Integration approaches of public service establishment for quality of life improvement in Huay Bong,
Pasaosubdistrict municipality

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Huay Bong, a village located in Uttaradit, Thailand, is agricultural based community. There were 257 houses with 743 people lived in this village. People were mostly farmers growing cash crop such as rice and corn. However, people also faced the severe poverty and mostly were in debt because of infertile soil and drought affected agricultural production. Some people left their home to earn money in the big cities. As a result, children and elderly were left behind and skipped generation families were induced. This also contributed serious community problems such as bullying, drugs, teen pregnancy. Alternatively, people who still lived in village could sustain their lives with livestock in particular; beef production as there was only grass can grow in this area.Therefore, cows were fed freely outdoor where that area had enough grass. In their practice, people led their cows walked along the road to glass field in the morning and brought them back to home in the evening. Freely feeding of cows with natural grassland brought many problems such as diseases caused from tick transmission. Furthermore, it was very difficult to breed a cow because low quality of grass. As a result, production of beef was not satisfied standards and caused economics loss to farmers. Livestock in Huay Bong also affected environment and people in the village. There were 778 cows walked across the village and almost 7 tons of cow dung produced in a day. Massive cow dung production made the village lookedextremely eyesore and poor hygiene.Over 580 people had respiratory problem affected from the dust of dried-cow dung blown to their houses. Poor environmental management was also another problem of Huay Bong community. Finally, scenario of problems was concerned very much by people in the village and local governments which need to be seriously addressed.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The solution was considered based on agriculture and resources of Huay Bong that has poor soils and massive of cow dung as a preliminary problem. Several issues were discussed in a meeting among Huay Bong people, Pasaosubdistrict municipality (the local government office who services Huay Bong village) and lecturers from UttaraditRajabhat University (URU) such as the causes of problems and how to solve all problems by whole chain analysis. Finally, biogas system was selected because this approach can turn cow dung to energy and its by-products are useful for dairy life which could be achieved by using local resources.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The biogas system is a clean technology that was not only solved the main problems of Huay Bong village, but its consequences also contributed an incredible impact. Principally, the biogas system produces a mixture of gases by breaking down of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Raw materials for biogas production can be used such as agricultural waste, manure, food waste, municipal waste. Therefore, cow manure can be a good source of raw material and biogas system. The construction of biogas has begun using simple and economy materials and balloondigester type, a heated - seal plastic or rubber bag, was selected by community. There were two stages that the initiative contributed well-being. Initially, after the technology initiated in the community, there were many advantages can be listed. 1) The lively and hygiene environment of Huay Bong has been appeared. Disgusted cow dung considered as a wastehad been become more valued. There is no more cow dung spitted on the road as people collected it for their biogas system. 2) Family expense is reduced because cooking gas was replaced by biogas. This saves approximately 400 baht/month/house 3) Soil fertility is improved by quality fermented manure derived from biogas system. In general, applying of cow manure was not famous because it contains weed seeds which affected crop growth. However, manure collected from biogas system was treated with heat from fermentation. Hence, it becomes famous for soil improvement and fertilizing plants. 4)Biogas system creates more income and job positions. As Uttaradit is an area of agriculture, quality manure is always on high demand. Nevertheless, using of biogas can also gain drawback because the gas contains hydrogen sulfide which is awful rotten egg smell and poison. This can terminate using biogas of Huay Bong people. Finally, with the innovative approach (explained in topic 4), “the rust column” has been invented to cope this problem. Base on the fact that rust can trap hydrogen sulfide and turn itself into black color. Rust determined as waste taken from ground water for a trapper. Later, the rust column has been designed and tested it potential through the experiment. There were some more benefits gained from this situation. For instance; 5) Rust was get rid from the ground water system and useful for purifying biogas. Moreover, the rust column became necessary equipment for biogas system that Huay Bong people can sell it and earn more income as well as producing of column creates a job for unemployed people. 6) After the rust column has been invented, it let people continue using biogas. This equipment was also transferred to other communities that denied using biogas as hydrogen sulfide concern. Subsequently, the biogas technology has been adopted widely in country scale. All benefits achieved from power of education which given to Huay Bong People. It is strongly believed that in potential of human resources and natural resources supported with knowledge as the first priority followed by public policy.