| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
This initiative was conducted in line with the implementation of Community-Based Total Sanitation Program (STBM). The goal is to eliminate Open Defecation (BABS) practice and to restore the function of river as an important part of the human life cycle. The program is not only to build sanitation facilities, but also to empower people and to change their behavior.
In the 2000s, the government has built sanitation facilities in the community’s place, but it was useless. It means the one that should be changed is the mindset to use the sanitation facilities. Firstly, they need torealize and be aware that sanitation is one of the aspects of development that has an important function in supporting the welfare. After people have realized the importance of good sanitation, they are asked to make a continuous plan. The active role of health centers, Department of Health and Regional Organization Units (SOPD), as well as Military District Command (Kodim) 1010 Rantau which acts as the executor of healthy toilet together with the community and by the support of community and good cross-sector synergies, these activities can run smoothly in terms of raising public awareness on the importance of having access to sanitation.
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The Health Department in collaboration with The Agency of Planning and Research Development (Bappelitbang) Tapin district support the implementation of the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach of Community-Based Total Sanitation Program (STBM) program which is necessary to improve and streng then the capacity of the health center Sanitarian to achieve the acceleration of the Open Defecation Free (SBS). Briefing for sanitarian is intended to build a common understanding among all the people involved in implementing the triggering method of STBM program. The guide of this activity is Tapin district’s STBM facilitator, which is assigned by the Health Ministry of Indonesian Republic.
The technical elements of this initiative is derived from Health Center of Pandahan as the pilot project for the village to immediately triggered Open Defecation Free (SBS) through behavioral change activities and the construction of family toilets. The Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach and construction of sanitation facilities is derived from the budget of The Document of Budget Implementation Regional Work Units (DPASKPD) of Health Department. Other officials who participate and support this activity is the Department of Community Development, Social Services, Military District Command (Kodim) 1010 Rantau, Budget of the Village (APBDes) of Hiyung village, and the last but not least, the community of Hiyung village.
The support of the Tapin Regent greatly affects the implementation of these activities. It is in the form of the publication of a letter in which it supports the Community-Based Total Sanitation Program (STBM) activities to accelerate the universal access in 2019. The detail of the Regent’s letteris thatevery village is able to budget the village sanitation in the village fund.
In the MoU between the Tapin district’s Department of Health and Military District Command (Kodim) 1010 Rantau states that the implementation process of family toilets construction in Hiyung village was conducted by NGOs, the Military District Command (Kodim) 1010 Rantau in cooperation with the community and village officials. The process of monitoring and evaluation of these activities was carried out by the health care sanitarian, health department committee, and the government cadres of Community-Based Total Sanitation Program (STBM) in Hiyung village.
The government of Hiyung village has rolled actively in the program. It is shown in 2015, Desa Hiyung has built 54 family toilets. It could be done by the contribution of Department of Health as a provider of material and Army Military District Command (Kodim) 1010 Rantau as the executors. In addition, the villagers of Hiyung village have also built 70 additional family toilets independently. In 2016, the Government of Hiyung village has built 43 family toilets by spending the Village Budget (APBDes) and 10 additional toilets independently.
The parameter of success and monitoring impact programs lies in behavioral change of the society, not on the progress of construction. It can be seen from the usage of family toilets that each toilet is used by 2 until 4 families.
These healthy toilets utilization is not only for residents who live on the riverbanks, but it is also used for the disabled community. This happens because these activities are done in a participatory manner by all of the public including women, men, rich, poor including indigenous peoples (indigenous and vulnerable people).
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
A partnership initiative strategies of access to sanitation facilities based on community empowerment was conducted according to action plans as follows:
a. Increasing the capacity of the Health Center Sanitarian Officer
In order to support the implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation (STBM), it is necessary to improve the capacity of health centers for accelerating the achievement of Open Defecation Free (SBS). The briefing for health center sanitarian is intended to build common understanding among all parties in implementing Community Led Total Sanitation (STBM).
b. The Problem Identification and Analysis of the Sanitation Situation
The introduction of environmental conditions is very important. It is also supported by the geophysical and socio-cultural environment due to the condition will be very influential in triggering the process and its success rate.
c. District Government Support
In order to accelerate Open Defecation Free (SBS) in the village,the regent has published an official letter for implementing Community Led Total Sanitation (STBM). The regent’s support is very essential, in which it is mentioned that the village fund allocation could be used to support the construction of sanitation facilities. The Tapin district Government also urged Hiyung village to ban houses along the river.
d. The Signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Health Department and Army Military District Command (Kodim) 1010 Rantau
Military District Command (Kodim) 1010 Rantau was also involved in a million toilets program. MoU between the Department of Health and Army Military District Command (Kodim) 1010 Rantau is signed and approved by the Regent of Tapin district.
e. The Establishment of Environmental Health Cadre in Tapin’s Health Centers
The purpose of this activity is to prepare the cadres of health centers to assist the health center Sanitarian in implementing Community Led Total Sanitation (STBM) whether it is in the data collection or in monitoring and evaluation (progress update) regarding the access to sanitation facilities.
f. The Cross Sector Synergies
It is necessary to continue triggering consciousness to change people's behavior. It is encouraged to integrate Community Led Total Sanitation activities (STBM) implementation agenda at the village level to be part of the village mid-term development plan (RPJMDes) and village budgets.
g. Entrepreneurial Training with the Sanitary Village Officials of Hiyung village in Using Concrete Buis Mold
Strengthening the supply side on the utilization of sanitation marketing methods is expected to help increasing the access speed and supply sanitation. Improving the sanitation supply capability is focused on strengthening the network of entrepreneurial sanitation market participants through rural sanitation. This activity is in line with the component of total sanitation in demand sanitation. Demand sanitation focuses on improving the quality of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS implementation. The training of Hiyung village’s healthy toilets manufacture should be developed maximally to ensure understanding of the concept of knowledge and the market supply sanitation.
