State Democratic Budget
State Secretariat of Management

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Paraíba State has been historically marked by landowner mismanagement of assistentialist political models that benefitted from the general population's ignorance and apathy. A clearly functionalist model where those in charge as a "subject" overpowered the people as an "object" and that did not consider the objective conditions in each place. Developing and implementing the State Democratic Budget (ODE) made it possible to break the logic of a purely representative democracy, where decisions on public investments were made unilaterally, without considering the effective participation of the people. Small and medium-sized cities, for example, received insipient investments which did not represent the real needs of the population. Implementing the State Democratic Budget policy was one of the greatest achievements of Paraíba State Government. It is the first time that the State Government allows the population to directly discuss how public money will be spent. Every year, the participants of regional Democratic Budget audiences rise in numbers, showing that people not only accept but own this instrument. Since 2011, Paraíba has experienced a new political age that effectively promotes popular participation and citizenship in both urban and rural areas in all its 223 cities. It's time for a different management culture that reaches all fourteen regions of the State by way of construction works, services and other government actions that promote investment decentralization and a better quality of life to the population. The experience built from participative democracy is responsible today for investments that result in government actions that address regional public interest demands defended by the population itself in 95 public audiences run by State Democratic Budget through its seven years of participative management. ODE was born from a cooperation between the population, social policies and public administration that resulted in ensuring guidelines from the State's Planning and Management, with its Investment Priority Axes being: policies for LGBT Citizenship, for Children and Teens, for Special Needs people, for the Youth, for Ethnic and Racial Equality, Women and Girls; Water supply; Health; Culture; Sport and Leisure; Food Safety; Electric power; the Environment; Social Security; Housing; Tourism; Industry; Public Safety; Commerce; Handicrafts; Technology; Infrastructure and Basic Sanitation. With Democratic Planning, one of the stages of ODE's Activity Cycle, it was possible to connect government secretaries and regional council members (representatives of the civic society) to define which demands the population of each region wants to prioritize in the Annual Budgeting Law (LOA). In this scenario, ODE has a crucial role regarding the transcendence of sensitivity and consciousness that were so far figured on representative and oligarchic molds. The people of Paraíba, from Social Movements (Urban Reformation; Dam victims; Rural Worker's Union; Youth, LGBT and Black Movements); Indigenous people, Quilombo residents, gypsies and others are guaranteed to participate not only in the audiences but also as council members to help the Government in the decision-making process.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The State Democratic Budget was created and implemented through a regionalized popular participation instance, with a permanent annual activity cycle. As a government action, it allows the population to participate in the creation and management of public policies. Meeting the population's demands on the annual State budget generates a positive impact in improving their quality of life throughout the territory.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
Paraíba State Democratic Budget (ODE-PB) is part of an institutional innovation process run by the State Government whose aim is to implement a condition of proximity, bringing actions, construction works, and services to the populations of all Geo-administrative Regions. It should also be noted that ODE-PB is the base of a new public policy management model that aims to change social participation in the Public Budget as a State policy, not just as a passing government policy. Therefore, ODE is an instrument that democratizes the link between the State and the society through popular participation in the process of creating, implementing and monitoring the Pluri-Annual Plan (PPA), the Budgeting Guidelines Law (LDO), the Annual Budgeting Law (LOA), as well as works and services provided by the State. This governance instrument was created to contribute to the State planning process by establishing a Participative Democracy. ODE-PB plays a pedagogic role regarding the Participative Democracy, since as the participation naturally develops, its results are apparent and the population believes it is effective. It makes the democratization of the decision-making process a relevant aspect when distributing resources, as the population directly controls the State's structures and expressively changes the State/population relation. Partially