Learn Not to Burn(LNTB)
Gauteng Department of Education

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
The first major problem deals with the difficulties experienced with Inclusive Education It was important to understand the problems existing in Inclusive Education before embarking on the Learn Not to Burn (LNTB) Inclusion Pilot. UNESCO (Oline,2014) provides alarming facts ‘Exclusion has many faces. 72 million children are still not enrolled at all in school’ … ‘Poverty and marginalization are major causes of exclusion’… ‘Disabled children suffer from blatant educational exclusion’. UNESCO (ibid) suggests that it is vital to overcome these problems by using strategies to improve the quality of education. 1.2 The second major concern is the seriousness of fire. It is vital for fire safety training to be included in education Fire causes is a world-wide phenomenon. Africa has one of the highest rates of burn deaths in the world. The most affected age groups with the highest burn deaths are : The 0 – 4 age group and elderly people (65+). These groups become the focus of the LNTB programme. The ‘tragedy of fire’ frequently leads to danger, despair, devastation, disfigurement, disablement, social rejection and sadly, death. The only answer to this major catastrophe is to include the burn prevention programme LNTB in our education system 1.3 The social groups involved in the pilot The LNTB Pre - school programme focuses on teaching fire prevention and control strategies to learners living in South Africa (SA) aged 0-4 years also including learners with Severe Intellectual Barriers to Learning (SIB Learners). However, the LNTB pilot and its extensive roll-out affected all social groups as death by fire can happen to anyone. This pilot is addressing a National crisis . The fire messages, with the use of a variety of teaching strategies, can now reach most of the SA population. The SA population has limited fire safety knowledge. ‘It could not happen to us’ was the general thought amongst the staff. At the end of the pilot all stake-holders involved with the LNTB project (the learners, education authorities, teaching staff, parents, emergency services and the community) reported invaluable gain in the area of fire safety knowledge. Further to the above-mentioned problems is the fact that SA has nine official languages which creates communication problems; a number of people are illiterate especially amongst the older population; female education in the past has not been seen as a priority; immigrants from neighbouring states speak other languages and people with disabilities may have been denied education. Written fire safety messages therefore have limited meaning to these people. Placing the above in a SA context the fire safety problem is exacerbated by poverty and the prevalence of informal settlements where there is limited / no electricity available. Candles & paraffin, which are highly dangerous, are widely used for lightening, heating and cooking.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
In 2009 Early Childhood Development Institute (ECDI) Gauteng Department of Education (GDE), was approached by Mr Rodney Eksteen from the Johannesburg Emergency Services (EMS) to introduce the LNTB prevention Pre-School Programme into schools. The fact that there was insufficient content in the curriculum to educate learners about fire safety, prompted the LNTB Inclusion pilot. This multi-phased project was undertaken over a three year period in the context of special education in Gauteng, SA. The burn problem in SA needed to be addressed and due to the high poverty index of SA, the route of education was chosen above that of engineering and enforcement. For this purpose, the National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA) Pre School Programme introduced in the USA in the 1960’s had been considered and adapted to suit the needs of the South African context. In the early 2000 various stakeholders in SA were involved in adapting this NPFA Pre-School Programme. The ECDI deemed it necessary to pilot the LNTB burn prevention programme to address the high number of burn victims in SA especially the very young learner and learners with disabilities living in poverty and informal settlements. However, in order to make this program accessible to all learners in an inclusive education system, it had to be further adapted to suit the needs of learners with severe barriers to learning. The ECDI recognized the value of the LNTB programme and decided to introduce the programme with the aim of evaluating the suitability of the content of the programme at the same time making the necessary adaptations and modifications to the programme in order to make it accessible for learners with special educational needs (LSEN). During this pilot the programme titled “Learn Not to Burn” (LNTB); a pre-foundation phase mainstream burn prevention programme (Figure 1) was adapted and implemented at a special school in Gauteng. The LNTB programme consists of ten fire safety