The Feminization of Poverty Alleviation: A Recourse Towards Self–Sufficiency & Welfare (JALIN MATRA)
Society and Village Empowerment Board, East Java Provincial Government

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
BPS-Statistics Indonesia data on March 2009 showed that East Java Province had been the main contributor of low income citizen in Indonesia up to 6,022,590 people (16.68%). This number fell to 4,893,010 poor people (12.73%) in September 2013, showing that during 5-year period there had been a decrease of 2,129,580 people (3.95%). Decreased number of poor was not necessarily related to the phenomenon in East Java, which kept its highest position of poverty level throughout the nation. In East Java, the number of female dominated. According to 2010 census, the total of citizen are 37.47 million, comprised of 18.5 million male (49.37%) and 18,97 million female (50.63%). A significant number of poor families with most severe condition are Female-Headed Households (FHH). The National Team for the Acceleration of Poverty Reduction (TNP2K) data in July 2012 showed that 2,864,364 FHH were households in the 30% lowest group. Furthermore, East Java stood the highest position of 700,160 FHH (24,4%). The dominance of female was not inline to the welfare level. On education level, uneducated or elementary school graduate household heads had a higher prevalence in female (91%), compare to male (79%). There were only 52% of FHH who completed basic education, while it was 74% of male-headed households (MHH). It can be inferred that the higher the education level, the lower percentage of FHH who gain the degree. In employment rate, there was only 60.67% of working FHH compared to 93.3% in MHH. Poverty causes female to bear more burden. They contribute 66% of working hour, but poor female only earn 10% of their work. The growth of poverty population in female group such that occurs in East Java is known as the feminization of poverty (Pearce, 1978). This condition emerges not only as a consequence of low income, but also due to access deprivation and gender bias in the society. Problems of poverty alleviation are as follows: 1)Regional economic growth and poverty level are above the national average, meaning that there’s an urgent need for a special program to protect the poor in order to reduce disparity. 2)Increasing the number of poor FHH and their susceptibility leads to the feminization of poverty (The Feminization of Poverty: Pearce, 1978). 3)FHH are more susceptible to poverty as the female should bear the family economical demands while taking care of children and other relatives. Moreover, MHH experienced discrimination of capital access, work salary and property possession. 4)Target of poverty alleviation are not focused and not refer to database. 5)Models for approaching and handling poverty alleviation tend to be homogenous, without further considering the characteristics of target households (TH). 6)Poverty alleviation tend to be top down, causing TH positioning as the object. Governor has three general strategies as main issue of regional development 2014-2019, including pro-poor and pro-gender. Using the problems and developmental strategies, Government designed original program to handle female poverty based on unified database by name by address, out of the box and innovative.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
1)Designing a special and inclusive program for FHH in the 1-10% percent lowest group according to The Unified Database (BDT) Data Collection for Social Protection Programs (PPLS) 2011, through Feminization of Poverty Alleviation: A Recourse toward Self-sufficiency and Welfare (JALIN MATRA) which being part of Provincial Government’s grand design to accelerate the poverty reduction. 2)JALIN MATRA was conducted by providing stimulant for FHH as the subject of program in the form of cash transfer for Productive economic activity and Basic Needs Fulfilment of IDR 2.500.000.- 3)The implementation of the program includes active participation of Family Welfare Development organization (PKK) having social legitimation known as “mother care”, whose role is expected to be highly caring, interacting, sharing and also as an agent of change for FHH.