thanks to the efforts of ODE, for example, Paraíba State Government invested R$1.28 billion brazilian reais in building new highways and restoring damaged ones, a total 2,432 km, which ended the isolation of 54 cities that so far were only accessible by dirt roads. Transforming the relation between the Executive and Legislative Powers; making the budgeting process a State policy with many actors involved, as opposed to a transitory government policy; and implementing a dynamic intersectoral administrative approach are all objectives to be achieved. The goal is to exercise an intersectoral approach to the State management, resulting in an internal articulation that provides qualified actions and services to the population. For the expectations to be achieved, it was imperative to make many articulations, be it in creating the methodologic proposal, in the structural organization of the Executive Secretariat or in popular mobilization. For that, it's important to assert that through the works and actions carried out by ODE-PB, it's possible to see, even if procedurally, a chance in local policy culture as well in popular empowerment regarding formulating and monitoring government actions.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Democratic Budget allows a continuous pedagogical process of social participation, expanding the space for discussing State problems and mobilizing a greater number of social actors involved in seeking alternatives and solutions to State problems. It establishes a partnership the Sate and the population, with more transparency in information about the State to the people, besides changing the relationship between the State and City governments. This instrument was created to contribute to the State's planning process through Participative Democracy in the State's Public Policies Management, giving citizens the social control to collaborate, converse, follow and monitor constructions works, services, and actions provided by Paraíba State Government. So far in Brazil, similar participative budgeting experiences were only found in a few cities and states. In that way, ODE-PB was implemented with the basic principles of Democratization; Participation; Regionalization; Intersectionality; Economy; Decentralization; Redistribution; and Integrated Sustainable Development.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Through Provisional Measure 160, dated January 1st 2011, and Law 9,332, dated January 25th 2011, Paraíba State Government created the State Democratic Budget (ODE-PB) Sub-secretariat, linked to the State Secretariat of Planning, Budgeting and Management (SEPLAG). It was reformulated by Provisional Measure 230, dated January 2nd 2015, and is now called State Democratic Budget Executive Secretariat, still linked to the State Secretariat of Planning, Budgeting and Management. Aiming to better manage the State administratively, Paraíba was divided into 14 Geo-administrative Regions (RGAs). ODE-PB used these 14 RGAs as guidance to its activities and actions. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) estimates that in 2015, Paraíba had a population of over 3.9 million residents, making it the 5th most populated State in the Northeast. Leaving the coast and going towards the countryside to reach the population is crucial to achieving a democratic management model based on the voice of the people. Located in the Northeast of Brazil, Paraíba has over 56 million square kilometers of territory divided into 223 cities distributed into the mesoregions of Zona da Mata, Agreste, Borborema, and Sertão. The State Democratic Budget is the main instrument of this breakthrough cultural change, promoting citizenship through popular empowerment throughout the whole State. In all 14 regions of Paraíba, annually held public audiences gather up to 5 thousand participants. A total of 95 plenary sessions have been done since the beginning, with the direct participation of over 200 thousand people. And the numbers keep growing: there were 13,335 participants in 2011; 19,117 in 2012; 21,108 in 2013; 30,201 in 2014; 36,681 in 2015; and 35,576 in 2016. The demands presented are organized into themed axes to include investment priorities in the subsequent budget in the Pluri-Annual Plan (PPA), the Budgeting Guidelines Law (LDO), the Annual Budgeting Law (LOA). Between 2012 and 2015, over 7 billion reais were invested in actions.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