messages. Learners attending the schools and centres in this project were from different socio economic backgrounds. Many of the schools involved catered for learners from impoverished, informal settlements and they have to take care of many of the household chores involving the use of boiling water, lighting fires and handling paraffin. These learners urgently need training in how to handle these dangerous situations. All learners, regardless of their barrier to learning are able to be taught safety strategies, using the LNTB programme, which will reduce the incidents of severe damage / death from burn situations. This will equip the learners with skills to deal with dangerous situations as they arise, regardless of their language or learning ability. An integrated task team was established from: • The University of South Africa (UNISA), • The Johannesburg Emergency Services (EMS), • Officials from GDE • One Non - Governmental Organisation (NGO) • The ECDI. The schools involved included: • Six Special Schools - all these learners are SIB learners but many have multiple barriers which include epilepsy, deafness, blindness, physical barriers, behavioural barriers and autism. • 1 Full service (mainstream school which is also attended by certain SID learners) and • 2 ECD Centres in Gauteng who caters for learners both abled and disabled from different socio economic backgrounds The learners’ parents and surrounding communities were included in the project. LNTB Presentations have been given to a variety of audiences: • UNICEF • University of South Africa • University of Johannesburg • ECDI conference • Provincial and District Education Departments • The EMS • Teacher Organisations • Private Organisations • Association for Education and Care of Young Children (AECYC) • NGOs • Teachers • Parents

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
Education seems to be the most effective way of addressing the serious burn deaths and injury to learners in SA (Figure 5), yet limited provision for fire prevention programmes has been made in the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) (DoE, 2011). The LNTB Preschool Programme is unique as it was the first time fire safety education for learners in SA has been addressed in education. It provides: (APPENDIX A, APPENDIX G, APPENDIX I) • Adequate opportunity for teacher development • Innovative ways of teaching • Knowledge of and how to identify the different barriers to learning • Differentiated inclusive strategies for young/ SIB learners • Examples for LTSM using waste materials (reducing costs) • A whole integrated teaching approach using language, mathematics and life skills. • Learning through play activities • A trained dog from the EMS K9 Unit demonstrated safety messages Creative and innovative approaches were used: (APPENDIX G) A printed and electronic LNTB resource pack was developed, consisting of: • The LNTB manual • The picture dictionary providing visuals of the LNTB items • A visual approach to teach difficult concepts to learners experience reading difficulties • Art activities • A Music CD • Valuable fine motor and sensory skills • Play activities • Therapy activities using gross-motor, hands-on, child-centred activities • Classroom adaptations to allow access for physically disabled learners

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
To ensure the successful execution of the programme, well-defined project brief and defined outcomes were established at the commencement of the project. The planning phase included the clarification of what the project was about and provided an outline of the project expectations. It involved planning and defining the project plan with the necessary role players, timelines and target dates. This was done in consultation with all the stakeholders so as to ensure that the project planning was acceptable. The Project was a multi-phased project which has been implemented over a four and a half year period. Phases 1,2 and 3 have been fully completed and phases 4 to 6 are in progress. The total implementation plan, bringing together all the components of the Pilot namely: • The planning for the pilot (ECDI) • The selection of a Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Model for staff development • Staff training to be undertaken in all phases of the project): • Parent Communication - Parent letters, Parent morning / meetings, EMS community meetings • PPT Presentations given by The Gateway School Staff 4.1 Phases 1 and 2 - Micro Roll-out Planning undertaken by the ECDI 2009 • Initial engagement with Stakeholders (EDCI, EMS, Inclusion Directorate GDE, Inclusion Unit District Office GDE, University of the Witwatersrand, University of South Africa, NGO, Representative of The Gateway School.) (Individual, Group meetings undertaken with Stakeholders). • Introduction of the LNTB Preschool Programme. • Proposal for the pilot – submitted to the Inclusion Directorate GDE. • Approval of the pilot. 