| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
1.Target effectiveness through: determine FHH in the 10% lowest group, has household member at productive age, not living lonely, minimum 20 FHH pervillage.
2.TH of 76.283 FHH formulated in database, which contain by name, by address, by picture and by need.
3.Positioning FHH as “subject”, and as major decision maker (honorable position) to determine business plan.
4.Implementing participatory deliberative principal by direct discussion to determine business plan in accordance to potency and resource.
5.Program procedure and administration are FHH oriented and provide ease and assurance of accuracy in targeting, amount and benefits in form:
a)Proposing Business plan administration facilitated by mother care.
b)Assuring the proper target by giving space through community discussion.
c)Assuring quantity accuracy by direct cash transfer and providing authority to allocate the aid independently through assistance by mother care.
6.Mothercare’s assistance based on household, recognizing by name by address by character, business management’s assistance, and as interaction, sharing center, giving hope and motivation to moving out of poverty.
7.Implementing the principle helping with heart, prioritizing social empathy, aimed to develope FHH economics potential and also generate dignity, motivation and confidence along with preserving local culture value system
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Program executive are designed based on good governance principle involving elements from provinces, village, society, university, and civil society.
Main authoritative executive are governor, cross-wide sector coordinator through The Provincial Team for Coordination of Poverty Alleviation (TKPK), and the leading sector is Society’s Empowerment Board (Bapemas) of East Java Province.
Technical implementation of the program is begun with set up program executive from province level to regency and village. For province and regency level, officers are especially assigned by several Provincial Government agencies, such as Regional Development Board; Women’s Empowerment, Child Protection and Civil Service Board; BPS-Indonesia Statistics; Cooperatives and Small-Medium Enterprises Agency; Industry and Trade Agency; and PKK organization.
Female-headed household as a member of society is fully involved to the program. Other element of society involved is PKK organization, Villagers Representatives (BPD), Villagers Empowerment Service (LPMD), and public figure.
Brawijaya University through Research and Community Service Institution (LPPM) is the government’s partner to provide encourage human resources, Society Empowerment Assistant, research and technology development to society, database analysis and maintenance, PKK monitoring and evaluating program.
Regency assistant and PKK cadre having social and empowerment competency are main facilitator and assistance who manage implementation of the program as well as mother care in the village.
The target of JALIN MATRA consist of 76.283 FHH spread to 2.065 villages, 507 districts, and 37 Regencies and Cities. Those numbers can expand more if it’s counted with household members are 228.849 people. 76.283 FHH has been targeted multi years from 2014-2018. In addition, 3.309 FHH received benefits from the program in 2014, 14.568 FHH received benefits in 2015, 11.828 FHH in 2016, and it is planned to give benefits to 23.880 FHH in 2017 and 22.698 FHH in year after.
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The approaching methods chosen in this program is by increasing income and staple needs fulfillment.
Activity implementation strategy was as follows:
1)Verification of FHH and facilitation of their needs were conducted through community discussion for 76,283 FHH by involving 3,356 PKK cadre collaborating with Brawijaya University. This activity was aimed to validate FHH appropriateness, aspiration screening and needs recommendation as possessed skill. The results were stored and managed in the integrated database application: by name by address, by picture, by need and by characteristic data.
2)The cash transfer for FHH play role as infrastructure and business capital fulfillment strategy:
a)In 2014 with 3,309 FHH in 54 Villages 10 Regencies as target and involving 179 mother cares and 20 Regencies associates.
b)In 2015 with 14,568 FHH in 416 Villages 29 Regencies as target and involving 948 mother cares and 104 Regencies associates.
c)In 2016 with 11,828 FHH in 373 Villages 29 Regencies as target and involving 836 mother cares and 100 Regencies associates.
d)In 2017 with 23,880 FHH in 785 Villages 29 Regencies planned as the beneficiaries and involving 1,648 mother cares and 178 Regencies associates.
e)In 2018, 22.968 FHH planned to be the beneficiaries of the program
The cash transfer must be used for:
a)At least 70% for productive economic activity.
b)Up to 30% of cash transfer for supporting activity like home yard Farming, poultry husbandry and aquaculture.
c)Up to 10% for basic needs fulfillment in form of staple food.
3)Amount and Benefit Accuracy Controlling Strategy
The aid is given in form of cash transfer worth IDR 2,500,000 for each FHH to be expensed by FHH based on the proposed requirement accompanied by mothercare.
4)Development and Sustaining Strategy
FHH business development through skill training facilitated by the students and the university as the community service. Post-program FHH accompaniment sustaining by active role of PKK cadre supported by Village government.
Budgets of JALIN MATRA for 2014-2018 worth 294 Billion IDR are to be used as:
a)Cash transfer IDR 2,500,000 for each 76,283 FHH worth IDR 190 Billion
b)Village and mother care operational worth IDR 38 Billion for 2,065 Village.
c)Regency secretariat operational worth IDR 15 billion for 37 Regencies/Cities.
d)Technical assistance operational by Brawijaya University worth IDR 16 Billion
e)Provincial secretariat operational worth IDR 30 Billion
f)Supported budgeting by the Regencies government worth IDR 5 Billion
Involving the stakeholder from Province, Regency, District and Village level coordinated directly by the Governor. Every involved stakeholder was given specific role and responsibility and coordinated within JALIN MATRA Secretariat, including:
a)Regional Secretary as the Chief of Province Secretariat with member of several provincial government agencies and PKK.
b)Involving 3 State Universities, Airlangga University, Brawijaya University and Malang State University to control, accompany and recruit the Regency associate and Village PKK cadre personnel also facilitate the Implementation of JALIN MATRA.
c)Regency Secretariat coordinated by Bapemas by involving the related stakeholder.
