Changing G2C paradigm using eKYC-Eliminating visit to Government Office
Directorate of Information Technology (Government of Maharashtra)

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
The biggest motivator was the school of thought: If pizzas can be delivered at home, why not government services? This ideology coupled with the fact that more and more citizens want instantaneous services at their own convenience led to the focus on e-KYC (electronic-Know Your Citizen). e-KYC enables an anywhere-anytime-anyhow service which is near / at citizen’s doorstep at reduced cost and does not require visit to Government Office. It offers multiple channels of service delivery- sitting at home or by visiting the nearest CSC. Moreover, in contrast to KYC which is a very long process, e-KYC can reduce the delivery process and improve citizen satisfaction. One of the fundamental building blocks for service delivery is the KYC (Know Your Customer) process, which establishes the identity of the resident, their address, and other basic information such as their date of birth and gender. Typically, this KYC information is combined with other information at the point of service delivery to determine eligibility – either for an LPG connection, a scholarship, a loan, a social security pension, a mobile connection, etc. Many G2C services require citizens to provide Proof of Address (PoA) and Proof of Identity (PoI) documents for service provisioning. The production of PoI and PoA sometime becomes very challenging for both citizens and the verifier. The citizen has to provide attested copies of the available document like Driving License, ration card etc. In some cases these PoI and PoA are not accepted. This leads to harassment of the citizens who need to stand in long queues to avail services. Further for each service delivery they have to repeat the process of producing PoI and PoA. The verifier on the other hand physically verifies the document. The whole service delivery process becomes manual and hence may take days to process a service request. In order to make the user (citizen) experience hassle-free and cost effective, the delivery process had to be automated using e-KYC.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The solution was proposed by Mr. Rajesh Aggarwal (Principal Secretary-IT, Government of Maharashtra). The nominee has always focused on implementing citizen-centric initiatives with the vision of providing anytime-anywhere-anyhow government services in such a manner that reduces the cost, time and effort put in by citizens. Visit to a government office many times evokes sense of unease in the citizens, as he / she fears wastage of time, money & effort and also possible humiliation. Hence, eliminating physical visits of citizens to various government offices should be top priority in eGovernance projects. Many G2C services require citizens to provide Proof of Address (PoA) and Proof of Identity (PoI) documents for service provisioning. eKYC can simplify such service delivery processes, and can remove the need for producing PoA or PoI documents. eKYC can also make the service delivery instantaneous, omits the need to verify the PoA and PoI documents submitted by the citizens. The eKYC is a verified, non-repudiable PoI/ PoA which can be electronically stored after explicit consent of the resident. The Resident demographic data and Photograph is sent to the point of service delivery, from UIDAI’s Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR), after biometric (Fingerprint/Iris) or OTP authentication. The Aadhaar e-KYC service can be used for instant service provisioning wherever Citizens PoI/ PoA details are required. In cases where the PoI/PoA requirements are regulatory, eKYC can be integrated in the processes to ensure instant service delivery. Maharashtra has already issued a GR in this regard and many departments are adopting eKYC as PoI/ PoA and planning services delivery based on eKYC. Some of the G2C services have been or are in the process of being transformed using eKYC and moving from assisted to self-service mode using OTP based eKYC provisioning. e-KYC can also be used in applications for the seeding of Aadhaar in the various Government Schemes for service delivery. This service can provide instant verification of the residents for various Government services. eKYC can be the most assured way of seeding any beneficiary database, as the data is instantly verified, after biometric authentication of the resident. In cases where residents are applying for various Government- issued documents such as a Ration Card, Drivers’ license, Caste certificate, Passport, Birth certificate, etc., the e- KYC service can ensure efficient service delivery, based on quick and accurate identification of a person. The Aadhaar e-KYC service can revolutionize service delivery process for the residents by bringing in efficiency and convenience in delivery of services. It does not trade-off security for convenience and inclusion, and instead provides a solution that is secure, convenient, and inclusive.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The most innovative features of this initiative are: i. Anytime-anywhere-anyhow service availability especially near citizen’s door step reducing time, cost and effort of citizen ii. Eliminate the requirement to visit Government Office iii. Readily available framework for service integration iv. Corruption free authentication process v. Fast and instantaneous service vi. Saves effort of entering data in application form since data gets prepopulated in the application form by using e-KYC Transparency is a key feature of e-KYC and is evident from the fact that it is automatic and avoids human intervention and hence avoids discretion of the Government Officer in-charge of verifying the identity of an individual. It also provides privilege to the citizen to choose the point of service availability and hence is not limited to a particular or a few government offices. eKYC also makes service delivery instantaneous, omits the need to verify the PoA and PoI documents submitted by the citizens. The eKYC is a verified, non-repudiable PoI/ PoA which can be electronically stored after explicit consent of the resident. The Resident demographic data and Photograph is sent to the point of service delivery, from UIDAI’s Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR), after biometric (Fingerprint/Iris) or OTP authentication.