4.2 ECDI LNTB Inclusion Pilot implementation plan – Phase 3 • ECDI planning for funds for manuals and Roll-out • LNTB Materials were printed and supplied to schools. o The final Field Phase meetings: Art Exhibition, Handing out manuals and CDs o Feedback from each school as to how they experienced the training; • Final stage of CPD model (Kempen, 2013) 4.3 ECDI LNTB Inclusion Pilot implementation plan – Phase 4 • The training given to facilitators (Phase4) who will do the training – The ‘Hub of Excellence’ will thereby be extended • The inclusion of the LNTB Burn Prevention programme into the education curriculums (SANASE and 0 – 4 Curriculum) 4.4 Phase 5 Phase 6: The Macro Roll-out Phases 5 reflect the Macro Roll-Out (other provinces in SA) of the project and deals with the sustainability and availability of the project. • Roll-out training to other schools in Gauteng (SA) • Roll-out training to schools in other provinces (SA) • Starting the LNTB training in Retirement Homes (+65 age group)

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
5.1 The role of the ECDI The ECDI, GDE was responsible for: • Initiation and coordination • Establishment of task team • Handling administrative and communication • Facilitating and enabling public participation by: o Hosting regular meetings with the integrated task team o Facilitating regular individual, group meetings and consultation with key stakeholders. o Involving all participants in the project by integrating input from them into the planning process. o Setting of service standards agreed upon by various stakeholders. o Creation of project plan with outcomes, dates and responsible parties. o Monitoring progress by means of feedback sessions, questionnaires, site visits and reports. 5.2 The role of the Special Schools Directorate (Head Office) GDE (SA) The project was funded by the Inclusion and Special Schools Directorate (Head Office – GDE). 5.3 The role the Gateway School and participating Special Schools (APPENDIX G, I) • The initial staff training was conducted by The Gateway School (Public Special School). • Valuable networking took place at organisational level. • This was extended to external networking with other schools, EMS, Universities, NGO’s, and Gauteng departments. • This networking increased public participation in this project and provided valuable sources of skills and knowledge. • Strong links between schools, parents and their local communities were established. Individual schools had meetings with their parents and surrounding communities to share information explaining the importance of the programme. • Fire safety information dealt with in the classrooms was sent home and the parents reported to have benefitted greatly from the information shared with them. 5.4 The extension of the Stakeholders • The programme was also introduced to churches and other community groups. • The Ukuphepha ECD pilot in Slovo Park (Informal Settlement – Unemployment, Poverty), Johannesburg conducted by the Institute for Social And Health Sciences UNISA, enhanced community awareness which was a further valuable extension of the public participation.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
6.1 Financial (Figures 13 – 17) The project was funded by the GDE, which enabled the funding of the following: • Phase 1 – Pilot to adapt, develop and test the material in one special school, The Gateway School. • Phase 2 – Field testing of project in five Special schools, one Full Service school and two ECD centres. • Training resources development, including the printing of the manuals, Picture dictionaries and three CD’s (songs, presentations) • Purchase of equipment - schools received LNTB resource box (included the equipment necessary to carry out the programme) • Printing of manuals, picture dictionaries and CD’s funded by GDE /ECDI 6.2 Non – financial These resources developed as the project unfolded and provided the resources that made the project a success. • Inclusion of other special schools not part of initial project. The staff of these schools made valuable contributions towards the programme. This provided a learning platform for both LNTB as well as learning about identifying the needs of SIB Learners and for the planning of differentiated inclusive activities to suit the needs of these learners. • The LNTB staff development programme created a school wide awareness of safety measures and procedures. The whole school improvement that took place included designing and updating of school safety policies and procedures.  The importance of support in developing a climate and culture conducive to teaching and learning is emphasised by the programme.  Mutual engagement and learning - The importance of teamwork was highlighted throughout the programme and it led to high levels of motivation.  The networking with other schools and organisations increased the sources of skills and knowledge. 