In order to give the JALIN MATRA implementation instruction, thus the General Guideline of JALIN MATRA Program had been established through:
a)East java Governor Regulation Number 67 Year 2014 as for General Guideline of 2014 Jalin Matra Pilot Project.
b)East Java Governor Regulation Number 28 Year 2015 as for General Guideline of 2015 Jalin Matra Program.
c)East Java Governor Regulation Number 13 Year 2016 as for General Guideline of 2016 Jalin Matra Program.
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
JALIN MATRA design is initiated by East Java Governor reflected from the Leading mission for 2014-2019 periods which is “being more self-supporting and prosperous with powerless people (Wong Cilik-Javanese language)”. As the implementation, the governor assigned the DRD, Bapemas and Brawijaya University in order to design the program mechanism.
JALIN MATRA executive involves stakeholder from province to village level with such order of:
1)Governor as the responsible person;
2)East Java Province TKPK as sector coordination and inter-poverty alleviation stakeholder;
3)JALIN MATRA Secretariat led by East java Secretary with the leading sector form Bapemas and several government Agency and PKK as member and approved by East java Governor Regulation;
4)PKK organization, as a goverment Work Partner to empower the family in order to increase welfare;
5)Brawijaya University as a Province Associate, supporting personnel and secretariat partner to manage activity;
6)Regency level, including:
b)Regencies Secretariat led by Regency Secretary with member from Regencies Bapemas, local Agency, and District TP-PKK approved by Regent Approval;
c)Regency Associate (Community Empowering Volunteer) assigned for facilitating JALIN MATRA implementation in Regency;
d)District Facilitation team, part of Regency Secretariat in District level with District Headman and TP-PKK as the member.
a)Village Secretariat with Village headmen, Chief of village legislative, local stakeholder and local PKK as member.
b)Village Associate, from local PKK cadre as companion to facilitate activity implementation within village, especially as companion of Pokmas and FHH.
c)Local Community Group (Pokmas), a group of FHH which voluntarily and participatively assembling to develop the business and strengthen the social capital which form by considering the home proximity. Pokmas functioned as channeling agency in order to effectify aid disbursement, FHH business activity, business and network development.
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
JALIN MATRA: The Feminization of Poverty Alleviation implementation in 2014-2016 period resulted outputs as followed:
1)JALIN MATRA program within allocation period of 2014-2106 had reached as much as 29,705 poor FHH in 843 Villages within 29 Regencies;
2)In case of poverty alleviation (SDGs goal 1. end poverty), based to the data analysis of Updating the Unified Database (PBDT) in 2015, there was an increasing of welfare status of 7,630 FHH (42.68%) from Decile 1 lifted to Decile 2-4, another word they have been moving out of poverty;
3)Related to (Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls) JALIN MATRA in 2014 – 2016 period had succeed to empowering 29,705 FHH and 3,634 PKK cadres at Village as mother care.
4)Related to (goal 8. full and productive employment and decent work for all) JALIN MATRA had succeed to establish new business for FHH.
The results of monitoring and evaluation process of JALIN MATRA implementation by Brawijaya University, JALIN MATRA aids output results in various kind of productive economy business ran by FHH. Those business consist of 49.12% trading, 21.05% service, 21.49% agriculture/aquaculture/husbandry and 8,33% handicraft and food processing.
Based on benefit form, JALIN MATRA had adequately succeed to developing entrepreneurship of FHH with percentage of 36.84%, developing business (as infrastructure and work capital) for FHH with percentage of 60.09%, and emerging business diversification with percentage of 3.07%;
5)FHH are able to fulfilling staple needs. Based to evaluation and monitoring process result of Province Secretariat had succeed to increase average income of FHH as much as IDR 397,000 per month, from initial income of IDR 889,200 per month become averagely IDR 1,286,200 per month;
6)About 3,634 FHH community groups (pokmas) were formed to strengthen FHH social capital, pokmas functionalized as channeling agency in order to improve FHH business aid disbursement, FHH business development effectiveness and to develop network.
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
1)The entrepreneurial spirit and skills of FHH were still weak, also
their motivation and courage to decide the type of business. Thus, the changing of proposal is often as lack of confidence. Solution: Mother care continually motivates them personally in order to explore their potential and provide a technical guidance.
2)Residence and distribution (about 152,343 FHH) was too wide and spread out. Solution: screening of target by considering the effectiveness therefore obtained 76,283 FHH and encourage the Regency to take care of the rest (76,060 FHH)
3)Gap between initial databases with current condition. JALIN MATRA implementation in 2014-2016, founded the poor that do not fit the data (Exclusion error), on the contrary, there were the wealthy that also in the database (inclusion error) as well as the dynamic changes in FHH status (remarried, died, moved, having no family, and self-supported). Solution : conducting verification door to door and clarification through community discussion during implementation
4)Social envy of those whom didn’t beneficiaries the program. The live among FHH and often claiming poor and deserved the aid. Solution: an active role of village government and community leaders to provide socialization related to JALIN MATRA, in order to gain support not only from FHH, but also from the whole society.
5)The geographical constraint. Generally, poor FHH living in remote areas. It was a challenge for the PKK cadres to do assistance, they had difficulties in determining type of business, due to the limited selection of activity in a remote and sparsely populated area. The last option was doing farm. Solution: PKK cadres actively discuss with FHH to explore their potential.
6)Local political problems, for example the impact of local elections or conflict among local elites. Solution: conducting intensive approach, structurally and culturally.