll rates, and emergency calls through website and mobile applications. At present, the system accuracy is above 85%, the number of user increases 5-20% per month. Importantly, AID system functions as an accident warning system in advance using newly-developed algorithm models. This application’s capability monitors and detects accidents within 3-5 minutes with a lower false alarm rate. This is faster than the EXAT existing operation (10 minutes). Thirdly, Data Exchange System among related transportation agencies including Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning, Traffic and Transportation Department, Thai Traffic Police, iTIC Foundation, and the internal department, EXAT Call Center 1543 has been achieved. The system is utilised for gathering the real-time traffic information on expressways and roads, processing data, and the system then provides the guided information to the related users. The system is developed under the web service protocol with acceptable levels of security. EXAT also conducts survey studies to obtain user’s needs to improve the system efficiency twice a year. Lastly, technical collaborations with universities under Public-Private-Academic Partnership (PPAP) scheme have been achieved. This scheme is not only made to accelerate the ITS innovation and development, but also to support the universities’ studies making new concepts and ideas to meet the need of ITS proficiency by allowing an access to EXAT’s real-time traffic information system of the Kanchanaphisek expressway for scholars, researchers, lecturers, and university students. Additionally, EXAT has made a 1-year economic analysis regarding travel time savings and vehicle operating cost savings applying the ITS system on the expressways. For this specified corridor, the average speed increased by 0.36 %, the benefits is 1.33 Million Baht/month, Benefit Cost Ratio (B/C) is 9.58 times, and payback time is 3 years.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
EXAT has continuously developed the ITS system by obtaining and evaluating from stakeholders’ needs both internal and external organizations. The results have been bought to improve the system performance. These results have also been delivered to plan the ITS development for the entire expressway network and to minimise system errors. These could enhance the ITS system to be more effective and result in more precise traffic information provided. For internal control, EXAT determines the ITS development plan in advance and put into the action plan annually under the Corporate Plan FY 2012-2016 and reports the follow-up of the activities in the internal control system and risk management system. The progress must be reported monthly and quarterly. In addition, the report of the efficiency of the ITS center’s 7 subsystems must be documented daily and monthly. If the operation faces any problem, all concerned persons must help resolve to prevent any further negative impact on the whole system within a defined short period of time. The development is also put into the Master Plan of the Corporate Information System and tracks the progress monthly and quarterly. Besides, EXAT has surveyed the satisfaction of internal staff e.g. officers from EXAT Call Center 1543 and from the rescue teams twice a year to improve the ITS system and future development. Moreover, EXAT has delivered several papers and articles for academic conferences and journals to obtain experts’ feedback and comments. For example, the 1-year economic analysis on the expressways has been accepted and to be presented at the 9th National Transport Conference, 2014. For external evaluation, EXAT has studied and surveyed drivers’ behaviour of how they decide to use the expressways under the influence of real-time traffic information once a year for improving the services. The findings show 5% of expressway users are most likely to choose expressways when light traffic occurs. But if there is traffic congestion on the expressways, 8% of users are likely to switch to alternatives. This indicates that the real-time traffic information under ITS deployment influences driving behaviour and is very beneficial to expressway users. EXAT also conducts a study of expressway users’ satisfaction once a year for improving the services. In 2014, the result shows that the users’ satisfaction reached more than 85%.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Although EXAT had studied the ITS Master Plan and made a methodical implementation, there were three main obstacles which were overcome i.e. limited budget, lack of human resources, and technological incompatibility. For the budget issues, the ITS system needed a number of imported sensors installed along the expressways. EXAT spent 65 million Baht on previous ITS projects. As a result, very high investment affected overall annual budget, and could have made discontinuity on the ITS development. To solve this, EXAT divided the ITS development into phasing arrangement – e.g. EXAT should have considered the installation of sensor at 1 km interval (accuracy about 90%), but EXAT did 2 km interval with accuracy of 85%. Thus, the budget required could be more than halved, but the accuracy was reduced only slightly. For the human resources issue, it is undeniable that multi-discipline is needed in this rapidly changing technological environment. Thus, EXAT has managed the technical transfer programmes by dispatching experienced staff to attend ITS courses in the Best Practice organizations. After their return, the staff are responsible for accomplishing KM projects related to the ITS system, and for publishing internationally acknowledged textbooks, articles in journals and technical manuals which are updated regularly. For the technological incompatibility issues, ITS equipment should be constantly updated for the best performance. This is most likely to bring incompatibility between the existing system and the newly-updated devices. To overcome, EXAT provided technical studies and manuals, and standard of new devices’ installation and replacement as well as technical specification procurement.