6.3 Human resources  Please refer to Appendix I for an overview of the valuable Professional Staff development Model developed in the doctoral study completed in this LNTB • The devolution of leadership led to commitment from all stakeholders. Teachers were provided with the opportunity to take on leadership roles. This distributed leadership brought about ownership of the learning process.  In order to set up the “Hub of Excellence” the staff of the main pilot school required extensive training in a subject they had limited knowledge of at the start of the pilot. The quality of the “Expert Hub” (core of staff running the project) had to be high quality, passionate, well trained staff. They were the ones that had the responsibility of running the project.  They had to devote time in preparation: • for initial training; • for training of the six schools; • for training of the ECD site facilitators and • for preparation of all the training material produced for the project. 6.4 Technical  Computerised resources were needed in the preparation of MS PowerPoint presentations, for teaching equipment and training documents. (APPENDIX G)  Technical training relating to fire prevention and safety was provided by EMS officials who instructed teachers on the following: • Correct use of fire safety equipment such as smoke alarms and fire extinguishers. • Evacuation procedures (with emphasis on procedures for learners who could not evacuate on their own)

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
In no more than 400 words list no more than five concrete outputs that contributed to the success of the initiative. It is necessary to compare the problems at the start of the LNTB pilot with the successful outputs mentioned below. 7.1 Staff training/development (APPENDIX A, APPENDIX G, APPENDIX I) • Knowledge of Inclusion including:  Knowledge of and identification of barriers to learning  The planning a diverse programme to suit learner’s individual learners needs.  Strategies to be used in the teaching of LSEN learners  Adapting the classroom for special needs (wheelchairs) • The planning of LTSM (Learner Teacher Support Material) for LNTB - printed and electronic  LNTB Manual  Picture Dictionary  Music CD  Therapy programme  Presentations  Posters  Story books  Resource boxes • The development of the Dynamic Collaborative Networking Model of staff development 7.2 Knowledge of fire safety (APPENDIX G) • This staff training is a first in fire safety training • LNTB project has increased the knowledge of burn prevention messages • The learners can enact the correct behaviour to be followed with each of the LNTB messages. • The use of fire safety equipment • Knowledge of evacuation procedures • K9 counselling is being undertaken for children suffering from burns • Unique strategies used:  The EMS dog to train learners  Visuals used to teach messages  Play as a training method – fire engines, Teddies dressed as fireman  Concrete objects used to teach difficult concepts • The training saved the life of one family of the staff at one school. • Learner attainment of fire safety messages was a highlight of the pilot 7.3 LNTB is now part of the curriculum (APPENDIX A, APPENDIX G) • The 0 – 4 curriculum for Gauteng SA. • The SANASE curriculum • The planning of an integrated curriculum • Strategies in employing art, music, fine and gross motor activities in LNTB lessons 7.4 The training of facilitators to teach LNTB (APPENDIX I) • Please refer to Figures 12 – 17 for the extent of the training given to teachers and facilitators • The Fire Safety training is being developed for Retirement Villages 7.5 Academic value (APPENDIX I) • An academic article was published in an International Journal extending the academic literature on special education. • An academic paper based on the LNTB research was read at an international conference in Dublin. • A doctoral study was published through UNISA based on teacher development in this research done during this project. • A further doctoral study is in progress dealing with the strategies that were developed for SIB Learners.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
• At the start of the project a project plan was devised:  with measurable objectives,  a structured set of indicators with activities and timeframes • Throughout the whole project monitoring took place with the aim of improving the project design and functioning:  This was done through constant feedback and reporting sessions with all stakeholders  All participants completed questionnaires after each training session  Participants were given the opportunity to do presentations  Task team members conducted site visits to monitor the level of implementation at the various schools  Regular task team meetings to establish progress and receive feedback - (See Appendix D)  Quarterly meetings were held with the task team to make important changes to the project implementation plan  Quarterly meetings with participating schools • All the information provided was used to monitor the progress of the project and to iron out any problems experienced during the implementation phase of the project.  