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The problems to solve in feminization of poverty alleviation include data gap between database and the factual condition, access for productive economic activities and lack of social-economic involvement. The Governor then proposed a special program for FHH and assigned the Regional Research Bureau (DRD), Society Empowerment Board (Bapemas) and Brawijaya University to design A Recourse toward Self-sufficiency and Welfare (JALIN MATRA) for strategic problem solving includes: 1)Analysis of the Unified Database (BDT) PPLS 2011 Selecting target household of JALIN MATRA was conducted by processing BDT PPLS 2011, including aggregate data by name by address. The Unified Database (BDT) for social protection programmes is an electronic data system that contains social, economic and demographic information Operated by the National Team for Poverty Alleviation Acceleration (TNP2K) that can be used for programme planning and identifying the names and addresses of prospective social assistance recipients, whether they target households, families or individuals (www.tnp2k.go.id). The process begun with analysing the BDT PPLS 2011, which is comprised of 3,609,369 households. This includes 1,230,042 households in the 10% lowest group (Decile 1), 1,189,670 households in the 11-20% lowest group (Decile 2), and 1,189,652 households in the 21-30% lowest group (Decile 3). The criteria of target selection includes: a)Decile 1 of 1,230,042 households b)Female-Headed Household (FHH) of 152,343 households c)Having household members at productive age (15-65 years old) of 129,904 households d)FHH with more than 1 member of 126,293 households e)Village selection with minimum 20 household obtained 76,283 FHH in 2,065 villages, located at 507 Districts in 37 Regencies in East Java. 2)Verification and Facilitating the FHH’s needs by deliberative participatory. Verification is on-site clarification measure based on the actual objective condition includes the feasibility of FHH to receive aid. Facilitating of proposed needs was conducted by discussing the proposal in accordance to resources and potential for effectiveness of the aid 3)Providing fresh money stimulus of IDR 2,500,000 per FHH as capital investment and/or working capital as proposed by each of them. Providing the productive economic activities was aimed to promote the socio-economic security as well as need for achievement and life skill to improve the family welfare. The roles of FHH as the subject of activity included planning the type of business, realization (through procurement) of capitals and implementing the business plan. 4)The Provincial Government had a great confidence that solving the feminization of poverty requires their own action. The government just act as facilitator and aid provider 5)Supervise program implementation through optimization of “mother care” role selected from the Family Welfare Development organization (PKK) member. This supervision was based on household approach, not only facilitating the business development but also the prestige, motivation and confidence of FHH. 6)Engage many executive element in accordance with their competence in the level of Province, Regencies, cities, districts and villages, universities, PKK, civil society, business organizations and public. These elements worked synergically and integratively. The signing of MoU on support and fund allocation of JALIN MATRA was agreed between the Governor with all Regents and Mayors in the Province for the year 2014-2018. Supervising the program was conducted by Bapemas and Brawijaya University on supporting research and community development, database analysis and processing as well as supervising community empowerment and poverty alleviation in East Java.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
1.Target effectiveness through: determine FHH in the 10% lowest group, has household member at productive age, not living lonely, minimum 20 FHH pervillage. 2.TH of 76.283 FHH formulated in database, which contain by name, by address, by picture and by need. 3.Positioning FHH as “subject”, and as major decision maker (honorable position) to determine business plan. 4.Implementing participatory deliberative principal by direct discussion to determine business plan in accordance to potency and resource. 5.Program procedure and administration are FHH oriented and provide ease and assurance of accuracy in targeting, amount and benefits in form: a)Proposing Business plan administration facilitated by mother care. b)Assuring the proper target by giving space through community discussion. c)Assuring quantity accuracy by direct cash transfer and providing authority to allocate the aid independently through assistance by mother care. 6.Mothercare’s assistance based on household, recognizing by name by address by character, business management’s assistance, and as interaction, sharing center, giving hope and motivation to moving out of poverty. 7.Implementing the principle helping with heart, prioritizing social empathy, aimed to develope FHH economics potential and also generate dignity, motivation and confidence along with preserving local culture value system