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Analysis of the problems considered the whole scenario of problems, seeking for the potential of local resources including human and natural resources. The biogas program offered by URU searched the body of knowledge. However, this technology cannot be promoted without desire of Huay Bong people. Finally, the biogas program significantly demonstrated its benefits by the corporation among academic institute,Huay Bong people and Pasaosubdistrict municipality. As a result, systematical policy of biogas in Huay Bong has been firstly implemented. All in all, the unique of initiative was applying of knowledge for policy formulation achieved by participation of stakeholders. The initiative addressed the problem with knowledge as the first priority rather than formulation of policy. In facts, the key approach created from the integration of 4 subjects such as science (S), technology (T), environment (E) and management (M) or STEM. This is the most important fundamentalinitiated biogas program and its consequences.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
There were 4 groups of organizations that implemented the initiative; 1) Local government: Pasaosubdistrict municipality 2) Academic institute: UttaraditRajabhat University 3) A group of people such as community leaders, a group of local commerce and farmers 4) Private sectors such as Thai health promotion foundation, Institute of Renewable energy Development of Asia Pacific Foundation. There were 743 people who lived in Huay Bong village who affected by this initiative.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Two strategies were employed for local research and development can be explained in 2 stages. 1) The strategy of balancing betweem participation management and knowledge of science for local development. There were 3 groups of people who work together such as local people, local government and academic institute with very kind supported from private sectors. 2) Knowledge management and broadcasting the information through all kinds of media as possible. There were several activities undertaken in the area in past 7 years. In 2009-2011, survey of local context which related to local capacity and potential were undertaken for settinga clear goal for development project. Community leaders, took a role as community researchers, participated the meeting and analysedthe real problem of Huay Bong. The series of solution were designed by the incorporation between community researchers, lecturer from URU and public servants from local government. A study tour and seminar on science and technology was organized to improve knowledge, skill and attitude for Huay Bong people. All activities in the early stage were emphasized people to gain learning system, researching of science and technology to overcome a problem as their behaviors. Furthermore, all activities lead public policy formulation. Mass communications were done via media such as a newspaper, an agriculture journal, a book and television etc. In 2012 - 2014, local leaders formed a group of commerce. This group runs the business about the rust column production which guaranteed its effectiveness from a research carried out by URU lecturer. In 2015 - now, the learning center was established in Huay Bong village. The learning center welcomed more than 50,000 people across the country. Resources associated the initiative were human resources (explained in topic 5), financial resource and management knowledge. It was 2.7 million baht funded for the biogas project. Management knowledge has more details in term of research and development such as development of cow breeding, applying good agricultural practices for farmers, searching for an appropriate alternative energy as a choice for people. Furthermore, development of marketing and social enterprise was also undertaken to serve people in country scale. There were many activities such as recognition building up, exhibition, creating learning centers.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
There were 5 stakeholders that can be described their roles as following; 1) Community leaders, civil servants from local government and lecturers from URU who designed the action plan and solutions for Huay Bong village. The concept was created base on the participation of people, consumption of local resources. From this program, there were 10 people performed themselves as a group of community researchers taken research and development as their common practices and using a school as a hub. 2) Pasaosubdistrict municipality who is a representative of Huay Bong people. The role of the local government was to support and employ innovation for policy formulation and Implementation. 3) Farmers who involved in agreement formulation, obtained technology, and building learning atmosphere for other people in community. Moreover, “Huay Bong energy conservation group”, a social enterprise was also established by the group. 4) District and provincial government offices who drove the strategies and supported finance. 5) Lecturers of UttaraditRajabhat University who employed a choice of clean technology for the community optimized and made it more achievable.