ECDI Reports - (See Appendix F)  Questionnaires - (See Appendix E)  Site visits • Evaluation of each of the phases of the project took place to ensure that the project met the outcomes set.  The evaluation that took place was done to establish to which extend the project was able to achieve its objectives.  This was done by means of in-depth focus group and individual interviews conducted with key participants to the project.  All collected information was employed to reach a final conclusion. • The monitoring and evaluation process was supported by evidence collected throughout the project. o The supporting evidence included:  Photographs (See Appendix G)  Video clips  Examples of learners’ work (See Appendix G)  LTSM. (See Appendix G)  Presentations - (See Appendix G) • Will be monitored over a period of time to evaluate the impact of the program. • Learner Activities and learner attainment were evaluated using  Observation  Art Milestone criteria (as set up in the Art Activities in the manual)  Milestones as taken from the NCS and SANASE documents  Individualisation of tasks depending in the needs of each learner  Scores used  Maximum help required  Minimum help required  Verbal encouragement needed  Independent task completion • Assessment of drawings to determine  Stage of drawing  Fine Motor skills  Knowledge of LNTB message

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
In no more than 300 words describe the main problems that were encountered during the implementation and how these were addressed and overcome. 9.1 At the start of the project the pilot school lacked fire safety knowledge. APPENDIX G • Fire Safety presentations were given from very early on in the pilot. • A number of presentations were given to experienced fire department officials on how we would teach the learners. These presentations were difficult as we did not have an in-depth knowledge of fire safety procedures. With the help of Mr. R. Eksteen (co-coordinator of the LNTB programme), we were far more confident. • We certainly learnt through trial and error and were able to accept our mistakes as part of the learning curve. The strength of this project lies in the fact that most of the challenges experienced in the initial stage of the project were ironed out and addressed during the pilot. No major obstacles were encountered in the second phase and all challenges were addressed and overcome in a collaborative manner by involving all major stakeholders. 9.2 The pilot school lacked computer knowledge The pilot school lacked computer knowledge in the preparation of MS PowerPoint presentations. The educators responsible for the preparation of the many MS PowerPoint presentations lacked computer knowledge at the beginning of the pilot. However, as time went on, the computer skills increased resulting in an increase in confidence. This was certainly one of the most positive outcomes of the LNTB pilots. 9.3 Resources for the preparation of LTSM was urgently needed (APPENDIX G) Schools who did not have the necessary resources for the teaching of the LNTB lessons overcame this challenge by utilising waste material. Waste material was successfully employed to prepare Learner Teacher Support Material (LTSM). 9.4 Ownership of the project (APPENDIX I) Ownership of the project was also a challenge but was overcome by giving teachers leadership roles and encouraged collaboration and networking to share knowledge, expertise and skills.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
• Internal and external networks led to beneficial relationships for all stakeholders involved. (APPENDIX I) See Appendix G for the model of networking that was used in this Pilot. This was a valuable finding in the research undertaken (Kempen, 2013:75). The internal networks included the staff structures in the school. The external networks included external organisations (Parents, EMS, UNISA, ECDI, Local community, Fire Safety dog and handler). • Pockets of expertise where shared. (APPENDIX I) The more experienced staff in the teams assisted those staff with less experience thus passing on the valuable knowledge they had acquired over the years. This led to the development of the continuous Professional Staff Development model which has at its centre the “Hub of Expertise” (Kempen, 2013:78). In this Model, the centre of the team is made up of the leader of the team (the researcher) assisted by experts in all the various fields needed in the training. This is called the “Dynamic hub of expertise” (Kempen, 2013:167). These staff members were responsible for the training of the staff at the main pilot school (The Gateway School). After the training, the staff of the school now became an extension of the “Dynamic hub” and was responsible for the training of the educators in the other schools in the second phase of the pilot. The educators in these schools in turn became the “Hub of expertise” and went back to train the staff at their own schools. The main pilot school was also responsible for the training of the facilitators who would go out to train the ECD sites in