Jalyukta Gaon Abhiyan” (Water-Rich Village Mission)
Water Conservation & EGS Department

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
The population of Maharashtra state (India), as per 2011 census is 11.23 crores. It is the third largest state in the country, covering an area of 307,731 km2 or 9.84% of the total geographical area of the country. The state has been divided into 9 agro-climatic zones based on rainfall, soil type and the vegetation. Pune Division, which is situated on the eastern side of Sayadri Hill Range, is comprised of 5 Districts, viz. Pune, Satara, Sangli, Solapur and Kolhapur. Population of Pune Division is about 2.34 Crores which is 20.84% of the state population. Of the 9 agro-climatic zones, Pune division is divided into 5 zones. The eastern part of the division comes under rain-shadow zone (also called as scarcity zone). Low, Irratic, Inconsistent rainfall is the characteristics of this rain-shadow zone. The state has three cropping seasons: Kharif (June to September), Rabi (October to January) & summer (March to May). Maharashtra has a long history of drought. The rain shadow zone of the state experiences severe water scarcity problems in one of the 3/5 years. Due to high variations in climate, the state is experiencing more and more inconsistent & irratic rainfall pattern resulting into occurrence of drought or severe water scarcity. In Pune Division, 37 blocks (tehsils) of total 58 blocks were declared as drought-hit in year 2012-2013. Effects of Drought in Pune Division: • Due to adverse climatic conditions, in Kharif and rabi season, the division cropped 21% and 45% less of the average sown area respectively. • The division harvested only 49% grains i.e. shortfall of 51% in grain production. • Because of late arrival, inconsistent rain most of the crops were severely affected resulted into poor production, both quantitywise and qualitywise. • In many areas grain size remained small. In some areas crops didn’t experienced flowering stage. • The division also faced fodder scarcity. The division experienced shortage of 1.651 millio metric tonnes of dry fodder and 9.908 million metric tonnes of green fodder. That affected on the milk production also. About 0.495 million cattles were shifted in fodder camps. • Horticultural Crops especially pomogranate & grapes were severely affected. As per government survey, 64,815 hectares of hortiulture crops were severely affected. • 1173 Villages & 6455 Habitations faced drinking water scarcity. In these areas government supplied the water through tankers. • Most of the Irrigation Projects (Dams) remained dry. 24 of the 28 Major Projects and 15 of the 22 Medium Projects had no Live Storage. • Ground Water levels depleted in most of the areas of division. As per the reading taken in the month of January (from 2008 to 2012), in 37 blocks there was a depletion of 1 to 3 meters or more in the ground water level. In the past, to address the water issues various government programmes such as Watershed Development, Mahatma Jyotiba Jalbhumi Abhiyan were floated, but none of them addressed the issue in an intergal manner and did not stand up to the expectations. There was urgent need of repairs of existing water storage structure like K.T. Weirs, Percolation Tanks, Village Tanks and Check Dams.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
2. Solution and Key Benefits Arrest maximum surface run-off and conserve water is the solution to this problem. There are some success stories but all that remained limited to the locality. While creating new storage or water harvesting structures, restoration of capacity of old structures is also important. There is need to sensitize people about importance of rain water harvesting. On the backdrop of 2011, 2012-13 drought in Pune division “Jalyukta GaonAbhiyan” (Water-Rich Village Mission) was implemented in year April,2012- July,2013 by using various sources of funds in an integral manner. Abhiyan includes following activities: a) Completion of Soil Conservation Structures like Compartment Bunding, Continuous Contour Trenches (CCT), Farm Pond & Earthen Structures under Watershed Programme on priority basis b) Construction of Series of new Check Dams c) Rejuvenation of old Check Dams alongwith Desilting, Deepening & Widening of Nala d) Repairs of K.T. Weirs & Storage Tanks e) Repairs of Percolation Tanks (COT& Repair of Waste Weir) f) Repair, Restoration & Renovation of P.T./ M.I.Tank g) Desiltation of Percolation tanks/ Village tanks/ M.I. Tanks/ Check Dams/ Earthen Check Dam h) Strengthening of drinking water resources i) Connecting Stream / Nala with water storage bodies j) Recharging of Dug Well k) Efficient Use of Water (Promoting modern irrigation techniques such as drip irrigation system) Objectives of Jalyukta Gaon Abhiyan i) Fulfill the needs of Domestic & Agriculture sector of village ii) Arrest the surface runoff and conserve rain water by creating new structures and restoring capacity of old structures iii) Creation of decentralized water bodies in drought-hit areas iv) Sensitize people about rain water harvesting v) Recharging of