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The initiative that integrates STEM contributed significant outputs such as sustainable development and prosperity of problem solution. The outputs that illustrated the success of the initiative were Huay Bong people combat the root of problem such poor soil caused poverty with their knowledge. People at all ages involved all activities and lead sustainable agriculture. Since the program has been established, there were many activities in relation to by-product of biogas system such as agricultural ecosystem management using fermented cow dung to fertilize agricultural land. This can help farmer reduce cost of fertilizer 280,000 baht. For livestock, cow breeding increased its value approximately 14.1 million baht. The biogas replaced using LPG with could be estimated it cost of 15.8 million. In 2016, farmers gained average income 64895 baht or increased 29.6%. There was a small community bank established that all people can access money and do all financial transactions. The program also supported a farmer who low in competitiveness and encouraged people to improve their potential. Furthermore, it promotes self-sufficiency strengthening community and quality of life. There were various kinds of fruits and vegetables grown in house backyards that safe and people at all ages and genders could spend their time together. This brought food safety and food security to community. People who moved out from Huay Bong have returned their home permanently as they recognized that there were many job opportunities they can work.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The main obstacle encountered with was how to design the program activities for poor educated people. As it should be realized that implementation of biogas and related activities is based on science and technology such as breeding of cows, development of quality fertilizer. Therefore, simplicity of communication is needed. Moreover, some activities need financial support and investment. Funding agencies were important and needed for corporation.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The “cow village leaning center” is the unique model carried out in Huay Bong. This model constructed with the engagement of network organizations that aimed to improve quality of life. There were benefits obtained from the cow village learning center can be listed as following topics. Economics 1) Local resource was consumed for reducing cost from agricultural production. 2) Income was increased from biogas program such as selling a newborn-calf 11.9 million baht/year, selling cow dung manure 2 million and selling the rust column 374000 baht. 3) Household expense was reduced. For example, LPG bills 898,326 baht/year/village, maintenance cost 468,000 baht/year/village and fertilizer cost 280000 baht/year/village. Social 1) Learning process and networking were a key benefits lead learning improvement of people. A group of commerce took social enterprise as their mission. 2) Self-learning of Huay Bong people was created and participated in local resources consumption. Having a core idea and approach for overcome a problem based on science was also a key benefits of this program. Huay Bong is not only a receiver but also a giver because some people devote their land for experimental plots which created community lab for others. 3) Public policy formulated by Pasaosubdistric municipality based on community’s problem and benefits in terms of economics, energy, environment and health. 4) Area based working has been undertaken by cow feeder, animal scientists, private organization. Environment 1) Reduce waste 2) Dispersion of dried cow dung was reduced 3) Greenhouse gasses mitigation was resulted from biogas program

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The cow village learning was established from integration of many organizations that work together as partnerships. There were many tools for verification and measurement of the progresses of works. The program created based on STEM was designed for people to access public service of an organization and can communicate or ask for a help directly. Moreover, organization must return all data to community and let people access all data transparently. The solutions selected by discussion among people and various organisations contributed integrity because it was challenge people. Unlike, general work practices that public servants must work based on centralized policy. Moreover, Pasaosubdistric municipality also perform as social service for community base on being a good governance with efficiency, measureable, responsibility and enhancement of efficiency on service continuously. The local organization also applies the output of research as their consideration for a new policy formulation which sometimes those ideas were optimized and create local wisdom. It can be seen that the program created by community always be optimized and suitable for community.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
There is no gender inequity of Huay Bong community. However, there were some evidences that might associate to this issue. For examples, Skipped generation family often occurred in the past before the program was introduced. Sometimes woman took a role in look after of a family while man left family to earn money in a big city. After the program was created in community, there were many activities that women and girls can participate in particular, activities related with agriculture.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Pasaosubdistrict municipality
Institution Type:   Local Government  
Contact Person:   Miss.soiratda Samposree
Title:   Assistant to Secretary-General  
Telephone/ Fax:   +6655442817
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   tambon.pasaou@gmail.com  
Address:   99/1 pasao,muang
Postal Code:   53000
City:   Uttaradit
State/Province:   Uttaradit
Country:  

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