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Program executive are designed based on good governance principle involving elements from provinces, village, society, university, and civil society. 1)GOVERNMENT Main authoritative executive are governor, cross-wide sector coordinator through The Provincial Team for Coordination of Poverty Alleviation (TKPK), and the leading sector is Society’s Empowerment Board (Bapemas) of East Java Province. Technical implementation of the program is begun with set up program executive from province level to regency and village. For province and regency level, officers are especially assigned by several Provincial Government agencies, such as Regional Development Board; Women’s Empowerment, Child Protection and Civil Service Board; BPS-Indonesia Statistics; Cooperatives and Small-Medium Enterprises Agency; Industry and Trade Agency; and PKK organization. 2)SOCIETY Female-headed household as a member of society is fully involved to the program. Other element of society involved is PKK organization, Villagers Representatives (BPD), Villagers Empowerment Service (LPMD), and public figure. 3)UNIVERSITY Brawijaya University through Research and Community Service Institution (LPPM) is the government’s partner to provide encourage human resources, Society Empowerment Assistant, research and technology development to society, database analysis and maintenance, PKK monitoring and evaluating program. 4)Civil Society Regency assistant and PKK cadre having social and empowerment competency are main facilitator and assistance who manage implementation of the program as well as mother care in the village. The target of JALIN MATRA consist of 76.283 FHH spread to 2.065 villages, 507 districts, and 37 Regencies and Cities. Those numbers can expand more if it’s counted with household members are 228.849 people. 76.283 FHH has been targeted multi years from 2014-2018. In addition, 3.309 FHH received benefits from the program in 2014, 14.568 FHH received benefits in 2015, 11.828 FHH in 2016, and it is planned to give benefits to 23.880 FHH in 2017 and 22.698 FHH in year after.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The approaching methods chosen in this program is by increasing income and staple needs fulfillment. Activity implementation strategy was as follows: 1)Verification of FHH and facilitation of their needs were conducted through community discussion for 76,283 FHH by involving 3,356 PKK cadre collaborating with Brawijaya University. This activity was aimed to validate FHH appropriateness, aspiration screening and needs recommendation as possessed skill. The results were stored and managed in the integrated database application: by name by address, by picture, by need and by characteristic data. 2)The cash transfer for FHH play role as infrastructure and business capital fulfillment strategy: a)In 2014 with 3,309 FHH in 54 Villages 10 Regencies as target and involving 179 mother cares and 20 Regencies associates. b)In 2015 with 14,568 FHH in 416 Villages 29 Regencies as target and involving 948 mother cares and 104 Regencies associates. c)In 2016 with 11,828 FHH in 373 Villages 29 Regencies as target and involving 836 mother cares and 100 Regencies associates. d)In 2017 with 23,880 FHH in 785 Villages 29 Regencies planned as the beneficiaries and involving 1,648 mother cares and 178 Regencies associates. e)In 2018, 22.968 FHH planned to be the beneficiaries of the program The cash transfer must be used for: a)At least 70% for productive economic activity. b)Up to 30% of cash transfer for supporting activity like home yard Farming, poultry husbandry and aquaculture. c)Up to 10% for basic needs fulfillment in form of staple food. 3)Amount and Benefit Accuracy Controlling Strategy The aid is given in form of cash transfer worth IDR 2,500,000 for each FHH to be expensed by FHH based on the proposed requirement accompanied by mothercare. 4)Development and Sustaining Strategy FHH business development through skill training facilitated by the students and the university as the community service. Post-program FHH accompaniment sustaining by active role of PKK cadre supported by Village government. Required resources: 1)Financial Resources Budgets of JALIN MATRA for 2014-2018 worth 294 Billion IDR are to be used as: a)Cash transfer IDR 2,500,000 for each 76,283 FHH worth IDR 190 Billion b)Village and mother care operational worth IDR 38 Billion for 2,065 Village. c)Regency secretariat operational worth IDR 15 billion for 37 Regencies/Cities. d)Technical assistance operational by Brawijaya University worth IDR 16 Billion e)Provincial secretariat operational worth IDR 30 Billion f)Supported budgeting by the Regencies