ODE-PB was created with the following basic principles: Democratization - expanding the space to exercise citizenship and a democratic governance; Participation - promoting social empowerment, control, and co-responsibility; Regionalization - cities can now articulate their interests regionally instead of individually as it was before, without losing their specific aspects; Intersectionality - being an instrument that integrates different institutional, governmental and non-governmental stakeholders through a network of state and region wise articulation; Economy - doing more public policies, constructions works and services with less resources; Decentralization - promoting institutional articulation in all Geo-administrative Regions; Redistribution - deconcentrating public policies, investments, construction works, and services throughout the State; and Integrated Sustainable Development - prioritizing the regions and their potentials. The Activity Schedule: February: preparatory meetings on the 14 State regions; March: breakfast with journalists and Ceci Melo Awards; April, May and June: 1st Stage - 16 regional audiences at the 14 Geo-administrative Regions; August: 2nd Stage - Regional Democratic Planning and Democratic Planning with State Secretaries and Heads of Indirect Administration Organs from the more requested sectors in the audiences; August, September, October and November: 3rd Stage - State and Regional Councils Ordinary and Extraordinary Meetings; December: forming the 566 Democratic Budget Council Members with Transversal themes (Gender and Human Diversity), Administrative and Economic themes (Public Budgeting, Budgeting tools), Themed Forums of Participative Democracy, seminars and workshops, and Planning and Evaluating Meetings for the acting of State and Regional Councils as well as all Secretariat staff (Articulators, Formation and Monitoring Managers and others). Information Flow on ODE's Activity Schedule: Regional Audiences - the population points out three investment priorities for their region and presents three demands related to the three priorities. Planning and Information Management Center (ODE-PB's Technical Center) - systemizes the demands, organizing them into a database to be sent to the Regional Councils and State Secretariats and Organs. Regional Councils - each region highlights the most relevant issues according to their reality. State Secretariats and Organs - receive the regional demands database as well as feedback from Regional Councils. The Secretariats are responsible for pointing out impractical demands or denial justification. Democratic Planning - an event that allows Secretaries and Council Members to socialize and discuss the demands that will be addressed and later added to the Annual Budgeting Law (LOA), identifying the actions aiming to address the demands made by the population in Regional Audiences. Sector Division of the Staff: Secretary Executive - 1 person, Chief of Staff - 1 person; Consultant - 1 person; Planning and Information Management Center - 5 people; Secretary Executive Assistant - 1 person; Communication Department - 3 people; Regional Formation and Monitoring Management (GRAF) - 8 people; Democratic Planning Council Executive Secretariat - 1 person; Administrative and Operational Support Management - 4 people; Transport Department - 6 people; Regional Articulators - 33 people. Annual financial costs: To enable the Activity Cycles: CYCLE 2011, R$ 1.500.000,00; CYCLE 2012, R$ 1.500.000,00; CYCLE 2013, R$ 1.300.000,00; CYCLE 2014, R$ 1.300.000,00; CYCLE 2015, R$ 1.300.000,00; CYCLE 2016, R$ 1.211.506,42; CYCLE 2017, R$ 1.211.506,42. Costs with Human Resources: Annual Financial costs with human resources: R$ 1,466,593.44. It paid for: an Executive Secretary; an Executive Secretary Assistant; a Head of Office; Consultory; a Planning and Information Management Center; a Communications Consultory; a Democratic Budget Council Executive Secretary; an Operational and Administrative Manager; a Transport Sector; a Formation and Monitoring Regional Management; Regional Articulators and an Events Coordination Center.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Many stakeholders were involved in the implementation process of ODE in the State. Paraíba State Governor Ricardo Coutinho organized it based on the positive experience with the Democratic Budget model in capital city João Pessoa. Implementing the initiative included: - Paraíba State Government - Legislative Assembly - State Secretariat of Planning, Budgeting and Management (SEPLAG), to which State Democratic Budget is linked - State and City Development Institute (IDEME), which carried out studies and researches and produced information for the planning and consultancy. It resulted in a significant contribution to state planning as well as regional and city planning to develop the 14 Geo-administrative Regions. - Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), who contributed to elaborate the project of creating an innovative public policy of participative and democratic government management which resulted in creating the model/methodology of State Democratic Budget (ODE) and adding to State management activities. - Cultural Action Center non-governmental organization, who developed formative, policy educative and organizational activities, especially regarding mobilization, structuring and strengthening popular participation in the elaboration and managing process of Budgeting Laws, with a continuous formation with Democratic Budget staff as well as State and Regional Councils. - Social Movements of Urban Reformation, Dam victims, Rural Worker's Union, Women, Black people, LGBT people, Landless Movement (MST), Indigenous people, Quilombo residents, Youth and others who participate not only in the Audiences but also as Council Members.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