the roll-out planned. • Teacher Development: Peer Coaching, Collaboration, Problem Solving, Developing Excellence by means of competence, confidence and enjoyment adhering to teacher’s contextual needs, sharing existing knowledge and experience. This training was invaluable for the participating staff members as they had practical, hands-on experience by experienced educators. • Whole school Improvement: Empowerment of teachers, fostering positive attitudes, personal and professional gains, team development. . • Management Development: Interpersonal skills, Leadership skills, administrative skills, assist school management to develop positive leadership roles to support teachers, formal systematic planning of the workshops. • Improved Structural Practices: Gained knowledge and skills on sound instructional practices, Positive relationship ensured gained knowledge and the implementation thereof, Improved leaner outcomes, Knowledge on curriculum adaption, inclusive pedagogy, • Catalyst of Change: the programme became the hub of excellence which spread from Gateway school and expanded to various schools, NGOS, Municipalities. The programme also created Fire Safety awareness to communities through the Ukuphepha Fire Safety Project, Pilots, and Training of Facilitators. It also created fire safety awareness in homes of all participants particularly the previously disadvantaged communities. • Value Systems and Attitudes: Teachers and Facilitators became more positive towards the programme • Learner Development: Learners with special needs do not usually learn through reading and writing and were able to participate in the programme and receive the message. Through various teaching activities: visuals, art, gross motor, music and through play. • The project has a potential to scale if the number of staff in the “Hub of excellence” is increased. • General value to the participants of the pilots • The inclusion of other special schools which was not part of initial project. The staff of these schools made valuable contributions towards the programme. • The LNTB staff development programme created a school wide awareness of safety measures and procedures. The whole school improvement that took place included designing and updating of school safety policies and procedures. • The importance of support in developing a climate and culture conducive to teaching and learning is emphasised by the programme. • Mutual engagement and learning - The importance of teamwork was highlighted throughout the programme and it led to high levels of motivation. • The networking with other schools and organisations increased the sources of skills and knowledge. • The knowledge of different barriers to learning was increased. This is part of the vision of the NCS (National Curriculum Statement)(DoE, 2011) that educators must be able to identify barriers to learning. • The knowledge of how to differentiate a learning programme for learners on different levels was increased. This is a further part of the vision of the NCS (National Curriculum Statement) DoE, 2011)

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Training has been undertaken to date. This includes the roll-out plans for 2015 – 2019. The is an extensive outreach which will ensure sustainability. The achievements flowing from the implementation of the project have potential of being sustained over a period of time: • The manuals and other resource material provide the information required by educators to carry out the LNTB programme. This proved to be a financial saving. • The Emergency Service will be trained again and will be encouraged to train many schools in high risk areas focussing on learners who are most at risk. • As the learners are trained, this information is also made available to the parents in parent meetings Health and safety regulations will be a focus. • Strong links with ECD stakeholders could ensure roll out in a broader context. Inclusion in the curriculum will make the objectives of the pilot become a reality • The LNTB programme has already been integrated into Birth to Four Curriculum for Gauteng and has the potential to roll out to the rest of the country in line with the National Curriculum Framework Birth to four. • The possibility to include the LNTB programme in the Grade R curriculum is looked at. • It has been included in the SANASE programme for learners with SIB to learning. SANASE will be providing training in the programme, therefore the LNTB sections will receive training. To ensure sustainability participants and stakeholders were made aware of their accountability and responsibility. (APPENDIX I) • The HUB of Excellence” (Kempen, 2013:166) was an important aspect of the sustainability of the project. This requires serious consideration in further projects. In this project, the staff was motivated and trained. It is vital to have well trained staff in the “Hub” 11.2 Replicability/ Disseminated • The programme has a potential to be replicated globally. It has been rolled out in the Western