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The research studies in several countries indicated that ITS system could help reduce traffic congestion. For example, the expressways in France, 6% of vehicles were more likely to change the route according to the Smart VMS showing the congestion on expressway networks. Also only 2% of travellers switched the route; it would result in the reduction of travel time by up to 12%. A study in Washington DC, USA found that providing pre-trip information to travellers could reduce delays in accessing areas by 56%. In addition, reports on traffic information, accidents and travel time displayed through the Smart VMS or radio wave (En-Route) could reduce travel time by 20%. A study in Japan found that transmitting real-time traffic information to vehicles that were travelling on roads would reduce the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) by 2.4 million tons in 2010. Apart from Advanced Traveller Information System (ATIS), Automatic Incident Detection (AID) System in the USA (TransGuide Smart Highway, San Antonio, Texas) could reduce 1.2% of fuel consumption, 2,600 gallons/case (accident) of fuel loss, 15% of accidents, and 30% of second accidents, and could shorten time duration of accidental responses by 20%. In UK Highways after around 10 years implemented, driving safety increased by 13% and the traffic congestion decreased (which converted to Cost Saving as around 11,000 UK Pound/km./yr.) In Japan (Hanshin Expressway), the system could help decrease second accidents by 50% and reduce time duration for informing the accident to the next coming car by 2 seconds to 8 minutes. As mentioned earlier, EXAT has developed ITS center’s 7 subsystems, which includes ATIS and AID system, and installed the traffic condition measurement devices on the Kanchanaphisek expressway as a ITS Pilot Corridor. The results from the subsystems have been analysed, and then showed via EXAT ITS application on smart phones, website and the Smart VMS for those who are around the decision locations whether to use expressways or take alternatives. As a result, expressway users who acquire the information from ITS system are able to plan their trips in advance. Consequently, travel time savings and vehicle operating cost savings increase to 3.25% and 5.12 % respectively. Also, this could reduce 5.47% of fuel cost, 5.47% of air pollution emission. Based on the 1-year economic analysis on the expressways, the users can increase their average speed by 0.36% making better traffic flow on the expressways by 20.07%. Due to the continuous ITS development since 2004, the traffic flow rate on the entire expressway network has increased by 5%. In order to make clear how people get benefits from ITS development, the 1-year economic analysis study on the expressways also compared the efficiency of expressway services regarding Vehicle Kilometer of Travel, Vehicle Hour of Travel, and Average Travel Speed which represent travel time and vehicle operating cost savings before and after the ITS development. The study showed that the ITS development on the Kanchanaphisek expressway tends to enhance the efficiency of the expressway services. The comparison study illustrated that travel time and vehicle operating cost savings can be obtained up to 1.12 million Baht/month and 0.21 million Baht/month respectively. Importantly, the ITS system can reduce the fatality rate on the expressways by 45% per 1 million vehicles because the expressway users can access and receive the accurate traffic information in advance to plan trips and avoid traffic congestion or accidents and more importantly to prevent second accidents. Accordingly, a number of fatalities significantly dropped from 32 in FY 2004 to 16 in FY 2013.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The ITS development of EXAT is among the newest innovations in Thailand and EXAT is claimed as the first organisation to develop the ITS system for advanced public services. Consequently, EXAT has spent a large amount of investment (65 million Baht) on the ITS development projects (Phase 1, 1.5, and 2). The budget allocated especially on equipment testings and computer programming development to customise the needs of local environment, and then create a standard of new device testing process. Therefore, the initiated standard can be transferable to other organisations saving a lot of budget. In addition to the benefit from cost saving, EXAT has also initiated the ITS knowledge transfer programme by providing On-the-Job trainings, ITS system installation manuals, Knowledge Management (KM) for the public and related internal departments such as officers from EXAT Call Center 1543, Rescue and Maintenance departments and for external organisations such as Department of Highway (DOH), research analysts. Moreover, EXAT has distributed the studies of ITS system development by submitting a number of papers and articles in domestic and international conferences and seminars. Examples are “ITS Policies in Developing Countries”, The Korean Society for ITS, Republic of Korea and “Monitoring Traffic Flow using the Intelligent Transportation