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Creation of UID Innovation Centre: With the vision of creating Digital Maharashtra, UID Innovation Centre was set up in Mantralaya. A team of application developers, consultants, Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Team and Geographic Information System (GIS) Team started the preparatory work aimed at increasing Aadhaar enrolments in the state. The team standardized the village data pertaining to Aadhaar data using SAS tools. Thematic maps were created using GIS tools for targeting areas with low enrolments. The Team consistently followed up with Enrolment Agencies to ensure that maximum population of Maharashtra is enrolled under Aadhaar. Development of Framework for e-KYC: For Aadhaar enabled service delivery leveraging eKYC services of UIDAI, entities have to connect to UIDAI-CIDR. For connecting to UIDAI-CIDR and access to e-KYC services, they have to enter into an agreement with UIDAI as an Aadhaar User Agency / e-KYC User Agency (AUA/KUA). Further, they have to set up relevant infrastructure and tie up with an Aadhaar Service Agency / e-KYC Service Agency (ASA/KSA). These activities take significant time to be completed. This is one of the reasons we see slow adoption of e-KYC / Aadhaar authentication by State Government Departments. Under the decisive leadership of Shri Rajesh Aggarwal, Principal Secretary-IT, Maharashtra became the first State in January 2014 to rollout facility for end to end biometric authentication of resident linked with UID by establishing an AUA/KUA - ASA/KSA framework. e-KYC based authentication solution: An e-KYC based authentication service application was developed by the UID Innovation Centre. Using this readily available application along with the framework, the time of setting up infrastructure is avoided and integration with services offered by departments was reduced considerably. Issuance of Government Resolution: Maharashtra issued a GR pertaining to use of eKYC as PoI/ PoA for rolling out G2C services. Some of the G2C services have been or are in the process of being transformed using eKYC and moving from assisted to self-service mode using OTP based eKYC provisioning. This e-KYC enabled service is currently used in UID linked authentication for Registration of Leave and License agreements and Name Change Request Services. Target Departments & services: In order to ensure smooth roll out of e-KYC enabled services, following strategy was adopted: i. Departments which have electronic workflow of service delivery and provide subsidies to citizens ii. Services which involve minimal risk factor and have greater footfall were targeted first.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Nominee: Shri Rajesh Aggarwal has been the architect of the whole thought process and has spearheaded this initiative while providing his guidance in terms of technology intervention as well as process concurrence. He has played the most important role in this initiative by giving the vision of changing the paradigm of G2C service by introducing the concept of home-delivery of G2C services. He has also led the project related teams comprising department stakeholders, consultants and application developers towards concerting this vision into reality. He has been closely involved in monitoring the progress of the project. UIDAI: UIDAI Mumbai Regional Office and UIDAI Authentication Team have played important roles of coordinating operational issues pertaining to Aadhaar and resolving real-time technical glitches respectively. Citizen Interface: Village level entrepreneur (VLE) provides G2C services to the citizens near their homes at Common Service Centre (CSC). He maintains the basic infrastructure required for e-KYC including biometric scanner, computer, printer and internet connection. Departments: Other stakeholders include the departments such as Directorate of Government Printing and Stationary (DGPS) and Department of Registrations and Stamps which are providing e-KYC enabled G2C services. Their major role is monitoring the end to end process of service delivery. The department is also accountable for ensuring that the service doesn’t get delayed owing to manual intervention, wherever required. Citizen: The most important stakeholder is the citizen of Maharashtra who is a beneficiary of G2C services. This initiative could only be successful because of the inclination shown by citizens towards technology.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Financial Resources: The project was funded using savings accrued from UID enrolment & SETU society funds. SETU is a state level society formed by Maharashtra Government. As a matter of fact Government of Maharashtra has been able to achieve more than 5 Cr enrolments for which the Government of India provides INR 40 per enrolment. The UID Innovation Centre was established using these funds. Technical Resources: i. UID Innovation Centre: UID Innovation Center was setup in Mumbai to focus on implementing UID related initiatives and innovations in UID ecosystem. This initiative has taken Maharashtra to the leadership position in Aadhaar. Government of Maharashtra is the first State to rollout facility for end to end biometric authentication of resident linked with UID with the availability of AUA-ASA framework. The lab has also implemented UID eKYC framework, that can be integrated with G2C services and ensure efficient delivery of services to the citizens. It can take the service delivery to the doorstep of the citizen with self-service mode implementation. This is possible through One Time Password (OTP) authentication in eKYC. ii. UIDAI: Intervenes in case of any issue related to e-KYC authentication service at UIDAI data centre. Human Resources: i. Nominee: Regularly monitors the progress of the initiative and intervenes in case of any reported issue pertaining to e-KYC framework or application. ii. Departments: Regularly monitors the progress of the initiative and intervenes in case of any reported issue pertaining to service delivery. iii. Citizens: Avails service.