Creating ODE-PB allowed the development of indicators to the State Planning and Management and Investment Priority Axes that served as a guide in the 14 Geo-administrative Regions. The Sustainable Development Objectives (ODS) were: Education, Health, Water Supply, Public Safety, Roads and Housing. These axes express the greatest needs of Paraíba State citizens and are crucial to the decision-making process. Results obtained: Water Supply - construction of Camará Dam, with a 26 million cubic meters capacity, which will benefit over 175 thousand residents of 21 locations on Brejo region. 44 million reais were invested in the new dam. Roads - expansion of the terrestrial road network, allowing the creation of Paraíba Roads Program, with 57 cities being removed from isolation (2,400 km). According to the National Transport Confederation (CNT), Paraíba has the fourth best road network in Brazil, second best in the Northeast. 1.28 billion reais were invested in building and restoring highways, a total of 2,432 km. Other works that deserve to be mentioned are João Pessoa's Metropolitan Region Urban Mobility works such as the Geisel Viaduct, an investment of 38.9 million reais that directly benefits 723,515 residents of the capital city, and Mangabeira Clover, a 25 million investment that benefits 200 thousand people. Education - construction of Territorial State Technical Schools from 2013 on, as a way of decentralizing the access to schooling for the impoverished and vulnerable population, attending to local productivity arrangements (APL), with a total of 7 schools built in 2016 and 7,901 benefitted students. Health - expansion of Hospital Units, for example: construction of High Complexity Oncology Unit (UNACON) in the city of Patos, a 4.78 million investment; construction of Mamanguape city Regional Hospital and Maternity, an 11,507,667.27 reais investment; construction of Santa Rita city Metropolitan Hospital (a work in progress expected to be delivered in April 2017), and investment of 60 million reais. It will serve 60 cities and over 2 million Paraíba citizens. Public Safety - Paraíba United for Peace Program is the biggest investment ever made in this area in the State, with structural measures and improvements through 33 million reais in investment. For some years, Paraíba was marked by a considerable growth in crime rates. After ODE-PB was implemented, Social Defense and Public Safety State Secretariat (SES) developed through its Public Audiences strategies based on the concerns voiced by the population.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
1st Obstacle: The resistance from traditional politicians who believed Democratic Budget would minimize their role in the Legislative Power. How it was solved: Establishing spaces for Legislative Power to approach Public Audiences in all 14 Geo-administrative Regions. 2nd Obstacle: The historical lack of credibility in the Public Administration by the population. How it was solved: Through a systematic work of articulation, mobilization and formation visits made by State Democratic Budget Executive Secretariat along with Social Movements of Urban Reformation, Dam victims, Rural Worker's Union, Women, Black people, LGBT people, Indigenous people, Artisanal Fishermen, Quilombo residents, Gypsies, Youth, Artisans, Elderly groups, and non-governmental organizations. 3rd Obstacle: The lack of indicators to guide Popular Demands execution regarding Budgeting Tools How it was solved: Creating Themed Axes from what was voiced by the people in the Regional Audiences, which allowed the creation of Intersectoral Public Policies.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
Through State Democratic Budget, the government has been addressing and prioritizing historical demands of the population in areas like social inclusion, especially for the most impoverished and vulnerable, and gender equality as well as improving the access to public services. The aim was to invite and elect a group of council members from all State Geo-administrative Regions to represent each region in the government's Executive Secretariat actions. Each Budgeting Region is divided into micro-regions, which then elect a number of Council Members proportional to their presence in the Micro-regional Assembly. Attributions of the Regional Councils include: electing ODE's Council Members; diagnosing the regional reality; discussing the problems of the region and suggesting solutions; following the debates on elaborating the Budgeting Tools; monitoring the execution of works and services in the region; articulating actions alongside the Regional Management and ODE State Council; working towards collective interests. Attributions of the State Councils include: monitoring sectoral works, services, and actions in the region; monitoring Regional Councils and ODE's activities; keeping in touch with Regional Managements as needed for each region. From ODE-PB's demands, it was possible to implement regionalized police stations dedicated to serving women, the Women's Police Station. In Paraíba there are already 11 of these structures dedicated to women victims of violence in the cities of João Pessoa, Campina