Ground Water Resources vi) Use of various funds including Government schemes, Sugar factories, NGO Funds/ people’s participation in integral manner. Key Benefits “Jalyukta Gaon Abhiyan” • In the first year of the programme, various water conservation & storage structures arrested 8.48 TMC (thousand million cubic meter) of rain water. • Main beneficiaries of this programme are Agriculture sector. • Domestic water needs of the villages got fulfilled throughout the year. • Increase in the production of fodder crops that resulted into increase in milk producion • Ground water level increased by 2 to 4 meters resulting into water security of villages. • Defunct 3117 water conservation/storage structures became functional to their enhanced capacity through repair and rejuvenation works.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
In the past, drought mitigation works carried out by different agencies lacked holistic approach and end-to-end solution. The works undertaken by the various departments were executed in scattered manner. Most of these works were initiated without people’s participation. With all these experiences, a holistic approach was adopted in the execution and implementation of Jalyukta Gaon Abhiyan. All the water conservation & restoration works were carried out by considering a single village as a unit. Construction of new structures, rejuvenation of old structures was done to achieve maximum capture of rain water, conserve most of it and use it efficiently for irrigation purpose. ‘In adversity there lies a bunch of opportunities’ was the movation force behind the Abhiyan. With it holistic and inclusive approach, it boosted confidence amongst all stakeholders, especially among general public. Innovative Activities as listed in para-2 above were effectively implemented. This Abhiyan is the brain-child of Mr. Prabhakar Deshmukh, the then Divisional Commissioner, Pune Division (now Secretary, Department of Water Conservation and Employment Guarantee Scheme, Govt. of Maharashtra, India). He designed the basic execution programme of the Abhiyan and led the implemention process. The Divisional Commissioner Office also provided policy inputs, orders, circulars and valuable guidance for effective implementation of the Abhiyan. Mr. Pradeep Patil, Deputy Commissioner (EGS) led the team with experts for proper co-ordinating and guidance.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Strategy Implemented To bring back smile on the face of drought-hit farmers of Pune Division was the main objective of this Abhiyan. To rebuild the confidence among farming community and to provide water security to village a holistic, inclusive implementation plan of the Abhiyan was drawn systematically. To unite the people to tackle the drought situation and to generate confidence amongst stakeholders a workshop was organized on 24th March 2013 at Karad (District Satara) in the distinguished presence on Hon. Chief Minister, Govt. Of Maharashtra. Major political leaders of five districts were also present. The implementtion plan of the Abhiyan was discussed. The committee at District was formed under chairmanship of District Collector, with all concerned department heads, NGO on stakeholders. The guidelines were issued by Divisional Commissioner office after discussion with Collectors and other stakeholders for preparation of Action Plan for Tahsil and each District. Then block wise, district wise action plan was prepared through consensus planning process. A Sub-Divisional Officer was appointed as a Nodal Officer at each Sub-division to monitor the Abhiyan Implementation process and to generate people participation in the Abhiyan. Periodic brainstorming meeting with inter departmental heads were organized. ‘Do it yourself’ thought was sown in the public mind through mass media publicity and local workshops, meetings. Farmers’ Groups, NGOs, Private Organizations, Banking Institutions, Co-operative Organizations, Associations of Industries were encouraged to take active part in the Abhiyan. Importance of Desilting of water bodies and water structures imbibed on the general mindset. State Government waived off royalty on silt. This encouraged the farmers to bear cost of digging & transporting silt to their fields. In a short span the Abhiyan took momentum and became a people’s movement. Physical & Financial Implications of Jalyukt Goan Abhiyan The activity wise detail plan and financial requirements were worked out on the basis of site specific technical & topographical needs of water conservation and water harvesting structures. After analysis of district plans, overall financial requirement was worked out to tune of Rs. 1327.52 Crores. The details are as follows :