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Name Change Service: Directorate of Government Printing & Stationery (DGPS) is a service Department responsible for printing Government Gazettes as well as name, religion and date of birth change for citizens in Government Gazette. DGPS has completely automated the process of name, religion and date of birth change for citizens and started publishing Gazettes electronically on its official website. This process has been integrated with eKYC services of UIDAI. This transformation has reduced the name change process for the citizen from months to hours and ensures that citizen walks in without any document, gives Aadhaar number, provides Biometric, gives information required at the counter and electronically pays fee as required, using debit / credit card. Post necessary process, his name change request gets approved and published in the electronic gazette on the same day. The name change service is now being rolled out through CSCs and Citizens are able to avail this service near their location. We used to have 800 people queuing up every day for hours at Marine Drive at Government Printing Press for Name change notifications. Since 10th June 2014 this counter has been closed. Services are now available online and through Citizen Service Centers. Leave and License Registration Service: Documents such as Lease of immovable property year to year which is to be registered should be presented at proper registration office by concerned person himself/herself, or the representative/agent. Integration of eKYC in this process has brought in efficiency in the process, by eliminating presentation of proof of identity (PoI) document. Citizens can now walk in and provide their Aadhaar, and biometric, which through eKYC service of UIDAI retrieves digitally signed information of the resident accepted as PoI. This eliminates the need of presentation of physical PoI documents thus bringing in efficiency to the process. One of the activities which constitute major footfall in a registration office is “Leave and License” applications (Rental Agreements). These constituted around 10% footfalls but contribute just 0.2% of revenue. This process is now being rolled out through CSCs/ Brokers/ and other accessible public entities, by using eKYC. This has significantly reduced the footfalls in the Registration office and increased the revenue of the IGR as more Leave and License agreements will get registered. It will also reduce the hassle and cost to the citizens as well as the administration. Till date, more than 25,000 transactions have been processed.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The project is monitored by Project Implementation Committee headed by Mr. Rajesh Aggarwal and participated by Departments using eKYC service. The progress is monitored in terms of the value added to the citizens. This is measured by evaluating the reduction in cost incurred by citizens in availing the service, time spent by citizens in availing the service, effort put in by citizens in availing the service and the number of human touch points while availing G2C service. Outcomes for e-KYC enabled Name Change Service 1. Delivery Time of Services: Reduced from 25 Days (for Urgent application) 90 days (for Regular application) to 7 days 2. Cost of Service Delivery: Reduced from Rs.620 (For urgent) & Rs.120 (For Regular) to Rs.120 + 22.47 (CSC charges) for all cases 3. Effort put in by Citizen: Visit to Gazette office, Fill manual form, Stand in Queue to Submit form, Stand in Second queue for Payment (Earlier), Application Submission and payment from Home and CSC, Submit e-KYC / OTP at CSC, Pay through payment Gateway and CSC wallet, Get e-Gazette online at DGPS website (now) 4. Process involved (no. of human touch points): Total Touch Points were 3 (earlier) and now it is only 1 (at CSC) Outcomes for e-KYC enabled Leave and License Registration Service 1. Delivery Time of Services: Reduced from 2-7 Days to 1 day 2. Cost of Service Delivery: Earlier, Cost incurred in travelling to Sub Registrar Office SRO (at times multiple times) and DHC (Document Handling Charges) = 300/- +Stamp duty and registration but now travelling cost gets slashed down significantly, considering the fact that citizen needs to travel only once to the nearest CSC 3. Effort put in by Citizen: Earlier effort involved Physical Travelling of Owner, Tenant and Witness to SRO office, Standing in Queues at SRO office, Co-ordination between Owner, Tenant and Witness to be present on Same Day. Now the effort has reduced and involves application at nearest CSC, No need to stand in Queue, Owner, Tenant and witnesses can go to CSC centre at Different times. 4. Process involved (no. of human touch points): Earlier, no. of Touch points = 2-3. After solution was implemented, No. of Touch point=1 at CSC

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
