Ciclo Participativo de Planejamento e Orçamento - CPPO
Secretaria Municipal de Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
In São Paulo, the elected mayor is required, pursuant to the Organic Law of the City, to present a Strategic Plan, within 90 days counted as from the date he has taken office. The Strategic Plan must be the conversion of the elected candidate’s program into a government program, which may contain goals, deadlines, targets and indicators. The Strategic Plan, before its current version, did not have popular participation in its formulation and was not integrated with the budget planning of the city. The lack of participation in the Strategic Plan compromised the plurality of the actors involved in planning the priorities of the city and harmed especially those social groups that have been historically excluded, such as immigrants, elderly, women and black people, who were marginalized and voiceless in the government program. Furthermore, as the Strategic Plan was not properly integrated with the budget planning of the city, its priorities were not reflected in the main instruments of planning and budget, such as the Multi-Annual Plan (PPA) and the Annual Budget Law (LOA). This means that the goals lacked a solid budgetary foundation; it was not possible to relate a particular goal at a specific cost. In addition, most importantly, it was not possible to follow, in local territory, each of the projects that were implemented by the municipal government. An example: How many preschools were provided to M'Boi Mirim District? What was the cost per year regarding these schools? Thus, the plan and budget monitoring became more difficult and not tangible, especially if we think about the population - the lay public in general regarding budgetary matters.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The solution was drawn through the creation of Participatory Planning and Budget Cycle (CPPO). This initiative was coordinated and implemented by the Department of Planning, Budget and Management (Sempla). The beginning of the Cycle occurred precisely in the development of a participatory Strategic Plan, a process that included massive engagement of the population in the discussion and proposal of contributions to the reformulation of the planning priorities relating to the Strategic Plan. Nevertheless, to resolve the situation it was necessary to ensure the linkage between Strategic Plan and budget planning of the city. To that end, the Strategic Plano was the basis for the preparation of the PPA, which is the main tool for medium-term budget planning (4 years). And the annual budget laws that detail the PPA were also based on the Strategic Plan. In addition, there was a concern, which did not exist before, on detailing the projects and actions outlined in the municipal budget by means of a territorial look (where would each project be performed and how much resource would be spent?). To this regard, a regionalization of the goals was made, detailing the action. An example: The Strategic Plan provides, among its purposes, the expansion of early childhood education through the expansion of the network and the creation of 150 thousand new places. Within this purpose, there is a step in order to build 243 daycare facilities for children (which serve children between 0 and 3 years old). In the PPA, this goal was translated as a program and each one of these 243 daycare facilities was deemed as a project. Each of these projects has, in the Budget Law, the provision of a specific resource. This means that the population of M’Boi Mirim may be able to monitor the progress of each of the nurseries relating to that region. More than that, the solution of creating a Cycle meant to articulate channels and mechanisms for participation in planning, budgeting and monitoring. To that end, the Cycle was designed to be composed of a combination of a Council of Participatory Planning and Budgeting - CPOP, public hearings for the participation of the entire population and virtual strategies and interfaces. Regarding digital participation, a Monitoring System of the Strategic Plan was implemented, with updated information regarding the progress of each goal. This system is available at PlanejaSampa (, an interactive portal for information on planning and budget. The central structure of the Cycle is the CPOP, which is a council whose function is to prepare the proposal for participation in the planning and budget and to become its backbone of implementation. It is composed by all city councils, either themed (eg Health and Education) or territorial (32 participatory councils, which are connected to municipal sections and elected by direct vote). There is a total of 106 full members and 106 alternate members, of which 13 are representatives of the municipal government, 64 are regional representatives of the Participatory Municipal Councils, 27 are thematic representatives and 2 are thematic representatives of civil society (women and immigrants). In other words, even political segments that are not assembled in councils will be represented. The Cycle of Participatory Planning and Budgeting is therefore a complete response to the demand for participation and transparency in planning and budgeting in the city of São Paulo.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The Cycle stands as a pioneer in many aspects, including: • The participatory version of the Strategic Plan, which incorporated in its final version the demands presented by the population in the rounds of public hearings; • Social participation occurs throughout the process, from the planning stage to the monitoring of projects, differing from traditional Participatory Budgeting, where participation is usually restricted to just a portion of the budget; • Integration of the Strategic Plan with the tools of planning and budgeting (PPA and LOA); • Regionalization and territorial coverage of each of the projects relating to the Strategic Plan, enabling social control into the territory; • The creation of a Council of Participatory Planning and Budgeting - CPOP, which allows the articulation of all city councils for effective participation in the planning and budgeting cycle.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The first version of the Strategic Plan was presented in March 2013 and submitted to wide popular discussion. In April, at the beginning of the Cycle, the presentation of this version was made through 35 public hearings, of which 31 took place at the municipal sections, whereas three were thematic and one was general. The hearings allowed the population to submit proposals for changes in the program, resulting in a participation of approximately 6000 people and 9489 suggestions, allowing people to be heard. The suggestions were systematized and resulted in the participatory version of the Strategic Plan, whereas out of a total of 123 final goals, 28 resulted from public hearings. An example is the visibility of the elderly policy in the Strategic Plan. The movement of elderly people was organized to base their claims on all hearings and the result was the creation of an objective and five goals. In August of the same year, the second stage of the Cycle was held, which included 32 feedback public hearings (1 general and 31 regional), in which a final participatory version of the Strategic Plan was presented with the participation of approximately 3300 people. In this round, the population met 123 goals on a regional basis, in addition to the issues demanded by attending people, as, for example, those relating to the elderly, the homeless population, food security issues, youth, drug policy, among others. The implementation itself of the Participatory