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The major stakeholders of Jalyukta Gaon Abhiyan are Agriculture Department, Small Scale Irrigation Department, Revenue Department, Irrigation Department, District Administration, Zilla (District) Panchayat, Co-operative Sugar Factories, NGOs, Corporate Sector and Villagers. Peoples’ Representative in Local Bodies and media also played an important role in mobilizing people and transforming this Abhiyan into mass movement.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The financial resources used for the Abhiyan were made available through convergence of funds from various schemes, such as Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, Hon. Chief Minister Relief Fund, State Scarcity Fund, District Planning Committee Fund, Zilla Parishad Fund, Member of Parliament (MP)/ Member of legislative Assembly (MLA) Local Area Development Fund, Co-operative Sugar Factories Fund, NGOs, Corporate Sector. Awareness/field visit of the district officers, legislators, Sarpanch and peoples to places where good works has been done were organized.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Successful implementation of Jalyukta Gaon Abhiyan resulted in achieving various targets. In Jalyukta Goan Abhiyan 10 Big-Fast-Results activities were selected. Important activities for more effective capture of rain water and storage are : Sr. No. Name of activity Output 1. Watershed Development structures a Compartment Bunding 1,29,103 ha b Continuous Contour Trenches 5,909 ha c Earthen Nala Bund 3,440 ha d Farm Pond 1192 2. Construction of Series of New Check Dams a No of structures constructed 2225 b Deepening & widening of nala bed 214KM 3. Rejuvenation of old check Dam a No of old check dams rejuvenated 1298 b Deepening & widening of nala bed 285KM 4. Repair of K.T. Weirs & Storage Tanks 233 5. Desiltation of Percolation Tanks/ Village Tanks/M.I. Tanks/ Check Dams 1210 a No of structures desilted 1210 b Quantity of silt removed 341.92 ( In Lakh Cubic Meters) Generally to construct a dam of storage capacity of this size of 8.48 TMC requires about Rs. 3000 Crores. Also issues related to land acquisition, construction and rehabilitation may delay the completion of dam project. But Jalyukt Gaon Abhiyan succeeded in creating large number of decentralized water bodies with total storage capacity of 8.48 TMC. With proper and effective coordination of stakeholders and people’s participation, 8.48 TMC water storage capacity was created with expenditure of just Rs.507.25 Crores. Also Decentralised water bodies have helped to recharge groundwater resources and bringing up the ground water table by 2 to 3 meters in different parts of the districts.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The regular monitoring of progress of the Jalyukta Goan Abhiyan was carried out at every stage. Both process & output monitoring at division, district and block level by the concerned authorities was carried out effectively. At Division level Divisional Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner (EGS) supervised overall implementation of Jalyukta Goan Abhiyan. The periodic meetings with District Collector, Chief Executive Officer and concerned departmental officials helped to implement this Abhiyan successfully. The process of submitting the progress report of Abhiyan by Sub-Divisional Officer to District Collector and then further to Divisional Commissioner helped to take immediate decisions about the Abhiyan implementation. At District level, the monitoring process was administered by the District Collectors and their subordinate officials. People’s Representatives were also visited the work site during execution phase and after completion of the works. Villagers also act as a watchdog to check quality of work. All this monitoring process helped to maintain quality standards up to the mark. Works carried out under Jalyukta Gaon Abhiyan were evaluated by a 4 members team constituted under the chairmanship of Superintending Engineer (Irrigation), other members were Deputy Director of Agriculture, Executive Engineer (Irrigation) and Deputy Collector. The evaluation team carried the verification of actual works. The works for evaluation were selected on random basis. The Cross District Evaluation Teams were appointed for each district. After completion of evaluation works, the report submitted to the Office of Divisional Commissioner. After analysis of report it was observed that the works carried out under Jalyukt Gaon Abhiyan helped in significant increase in capture of rain water in the villages.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The prominent challenges encountered in the implementation are: a) Paucity of funds b) Lack of co-ordination among the executing agencies c) Lack of Motivation d) Farmerss opposition & obstruction to the work of deepening and widening of nala beds These obstacles were tackled through proper and continuous dialogues amongst all stakeholders. Field Visits of opposing farmers were arranged to villages who have achieved water-security through such works. Commom people, NGOz, Corporate Sector & Co-operative Institutions were encouraged to raise funds for the Abhiyan. Healthy Co-ordination amongst all stakeholders was maintained through periodic meetings & brainstorming exercise at district level.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