In the implementation of innovation activities in Tapin district, various parties has provided the budget to support this initiative:
a. In 2014, TheHealth Department of Tapin district has allocated Rp. 6,000,000 for capacity improvement activity and the briefing of health center Sanitarianpersonnel to accelerate the Open Defecation Free (SBS) program by conducting the approach of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS).
b. Pandahan’s Health Center has allocated Rp. 1,080,000 from the Health Operational Budget (BOK) for triggering the behavior changein Desa Hiyung.
c. Health Department in Tapin district allocated Rp. 162.000 in 2015 for building the toilet by working alongside with Military District Command 1010 Rantau and the local society.
d. Hiyung village allocated Rp. 326.086.400 on its 2016 APBDes (local government budget for village) for building the toilet.
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
The stakeholders for this initiative program are:
a. Regent of Tapin
b. Bappelitbang (Regional development planning, research and development agency) Tapin district
c. Health department of Tapin district
d. Community and village empowerment department of Tapin district
e. Social services department of Tapin district
f. Military District Command 1010 Rantau
g. Pandahan health centre
h. Tapin Tengah subdistrict
i. Apparatus of Hiyung village
j. Facilitators of STBM Tapin district
k. Water supply and sanitation for low income Communities program (PAMSIMAS)
l. The trigger committee
m. Community Based Total Sanitation people and Environmental health cadre
n. Public figure
o. Religion leaders
q. community of Hiyung village
All of the human resources mentioned are actively work hand in hand to support and run the application of the trigger program in Tapin district. The commitment is maintained and improved through specific discussion and meetings. This program is valued very important as it builds the understanding for the local people in the village. With all of the effort and support of all stakeholders, it is hoped that that program will be successful.
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
8. The actual outputs from this initiation program are as follows:
a. Circular regent of Tapin Number 441/26/Dinkes/2015 about the appeal of community based total sanitation which stated that village can estimate sanitation related program from local government budget.
b. Official letter from the head of health department of Tapin district Number 443/559/P2PL/Dinkesin 2014 related to the socialization of community based total sanitation.
c. Memorandum of Understanding between Health department and Military District Command 1010 Rantau.
Those outputs have contributed to the following achievements:
a. Houses and jamban cemplung, the local term for cubicle where the villagers defecat inside and the waste goes into the river, which were located along the riverbank are now on the land.
b. Incidence rate of diarrhea number is decreasing from 3,59 % to 1,64 %
c. The addition number of sanitation access every year in Hiyung villages from 143 people (2014), 388 people (2015) to 419 (2016). One toilet is provided for 2 to 4 families.
d. The improvement of sanitation access in 2014 (12.23%), 2015 (48,02%), and 2016 (90,27%)
e. Overall, the access to toilet for the society from 2014 to 2016 has been improved 78.04%.
Indonesia has set the development priority as it was arranged on Nawacita’s program and priority and the national medium term development plan 2015–2019. The main idea of the program is the Universal Access 2019, which provide the basic sanitation service for Indonesia society. This program requires the full support of the people. Indeed, the output of the initiative program is in line with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030 section 6b which declared the 100% availability of sanitation. Hiyung village showed its commitment to declare their villages as Open Defecation Free. The success of the initiative program is contributed by the all elements of the people, stakeholders, the apparatus and the people itself.
Community based total sanitation is the implementation of government policy related to Open Defecation Free (ODF) strategic and the nations global commitment in SDGs (Sustainable development goals)
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
9. The main constrain of this program is the cultural issues. The tradition to open defecation in the river has started from the village ancestor up until today. Most of the people in the village do not consider their action wrong nor do they think that their sanitation system is unhealthy. The condition happens in the society but they live with that as it becomes their culture.
The implementation of Community Based Total Sanitation under 5 pillars especially Open Defecation Free will ease the improvement of better sanitation access as well as change and keep the sustainability of healthy and clean lifestyle. Community Based Total Sanitation is the approach under the idea of empowering the people. The goal can be achieved when the society is involved actively, especially in indentifying and solving the problem, and willing to change the healthy and clean lifestyle.
In the implementation of Community Based Total Sanitation, the benchmark is not only about the information delivery and discussion, but also making decision with full control and responsibility from the local people itself. In the principle of the Community Based Total Sanitation stated that group decision and action of the society is the key.
Therefore, the initiative program is considered appropriate and will be continuously applied the village. The goal to change the people from lack of awareness to the clean and healthy lifestyle will be maintained and the river will have its function back. River is the hearth beat of the village and it supposed to be clean, not filled with feces from defecate nor the defecated cubicles, for the next generation of Indonesia.