government worth IDR 5 Billion 2)Human Resources Involving the stakeholder from Province, Regency, District and Village level coordinated directly by the Governor. Every involved stakeholder was given specific role and responsibility and coordinated within JALIN MATRA Secretariat, including: a)Regional Secretary as the Chief of Province Secretariat with member of several provincial government agencies and PKK. b)Involving 3 State Universities, Airlangga University, Brawijaya University and Malang State University to control, accompany and recruit the Regency associate and Village PKK cadre personnel also facilitate the Implementation of JALIN MATRA. c)Regency Secretariat coordinated by Bapemas by involving the related stakeholder. 3)Technical Resources In order to give the JALIN MATRA implementation instruction, thus the General Guideline of JALIN MATRA Program had been established through: a)East java Governor Regulation Number 67 Year 2014 as for General Guideline of 2014 Jalin Matra Pilot Project. b)East Java Governor Regulation Number 28 Year 2015 as for General Guideline of 2015 Jalin Matra Program. c)East Java Governor Regulation Number 13 Year 2016 as for General Guideline of 2016 Jalin Matra Program.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
JALIN MATRA design is initiated by East Java Governor reflected from the Leading mission for 2014-2019 periods which is “being more self-supporting and prosperous with powerless people (Wong Cilik-Javanese language)”. As the implementation, the governor assigned the DRD, Bapemas and Brawijaya University in order to design the program mechanism. JALIN MATRA executive involves stakeholder from province to village level with such order of: 1)Governor as the responsible person; 2)East Java Province TKPK as sector coordination and inter-poverty alleviation stakeholder; 3)JALIN MATRA Secretariat led by East java Secretary with the leading sector form Bapemas and several government Agency and PKK as member and approved by East java Governor Regulation; 4)PKK organization, as a goverment Work Partner to empower the family in order to increase welfare; 5)Brawijaya University as a Province Associate, supporting personnel and secretariat partner to manage activity; 6)Regency level, including: a)Regent; b)Regencies Secretariat led by Regency Secretary with member from Regencies Bapemas, local Agency, and District TP-PKK approved by Regent Approval; c)Regency Associate (Community Empowering Volunteer) assigned for facilitating JALIN MATRA implementation in Regency; d)District Facilitation team, part of Regency Secretariat in District level with District Headman and TP-PKK as the member. 7)Village Level a)Village Secretariat with Village headmen, Chief of village legislative, local stakeholder and local PKK as member. b)Village Associate, from local PKK cadre as companion to facilitate activity implementation within village, especially as companion of Pokmas and FHH. c)Local Community Group (Pokmas), a group of FHH which voluntarily and participatively assembling to develop the business and strengthen the social capital which form by considering the home proximity. Pokmas functioned as channeling agency in order to effectify aid disbursement, FHH business activity, business and network development.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
JALIN MATRA: The Feminization of Poverty Alleviation implementation in 2014-2016 period resulted outputs as followed: 1)JALIN MATRA program within allocation period of 2014-2106 had reached as much as 29,705 poor FHH in 843 Villages within 29 Regencies; 2)In case of poverty alleviation (SDGs goal 1. end poverty), based to the data analysis of Updating the Unified Database (PBDT) in 2015, there was an increasing of welfare status of 7,630 FHH (42.68%) from Decile 1 lifted to Decile 2-4, another word they have been moving out of poverty; 3)Related to (Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls) JALIN MATRA in 2014 – 2016 period had succeed to empowering 29,705 FHH and 3,634 PKK cadres at Village as mother care. 4)Related to (goal 8. full and productive employment and decent work for all) JALIN MATRA had succeed to establish new business for FHH. The results of monitoring and evaluation process of JALIN MATRA implementation by Brawijaya University, JALIN MATRA aids output results in various kind of productive economy business ran by FHH. Those business consist of 49.12% trading, 21.05% service, 21.49% agriculture/aquaculture/husbandry and 8,33% handicraft and food processing. Based on benefit form, JALIN MATRA had adequately succeed to developing entrepreneurship of FHH with percentage of 36.84%, developing business (as infrastructure and work capital) for FHH with percentage of 60.09%, and emerging business diversification with percentage of 3.07%; 5)FHH are able to fulfilling staple needs. Based to evaluation and monitoring process result of Province Secretariat had succeed to increase average income of FHH as much as IDR 397,000 per month, from initial income of IDR 889,200 per month become averagely IDR 1,286,200 per month; 6)About 3,634 FHH community groups (pokmas) were formed to strengthen FHH social capital, pokmas functionalized as channeling agency in order to improve FHH business aid disbursement, FHH business development effectiveness and to develop network.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