Planning and Budgeting Cycle has become a goal of the program. In September 2013, the website Planeja Sampa went online, as an instrument of management responsible for the interaction between government and civil society, disseminating information and data about planning and budget. The website is considered the main monitoring system and is updated every 4 months. These updates allow the population to follow up and monitor the goals with accuracy, enabling a better evaluation of the municipal management. In April the board of CPOP took office and their first task was to structure a proposal of methodology for participation in planning, budgeting and monitoring of goals relating to the city of São Paulo. This methodology was developed in July 2014 and had the territorial participation as its mainstay. In the 32 participating municipal sections (political-administrative organization of the city government in the territory), three priority projects were defined for each of them. Moreover, the transversal councils (human rights, women, people with disabilities and racial equality) defined one priority project each, which totaled 103 priority projects. In July, the feasibility of predicting resource for these projects was discussed between the secretariats and the CPOP. In August, new rounds of 32 public hearings open to all territorial population were held, whose main theme was the drafting of the Annual Budget Law 2015 (PLOA). By that time, a feedback was provided about the incorporation in PLOA of priority projects and the population was also heard about the budget project for next year. 675 submissions were received and about 2,300 people attended. The next step will be taken in 2015, when the CPOP will initiate participatory monitoring of the chosen projects that entered the PLOA. Thus, counselors will monitor the implementation of the projects chosen as priorities.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
All the Departments of the Mayer are envolved in the process, although some of them are more active, as the Department of Human Rights and Citizenship (SMDHC), Department of Municipal Government (SGM), Department of Governmental Relationships (SMRG) and the Department of Coordenation of Subprefeituras (SMSP). All the councils of the city are strategic partners in the process of implementation. It is important to mention, also, the Rede Nossa São Paulo, a Non-Governmental Organization, that has as purpose compromise the society and the governments with an agenda and some goals, as a way to guarantee a better life quality to everyone.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The Cycle was an initiative thought and elaborated by Sempla, who mobilized efforts to coordinate it by creating, as a first step, a specific Advisory (Assessoria de Gestão de Participação) to deal with the subjects related to the Cycle. The Advisory was transformed into a Coordinating Body (Coordenadoria de Gestão de Participação), currently composed by 5 members. Through this Coordinating Body, the budget, logistics and human resources are mobilized and articulated to guarantee the implementation of the Cycle.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Among the achievements made possible by the Cycle, we can first mention the inclusion of participation in political affairs, which for years had been a demand of the city of São Paulo: the regionalization of the goals and the budget forecast of each project in the PPA; and the entire connection between the Strategic Planand budget instruments (both facilitating the understanding of the population with regard to the public budget of the municipality). It is also important to highlight the creation of their own channels and mechanisms, such as CPOP, the PlanejaSampa and the Monitoring System of the Strategic Plan. In regard with Planeja Sampa it is important to clarify that this is an interactive digital platform, also integrated with social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter and Youtube.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The main monitoring device of the Cycle is called Planeja Sampa, a website that provides information about planning tools relating to budget, schedule and news about participatory activities of the Cycle, of the CPOP and of the Participatory Councils. Nevertheless, its central role is to monitor goals on which, every four months, the system is updated, providing a general assessment of the progress of each goal relating to the Strategic Plan, allowing the population to follow the progresses accomplished by the current management. It is important to remember, however, that CPOP itself is an instance of participatory monitoring of the government.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The main obstacle encountered at first was the low institutional capacity of the city of Sao Paulo to perform planning, especially of participatory nature. The lack of participatory culture of previous administrations posed other challenges, as there was a restrained demand for listening channels and articulation between the State and civil society. The transparency ensured by the Cycle and especially by the Monitoring System of the Strategic Plan poses a challenge for the management of data disclosure, what was barely done before. That may overcome the resistance stemming from political and bureaucratic actors. The novelty of the proposal poses other challenges, especially for the institutional culture of Brazilian public management. Ensuring participatory monitoring means an unprecedented data transparency and a constant relation of institutional learning on the implementation of the projects.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The Participatory Strategic Plan is a good example. In respect to management planning, it was noted that a plurality of voices did not feel itself represented. In addition, the planning of municipal secretariats has now been submitted to popular consultation, what, in many cases, had pointed out new directions for the projects. One example is the drainage projects and reduction of flooding throughout the city, in which, through public hearings, people could point out the places where floods occur and that were not considered in the first version of the Strategic Plan.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The sustainability of such initiative is anchored on the political commitment of the current management to prioritize participation and negotiate priorities with the population and their organized movements. It is, therefore, fully sustainable. As a good practice of participation in planning and budgeting, it is fully transferable to other contexts, whether national, international or subnational.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
• Planning is important for the whole public management, but when it is done in a participatory way is much more effective and ensures plurality and diversity of actors and demands; • Public monitoring when done in a transparent manner, ensures better quality data, serving both transparency and efficient management; • In local government, the territorial dimension is essential for planning and budgeting, and the regionalization of government commitments ensure greater transparency and participation.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Secretaria Municipal de Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   Mariana Mazzini Marcondes
Title:   Coordenadora de Gestão de Participação  
Telephone/ Fax:   55113113-9349
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   Viaduto do Chá, 15 - 10º andar
Postal Code:   01002-020
City:   São Paulo
State/Province:   São Paulo

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