Cape - Local Government Western Cape www.burnfoundation.org.za www.westerncape.gov.za for the LNTB manual • Rolled out to the Eastern Cape as a community project (27 January 2014). • This project can serve as a model for the development of Health and Safety programmes like road and water safety. • ECDI has established an ECD stakeholder forum which consists of representatives from NGO’s, FET colleges, Universities, Municipalities, Department of Health, Department of Social Development and other relevant ECD stakeholders. • The LNTB project has been presented at these forums to create awareness. • ECD stakeholders from Department of Social Development. Department of Department Health, Department of Education, NGO’s and Municipalities have been trained 3 December 2013 on the LNTB programme to ensure further rollout thereof. • Community awareness was done through The Ukuphepha ECD pilot in Slovo Park, Johannesburg conducted by Institute for Social And Health Sciences, UNISA during 2012 11.3 Transferability: • This LNTB Project plans for the training of senior citizens in a retirement village. This requires the addition of ‘How to keep their homes fire-safe’ with the LNTB Manual. (See Appendix H)

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
12.1 Lessons learnt from the pilot: (APPENDIX G) (APPENDIX I) • Identifying the relevant stakeholders was challenging. • Collaboration and consultation with all relevant stakeholders from different levels prior to the commencement of the project was time consuming. • Proper Communication and awareness about the project to all the stakeholders should occur before the project commences. • Fortunately, each stakeholder realised the importance of the contribution they could/ would make to this project and willingly participated, making the project a success. They provided invaluable training to the staff at The Gateway School in acquiring fire safety knowledge. Teachers involved in the project At first teachers were reluctant to participate and make contributions but as they became more familiar with the programme their confidence grew and their participation increased. Their final contribution of learner activities and LTSM at the closing ceremony was beyond all our expectations. 12.2 Recommendations: (APPENDIX G) 12.1 In a project of this caliber proper consultation and collaboration with all relevant stakeholders from the initial planning stage is very important to ensure the buy in from the start of the project. 12.2 Proper Planning from the beginning is important and consultation throughout the project created the opportunity for trust, openness and transparency. 12.3 Communication to all the stakeholders on a regular basis to provide feedback will assist to monitor progress or identify challenges. 12.4 The LNTB manual is suitable and contains all relevant information necessary to teach the ten fire safety messages to the learners. 12.5 The activities are age appropriate and can be adapted to suit the social, emotional and intellectual development of the young leaner from different socio economic backgrounds. 12.6 In teaching the LNTB programme to young learners and those with barriers to learning, teachers can employ strategies proven to be most successful – the strategies developed in this project. 12.7 Fire safety messages should be repeated over an extended period of time and should not be treated as a once off event. 12.8 Fire safety messages must be revised annually. 12.9 All equipment and pictures must be representative of the learners’ real life world and must be kept simple without much detail. 12.10 Vocabulary extension is very important and should be the focus of all activities. 12.11 The LNTB programme allows for integration between subjects, integration between lessons and integration between activities. 12.3Shortcomings at completion of LNTB Pilot • Safety is of the utmost importance and at NO stage should the learners be exposed to open flames or the making of fire. • Focus should be placed on extending the LNTB programme for learners in the Foundation Phase, building on the Pre School programme. • It is imperative that teachers are trained on the LNTB fire safety programme before embarking on teaching the programme to learners. • A longitudinal study will be necessary in order to establish the success of LNTB in preventing fire related accidents • LNTB MUST become part of the main NCS curriculum in order to increase our Nations knowledge of fire safety. Education is a vital tool to save the lives of our children.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Gauteng Department of Education
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   David Makhado
Title:   Director: Education Research & Knowledge Managemen  
Telephone/ Fax:   0113550560/ 0862198568
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   david.makhado@gauteng.gov.za  
Address:   PO Box 7710
Postal Code:   2000
City:   Johannesburg
State/Province:   Gauteng
Country:  

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