1)The entrepreneurial spirit and skills of FHH were still weak, also their motivation and courage to decide the type of business. Thus, the changing of proposal is often as lack of confidence. Solution: Mother care continually motivates them personally in order to explore their potential and provide a technical guidance. 2)Residence and distribution (about 152,343 FHH) was too wide and spread out. Solution: screening of target by considering the effectiveness therefore obtained 76,283 FHH and encourage the Regency to take care of the rest (76,060 FHH) 3)Gap between initial databases with current condition. JALIN MATRA implementation in 2014-2016, founded the poor that do not fit the data (Exclusion error), on the contrary, there were the wealthy that also in the database (inclusion error) as well as the dynamic changes in FHH status (remarried, died, moved, having no family, and self-supported). Solution : conducting verification door to door and clarification through community discussion during implementation 4)Social envy of those whom didn’t beneficiaries the program. The live among FHH and often claiming poor and deserved the aid. Solution: an active role of village government and community leaders to provide socialization related to JALIN MATRA, in order to gain support not only from FHH, but also from the whole society. 5)The geographical constraint. Generally, poor FHH living in remote areas. It was a challenge for the PKK cadres to do assistance, they had difficulties in determining type of business, due to the limited selection of activity in a remote and sparsely populated area. The last option was doing farm. Solution: PKK cadres actively discuss with FHH to explore their potential. 6)Local political problems, for example the impact of local elections or conflict among local elites. Solution: conducting intensive approach, structurally and culturally.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
Benefits of JALIN MATRA Initiatives for the community were: 1)Reducing the number of the poor in East Java Province. Latest poverty rate published at January 3, 2017 showed that during September 2013 to September 2016, the number of poor in East Java decreased about 254,480 people (0.88%) from 4,893,010 people (12.73%) in September 2013 to 4,638,530 million inhabitants (11.85%) in September 2016. (www.jatim.bps.go.id) 2)Increasing Gender Development Index (GDI) in East Java by 0.85, from 90.22 in 2013 to 91.07 in 2015. 3)Based on the analysis of PBDT 2015, number of 7,630 FHH, the beneficiaries of JALIN MATRA in 2014 and 2015 was finally Moving out of Poverty, and details as follows: a)18.54% of FHH whose Moving out of Poverty shown by increased welfare from Decile 1 to Decile 2 as many as 3.314 FHH ; b)15.61% of FHH whose Moving out of Poverty from Decile 1 to Decile 3 as many as 2.791 FHH ; c)8.53% of FHH whose Moving out of Poverty from Decile 1 to Decile 4 upwards as many as 1,525 FHH. 4)Fostering entrepreneurship of FHH, consists of: the growth of new businesses with a percentage of 36.84%, an increase of business (in the form of assets and Working Capital) of 60.09%, and business diversification of 3.07%. (Vide: The results of the monitoring and evaluation by Brawijaya University. 5)The increase of FHH average income which was about 397,000 IDR/ month (from 889,200 IDR / month to 1.286.200 IDR /month) 6)Relieving the social burden of FHH as a marginal group. Through the help of productive economic activities implemented by FHH, they were more self-sufficient, both economic and social, so that able to relieve the social burden in rural areas. 7)Improving human resource capabilities of FHH in designing, implementing, and managing the business. Basically, the target of FHH was poor households with very limited human resources, but through intensive mentoring from mother care, FHH were invited to talk and discuss in order to identify their potential, so a proper business plan could be designed. FHH were also entrusted with the direct spending of venture capital in order to improve FHH to be self-sufficient. 