One of the fundamental building blocks for service delivery is the KYC (Know Your Customer) process, which establishes the identity of the resident, their address, and other basic information such as their date of birth and gender. Typically, this KYC information is combined with other information at the point of service delivery to determine eligibility – either for an LPG connection, a scholarship, a loan, a social security pension, a mobile connection, etc. The Aadhaar e-KYC service provides an instant, electronic, non-repudiable proof of identity and proof of address along with date of birth and gender. In addition, it also provides the resident’s mobile number and email address to the service provider, which helps further streamline the process of service delivery. e-KYC may be performed at an end location using biometric authentication, as well as remotely using an OTP on a website or mobile connection. The Aadhaar e-KYC ecosystem has been designed to be scalable, just like the enrolment, updation, and the authentication ecosystems. It follows the same operating model as that of the Aadhaar authentication ecosystem. However unlike Aadhaar authentication service which returns a response in “Yes” and “No”, eKYC service returns KYC demographic data of the resident in electronic format along with the photograph. e-KYC has already been used in Name Change service and Leave & License Agreement service associated with Directorate of Government Printing & Stationery and Department of Registration and Stamps respectively. Other services such as eKYC enabled Financial Inclusion, eKYC as ‘live’ certificate for Pensioners and Maha Digital Locker are ongoing projects. It is further being implemented in services rolled out by other state departments and organizations such as Transport, MMRDA, Food & Civil Supplies, etc.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
Outcomes for e-KYC enabled Name Change Service 1. Delivery Time of Services: Reduced from 25 Days (for Urgent application) 90 days (for Regular application) to 7 days 2. Cost of Service Delivery: Reduced from Rs.620 (For urgent) & Rs.120 (For Regular) to Rs.120 + 22.47 (CSC charges) for all cases 3. Effort put in by Citizen: Visit to Gazette office, Fill manual form, Stand in Queue to Submit form, Stand in Second queue for Payment (Earlier), Application Submission and payment from Home and CSC, Submit e-KYC / OTP at CSC, Pay through payment Gateway and CSC wallet, Get e-Gazette online at DGPS website (now) 4. Process involved (no. of human touch points): Total Touch Points were 3 (earlier) and now it is only 1 (at CSC) Outcomes for e-KYC enabled Leave and License Registration Service 1. Delivery Time of Services: Reduced from 2-7 Days to 1 day 2. Cost of Service Delivery: Earlier, Cost incurred in travelling to Sub Registrar Office SRO (at times multiple times) and DHC (Document Handling Charges) = 300/- +Stamp duty and registration but now travelling cost gets slashed down significantly, considering the fact that citizen needs to travel only once to the nearest CSC 3. Effort put in by Citizen: Earlier effort involved Physical Travelling of Owner, Tenant and Witness to SRO office, Standing in Queues at SRO office, Co-ordination between Owner, Tenant and Witness to be present on Same Day. Now the effort has reduced and involves application at nearest CSC, No need to stand in Queue, Owner, Tenant and witnesses can go to CSC centre at Different times. 4. Process involved (no. of human touch points): Earlier, Broker use to pay Stamp Duty Registration amount, Joint visit of Owner, tenant and Witness at SRO office for Verification, DHC (Document Handling charges) are paid at SRO while no. of Touch points = 2-3. After solution was implemented, following process is followed: Pay document handling charges Rs. 300/- at CSC and Note receipt no., Pay Stamp Duty and registration on Gras Portal and note down GRN No., Enter Property Detail, Owner/Tenant/ Witness Details and Agreement details on IGR portal and note Token no., Submit Gras and receipt details, e-KYC verification of Owner, Tenant & Witnesses , Submit electronically to SRO office for approval, SRO office will approve within 24 Hrs, Citizen can collect Agreement from CSC, No. of Touch point=1 at CSC

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
This initiative provides a very cost-effective solution which makes it highly sustainable. e-KYC service is provided free of cost to the state departments under Government of Maharashtra, by DIT. DIT had invested in eKYC infrastructure, implementing eKYC framework as per UIDAI requirements. The framework comprises of eKYC Service Agency/ eKYC User Agency (KSA-KUA) setup for eKYC authentication. This infrastructure has been hosted at State Data Center on Cloud. The departments require just a Finger Print Biometric scanner to access the eKYC service. Departments can also access e-KYC service by using OTP authentication. They do not need to deploy any Server infrastructure as the authentication of the individual is done by UIDAI server. The cost to integrate and use the eKYC in any G2C is minimal for the department. Moreover, the data is authentic and standardized (error free), thus saving the cost of a data entry operator.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
eKYC can change the paradigm of G2C services from Citizens clamoring for services to Citizens getting services at their doorstep. The introduction of eKYC, apart from simplifying the process for requisition of services for citizens, reduces the time for service delivery drastically. Introduction of eKYC in G2C is a Paradigm shift from citizens seeking services to proactive service delivery, at door step of citizen. As we integrate eKYC in more and more G2C services we will see more efficient and assured service delivery system.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Directorate of Information Technology (Government of Maharashtra)
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   Rajesh Aggarwal
Title:   Principal Secretary-IT  
Telephone/ Fax:   022-22026534
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   psec.it@maharashtra.gov.in  
Address:   Directorate of Information Technology (Government of Maharashtra), 5th Floor, Room no. 514, Mantralaya Annex Building
Postal Code:   400032
City:   Mumbai
State/Province:   Maharashtra
Country:  

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