System”, 2nd Annual City Maintenance, Malaysia. These submissions help receive comments and feedback from ITS scholars and experts in several perspectives. Therefore, EXAT ITS staff can identify problems systematically and improve the ITS development process efficiently. Finally, experienced officers can perform new ITS concepts, and then create sustainable development of ITS system in the industry. Nowadays, the government has highlighted the ITS deployment as its main policy to improve traffic conditions making other public and private sectors more interested in the ITS industry. Thus, those organisations such as Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning, Inter-City Motorway Division, DOH, Don Muang Tollway Public Company Limited and universities in Thailand, and also international organizations such as Road Safety and Transport Authority of Bhutan, Japanese expressway companies pay technical visits to EXAT’s ITS Center. Moreover, EXAT keeps preparing ITS training courses for trainees from recognised universities. Furthermore, EXAT has recently signed MOU with TV Channel to broadcast real-time traffic information during peak hours. Based on world-wide recognition, EXAT ITS operation has been acknowledged by the Inter City Motorway Division, DOH to apply the system on the inter-city motorways. This ensures the developed ITS system fits to the local environment and is sustainable and transferable. Also for future projects, EXAT has already planned to extend the ITS system on the entire network. In FY 2015, EXAT will extend the system on the Chalong Rat Expressway (Chatuchote - Ram Inthra, Ram Inthra - At Narong, and At Narong - Bangkaew routes). In FY 2016, ITS system will cover on the Burapha Withi Expressway (Bangkaew-Chonburi route). Moreover, EXAT will develop Travel Time Estimation displayed on VMS system (en-route traffic information) along the other expressways. Thus, users will experience the more convenience to receive advanced real-time travel information during their journey on the expressways.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The ITS development of EXAT was systematically conducted under various theoretical approaches. Various tasks were developed as follows; the establishment ITS centre , the ITS master plan, the strategic formulation of human resource development, strategic collaboration among best-practice organizations, comparing with the standards or Best Practice. In addition, a PDCA approach, a modern quality control method, was used for the ITS development. The PDCA has an iterative four-step management method as follows (1) Plan (Establish the objectives) (2) Do (Implement the plan, execute the process) (3) Check (Study the actual results: measured and collected in "DO" above) (4) Action (Request corrective actions on significant differences between actual and planned results). The necessity of ITS development has required project and risk management followed by testing processes which are (1) Factory Test is the laboratory testing of manufacturers correctly to follow international standards (2) Commissioning Test is the functional testing and checking to follow the requirement of applications (3) Burn-In Test is the application testing which runs over 36 hrs and has error values of less than 5% (4) Particular Test or Calibration and Validation is the accuracy testing of applications not less than 85% (5) Acceptant Test is the integrity testing of the system working for 30 consecutive days. These steps are used to manage a risk control on installation process. In addition, the Test section study, Demonstration study and Pilot study are systematically conducted to ensure that all subsystems and applications developed are technically met international standards which will be applied for other expressways. One of the significant problems of the ITS development is the integration of related applications which have many manufacturers, many technologies and so on. The data connections (links) have complicated processes which create coordinated problems many times. So these problems can be solved by determining the standard patterns of the data connections, determining input and output standard of the systems and the applications. Besides using the existing applications and systems to maximize the benefits and the cost saving of ITS development, EXAT should be aware of the maintenance issues for the devices of other systems. Importantly, system and data compatibility is vital when the new systems or devices are linked to the old systems or devices. The maintenance issues of the applications and other systems must be taken into consideration because if the existing applications or systems or devices are obsolete, even updated, it will directly affect the performance of ITS system. Furthermore, another significant issue is the backup system or redundant system or recovery system. The backup system must redundantly work over 24 hrs a day and takes control immediately when failure of the main ITS system occurs in order to provide traffic information continuously, especially when the disaster happens.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Expressway Authority of Thailand
Institution Type:   Government Agency  
Contact Person:   Dr. Sakda Panwai
Title:   Director of Expressway System Engineering R&D Divi  
Telephone/ Fax:   +(66) 2 579 5380-9 ext. 2945/1726
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   sakda.duk@gmail.com  
Address:   2380 Phaholyothin Rd Senanikom,
Postal Code:   10900
City:   Chatuchak District
State/Province:   Bangkok
Country:  

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