8)Improving economic turnover in rural areas (multiplier effect), circulation of FHH business fund worth over 190 billion IDR, circulated in the village for productive economic business activities, including production, distribution and consumption. 9)Through website mothercarejatim.id, FHH could introduce and promote their business products, such as crafts, food and beverage products, merchandise and services. 10)Qualified relationship between the government and citizen through programs mechanism that promotes participatory deliberative principles. Previously, other poverty alleviation used top-down principle, but JALIN MATRA used a bottom-up principle, such as involving the people to actively plan, implement, monitor and responsible for the program

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
JALIN MATRA was able to increase the integrity and accountability of service to the poor FHH (Decile 1) : 1)Integrity and accountability of targeting accuracy. The use of the database from BDT PPLS 2011 that consists of by name by address by picture by need, the process of verification, clarification, and discussion ensure the integrity and accountability of targeting accuracy. 2)Integrity and accountability of the exact amount of the aid in the form of cash transfer. From provincial governor, the aid would be received 100% by the village government which would provide cash transfer 100% intact to FHH as much as IDR 2.500.000 through Pokmas. 3)Integrity and accountability of program administration. The mechanism of the program at the Village Government level, from planning, implementation, to accountability must be approved by the Village Representative Council (BPD) through villagers Discussion, not only by head of village. The aid proposal was gradually verified in regency and province. Accountability was conducted by FHH, Village Secretariat, Regency Secretariat and Province Secretariat. 4)Integrity and accountability of FHH appropriate benefits. Stages of Verification of FHH and facilitation of their Needs to guarantee FHH so that they were able to independently design of the business proposal likewise the details of business capital goods. FHH was assisted by mother care to spend the aid according to business proposal. 5)Integrity and public accountability. The public can access the results of the implementation of the Program Jalin Matra PFK either through www.bapemas.jatimprov.go.id and www.mothercarejatim.id. Publics freely allowed to provide critics, suggestions, feedback, and complaints via email: jalin_matra@jatimprov.go.id and SMS hotline +6282333336677 6)Integrity and accountability of the program management. Program Implementation involves the agencies of Province, Regencies and Village governments, Brawijaya University, and PKK. 7)Integrity and accountability of monitoring and evaluation. Monitoring and evaluation ware carried out structurally and functionally by the program manager and independent institutions. Independent monitoring and evaluation were carried out by Airlangga University in 2015 and Brawijaya University in 2016.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
JALIN MATRA was specifically designed for very poor female-headed household (FHH) in the 10 percent lowest group. The program gave many benefits such as: 1)A total of 76,283 FHH directly got financial aid of IDR 2,500,000 for each FHH , which spent for venture capital and fulfillment of basic needs; 2)total of 228,849 people members of the household including girls got direct benefit in the form of the fulfillment of basic needs and indirectly result from increased mothers (FHH ) income 3)The concept of mother care with assistance conducted by PKK cadres in village provide a space for local women activists to play a role in empowering communities, addressed to FHH in the village. 4)Increase the empowerment of FHH through intensive mentoring of mother care and business training. 5)Promotion of FHH business products through various media such as www.mothercarejatim.id.; 6)For the development of business, FHH were channeling to the Banks in order to obtain additional business capital

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Society and Village Empowerment Board, East Java Provincial Government
Institution Type:   Local Government  
Contact Person:   Kukuh Tri Sandi
Title:   Section head of underdeveloped society  
Telephone/ Fax:   +62 31 8273699 (Telp/Fax), +62811323839
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   kukuh.tris@gmail.com  
Address:   Jalan A Yani 152 C Surabaya East Java Province
Postal Code:   60235
City:   Surabaya
State/Province:   East Java
Country:  

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