In Pune Division 37 blocks are more vulnerable or prone to drought or water scarcity. Jalyukta Goan Abhiyan was implemented to address the issues related to water availability for drinking and agriculture purpose in the village. The Big-Fast-Results approach was the central thought in Jalyukta Goan Abhiyan which helped to create decentralized water bodies in drought hit villages. Key benefits of these Abhiyan: • Capture of rain water increases in the villages by 8.48 TMC eg. In decentralised manner. a) Desilting & deepening of Karanj Rivulet in Vasumbe, Bhambarde, Gardi, Ghanavad & Hingangade villages (Block- Khanapur, Dist – Sangli) resolved the problem of water availability for drinking as well as for agriculture. Water storage capacity increased to 665 TCM (Thousand Cubic Meter ) b) Desilting of BangangaTank (Block- Phalatan, Dist- Satara) was carried out. The Royalty-free silt was used by farmers to improve the fertility of their farmland. Storage capacity of tank was restored to 1699 TCM. c) in Palashi (Block Koregoan, Distric- Satara) desilting of Vasana River Bandhara resulted in increase of storage capacity by 255 TCM. d) In Hivare (Blockl- Purandhar, Dist- Pune) nala beds of seven Check Dams were desilted. The nala stretch of 2.775 KM was widened & deepened through people’s participation. This effected in augmenting the storage capacity by 82.87 TCM. There were many villages in the division facing the acute water shortage every year for drinking & agriculture needs before implementation of Jalyukt Gaon Abhiyan. Now post-Abhiyan these villages have become water-secure. The interventions of Jalyukt Goan Abhiyan in villages effected into; i) Increase in area under protective irrigation. ii) Increase in ground water level of wells by 2 to 3 meters. iii) Villages become self-sufficient for drinking water source. ( Reduced number of drinking water Tankers from 1550 (6 June 2013) to 396 (14 July 2013) iv) Protective irrgation need of horticulture crops is being fulfilled. v) Increase in fodder availability leading to increase in milk production. Post-Abhiyan, more and more villages of Pune Division are coming forward to become self-sustained water-rich and working on the mantra ‘conserve where it falls’. The essence of Jalyukta Goan Abhiyan lies in effective coordination and motivation of various government & non-government agencies.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The concept of Jalyukta Goan Abhiyan is owned by the people and villages are becoming sustainable not only in water availability but in also financially. The Abhiyan has been conceptualized to make village water-rich and ultimately it will become sustainbale in every aspect. The group of farmer or villagers & Gram Panchayat is responsible for maintaining the water structures & resolving disputes amongst themselves. They are themselves the owner of these assets created under Abhiyan. There is full participation of Gram Panchayat in maintaining the structures created or restored. Started in Pune Division, Jalyukta Goan Abhiyan is now (being) replicated in the other parts of the state. The activities chosen in the Abhiyan are related to water issues of the village. This Abhiyan has boosted confidence of becoming water-rich among villages by effective capture of rain water, restoration or augumentation of old structures and efficient use of water through inclusive and consesus based system, which is the basis of Democracy.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Participation of people is most effective mechanism to achieve sustainable and inclusive development. People are aware of their problem; all they need is helping hand from administration & good leaders. People’s participation is importannt at every stage right from planning to implementation and post-implementation. Jalyukta Goan Abhiyan has shown that each and every stakeholder (either big or small, rich or poor, farmer or landless labour) is important in turning the tables on during any adverse scenario. Jalyukta Goan Abhiyan has proved that providing water security in scarcity / drought area is key in improving livelihood and reducing the poverty. Providing the protective irrigation at critical stage of crop helped in increasing productivity. The Integrated efforts with proper planning can solve critical issue of increasing water availability in drought prone area. Recommendation for the future is to make villagers knowledgeble for effective conservation of rain water and optimum use of available water in such a way that soil moisture security is achieved and maintained to reap higher and higher financial benefits from farms and to provide safe drinking water.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Water Conservation & EGS Department
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   Prabhakar Deshmukh
Title:   Government Service  
Telephone/ Fax:   02222025349/02222029132
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   sec.wcd@maharashtra.gov.in  
Address:   Water Conservation Department, Government of Maharashtra, 5th Floor, Room No.521 (Annex), Mantralaya, Mumbai,
Postal Code:   400032
City:   Mumbai
State/Province:   Maharashtra

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