Grande, Guarabira, Bayeux, Santa Rita, Cabedelo, Patos, Sousa, Cajazeiras, Queimadas and Esperança. They include a multidisciplinary team of professionals such as police officers, psychologists, social assistants and lawyers who share the workload of cases that go beyond just investigation and eventual punishing of the criminal. They help women victims and their families through a no violence path with legal and psychosocial assistance. ODE also made it possible to interiorize the access to microcredit through Empreender-PB Program, a public micro credit policy for local entrepreneurs created from ODE demands to strengthen base economic and productive chain. Through State Democratic Budget and the Women and Human Diversity Executive Secretariat, Paraíba State Government annually hosts the Ceci Melo Awards as a scheduled activity of International Women's Day on March 8th. Ceci Melo Social Participation Awards honors women with a noticeable personal, professional or politic acting towards human and citizen development. The Award aims to give visibility to women who develop actions towards popular empowerment and democratic participation.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Implementing State Democratic Budget was one of the greatest achievements of Paraíba State Government. It is the first time Paraíba government inserts popular participation in the discussion of how public money will be spent. The number of participants in ODE's regional Public Audiences grows each year, which shows how consolidated this people owned instrument is. In the regional Audiences, all activities (ex-ante), works and actions from the demands of the population are accounted. Online tools such as ODE's official website, as well as social media (Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp, Instagram), are also used to publicize and articulate the population's demands. There's also the effective and permanent participation of over 400 Council Members of all 14 Geo-administrative Regions of the State. There was a significant rise in actions ruled by Annual Budgeting Law (LOA) and in values invested in the 14 Geo-administrative Regions. In 2012, 210 actions were carried out, a total investment of 1,169,162,534.00 reais; in 2013 there were 233 actions with a value of 1,844,000,00.00 reais; 270 actions in 2014 with a value of 1,866,718,918.00 reais; 258 actions in 2015 with a value of 1,759,847,984.00 reais. Among the main results obtained, one that can be mentioned is the expressive investment in works and actions in all 14 Geo-administrative Regions executed or under development in the 2015/2016 biennium. 3,647,399.00 reais in investments are distributed in the cities as follows: 1st Region: João Pessoa - 1 billion, 171 million reais; 2nd Region: Guarabira - 174 million, 342 thousand reais; 3rd Region: Campina Grande - 877 million, 35 thousand reais; 4th Region: Cuité - 135 million, 778 thousand reais; 5th Region: Monteiro - 228 million, 122 thousand reais; 6th Region: Patos - 292 million, 169 thousand reais; 7th Region: Itaporanga - 134 million, 122 thousand reais; 8th Region: Catolé do Rocha - 91 million, 432 thousand reais; 9th Region: Cajazeiras - 167 million, 428 thousand reais; 10th Region: Sousa - 95 million, 44 thousand reais; 11th Region: Princesa Isabel - 58 million, 956 thousand reais; 12th Region: Itabaiana - 65 million, 458 thousand reais; 13th Region: Pombal - 64 million, 390 thousand reais; and 14th Region: Mamanguape - 91 million, 386 thousand reais.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Through ODE-PB, the government has been attending and prioritizing the population's historical demands in many areas, such as social inclusion, especially of the most impoverished and vulnerable, gender equality and access to public services. From ODE's demands, it was possible to implement regionalized police stations dedicated to attending women with a multidisciplinary team, the Women's Police Station. The health service rendered to women and girls was amplified through offering specified services in hospital units. For example: construction of the Regional and Children's Hospital in Sousa city, a 10,591,916.07 reais investment; reformation of the Children's Hospital in Patos city, an 85,941.96 reais investment; and construction of Frei Damião Maternity Home in the capital João Pessoa, a 29,445,574.61 reais investment. ODE-PB's Regional and State Councils' implementation aimed to invite and elect a group of council members to represent each micro region in the actions of the executive secretariat and the government. Also the Ceci Melo Awards, through Democratic Budget, is annually presented to honor women who act visibly personally, professionally or politically towards human and citizen development.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   State Secretariat of Management
Institution Type:   Government Department  
Contact Person:   Waldson Souza
Title:   Secretary of State  
Telephone/ Fax:   +55 83 3218-5074
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   Av. João da Mata
Postal Code:   58015-020
City:   João Pessoa
State/Province:   Paraíba

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