Alleviate Poverty Farmers Through One Year One Birth Of Cow
Food Security and Livestock Department of Pamekasan Regency Government (Dinas Ketahanan Pangan dan P

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Madura cow is indigenous superior local genetic resource of Indonesia that can be found in Madura islands. Madura cow population has contributed for 30% of cows in all East Java Province. Pamekasan was one of the 4 districts in Madura islands with lowest cow population. Beef cattle farming (Madura breed) in Pamekasan was not yet profitable for farmers. Traditional and generation-to-generation farming system still hasn’t able to optimize the potential. According to data in Pamekasan District, there was 75.000 farmer household which raise cattle and categorized as poor and vulnerable household. This was shown by cattle ownership of 2 animal per family head with low income about US$ 230 per year (still below economic cattle ownership which is 10 cows to made it a profitable business). Small number of animals raised showed a small scale business and it was not economical. Cattle farming was only assumed as a savings and that cattle could be sold anytime as subsystem of other venture to survive. Cattle ownership for peasants cannot bring sufficient economic impact and cannot become the leverage of their income. Small scale business has also caused low cattle productivity since they cannot implement good farming management. Lower cow’s productivity gives impact in lower farmer’s income. It was exacerbated by limited access toward capital sources and banking hence hindering business expansion. Based on data, there was only 3% cows which able to give birth every year. Many of cows has long calving interval and only able to give birth to 2-3 calf during 5 year productive period of cow. Low birth rate during productive period was a great loss and unnoticed by them. Farmer’s mindset was difficult to change into one that able to receive novel things in an effort to increase their income. Farmer’s institutionalization was not yet organized. Vulnerable farmers still haven’t grouped together under one business management. Partnership was still difficult to build thus it was difficult to access capital. On the other side, the needs for beef was rapidly increasing. Butchering and shipping beef cattle outside of Madura islands has become increasingly high. If this was ignore, it can be a threat to reduce cow population of Madura breed. Madura cow is a superior commodity that commonly raised by farmer and it has become part of their life (as assets and hope to survive). Partnership with 75.000 poor and vulnerable farmer’s household has strategic meaning to improve their welfare. Service innovation was needed to solve issues and help poor farmers to become advance, independent and prosper farmers.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
In an effort to help 75.000 poor and vulnerable farmer’s household, we implemented 158 excellence innovation called INTAN SATU SAKA (the amazing ability of 1 cow within 5 year productoin period to become 8 cows through artificial insemination technology with one year one birth). A service innovation toward farmer to improve their cow’s productivity by optimizing cow’s calving interval to 12 months (cow can give birth every year). Changing farmer’s mindset was done in persuasive and participative manner, while giving assistance and service along with local indigenous knowledge.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
Government in Pamekasan District launched innovation called INTAN SATU SAKA. INTAN SATU SAKA was abbreviation of Inseminasi Buatan Satu Tahun Satu Kelahiran (Artificial Insemination One Year for One Birth) for cows farming. This innovation is a program that acts as solution to optimize the potential of Madura cow. Major strategies of this innovation is to shortened cow’s birth interval. Prior, cows only able to give birth of 2-3 calves in 5 year farming. However to improve farmer’s profit, cow should be able to give birth to minimumly 5 calves in 5 year farming period. One cow should be giving birth of a calf every year. Actualization was done through management improvement of farming maintenance. Implementation of this innovation was done using persuasive and participative approaches. Farmers as the program’s target was persuade to participate and join the program. We are using 2 major strategies each of which consist of several steps : I. Improved maintance management (good practical management) whit the steps : a. Forming 4 agency technical implementation units (UPTD) for Animal Health Center and Artificial Insemination Post to shorten the distance and to expand service coverage in the community. b. Providing supporting facilities for service implementation such as artificial insemination tools, animal health tools, motorcycles for inseminator officers and operational car for officials. c. Providing service technical regulation of this innovation. d. Providing software for service system and reporting. e. Providing minerals assistance for additional feed for productive II. Chaging the mindset of farmers with the steps : a. Program socialization through printed media, electric media and direct extension toward the community. b. Involving farming-based agricultural group and farming association as parther to deliver INTAN SATU SAKA program toward the community. c. Involving all staffs and field officers as program promotional agents. d. Forming partner villages for each inseminator officers related with acceptors target achievement. e. Conduct partnership/assistance for farming association activities of sonok and taccek cows (display cows) which basically superior (female) cows. f. Give appreciation toward inseminator officers that succeed to gain the most acceptors. Main objectives: i. Improve farmer’s profit/income poor farmers and vulnerable poor ii. Optimizing (female) cows reproduction ability iii. Increasing amoung of artificial insemination acceptors → synergize with ONE YEAR ONE BIRTH program. iv. Maintain Madura cow as indigenous local genetic resources of Indonesia. v. Increase beef cattle population to support beef self-sufficient. Target group of this innovation are: o Low income (female) cow farmers (vulnerable to poor) o Artificial insemination acceptor (with birth interval more than 12 months) Before innovation implementation, cow that able to give birth every year was only 350 cows (5% of 7.020 artificial insemination acceptors), and this number increase into 8.948 cows (40% of 22.392 artificial insemination acceptors) after innovation implementation. Farmer’s income was increasing from US$ 230 per year into US$ 615 per year for 1 productive cow (calculated from assumption of weaner price US$ 384 per weaner).

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
This creative innovation aimed to optimize cow’s calving interval by applying “1 5 8 excellence” principle, in which it means that 1 (one) cow in 5 (five) year could be developed into 8 (eight) cows. With assumption that after 2 years, its first and second born can give birth to a calf every year thus its total would reach 8 cows. This innovation relied on artificial insemination technology. Its uniqueness lies in targeting one birth per year by applying 158 principle excellence. This program was trying to shortened calf birth interval(calving interval) into 12 months and was applied using persuasive approach. Trying to change farmer’s mindset that was accustomed with traditional farming pattern and changing farmer’s culture which difficult to accept novel things was an effort in itself. Official from Livestock Department should work hard to convince farmers that cows should be able to give birth every year. It should be able to do it if cow was under good and appropriate management and technical procedures. Inseminator officers should be assisting farmers holistically in their own partner village. Assistance by officers should be done from the very beginning until post-delivery period and cows showing estrus sign again.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Initiator and implementer of this innovation was Livestock Department through artificial insemination service of one year one birth. This innovation was done by involving government and non-government elements. Government element provide regulation and resources while non-government elemen acts as partner who actively help the government. Implementer team consist of head of Livestock Department with staff such as planning, monitoring, evaluation team and field implementer team which covers inseminator officers, pregnancy examiner, reproduction technical assistant, paramedic and medical personnel. In its implementation, Livestock Department has collaborate with other stakeholders such as agricultural group, cow farming association, scholars, cow intermediary, banking institution and cattle insurance institution. Collaboration with agricultural groups and cow farming association was done in an effort to disseminate program and to conduct program implementation evaluation. Collaboration in marketing information was done with cow intermediary. Banking and cattle insurance institution were also helping in accessing capital and cattle insurance. Scholars was helping by delivering technical review. In its implementation, this innovation was beneficial for many parties particularly for farmers. Government was benefited since this innovation would able to increase beef cattle population and support national food sovereignty.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Innovation INTAN SATU SAKA demanded roles from many program implementers with each competence which covers: a. Person in charge : Head of Livestock Department b. Field implementers: - Inseminator officials. Competence: Able to detect estrus sign, able to determine the correct time for insemination and conduct artificial insemination according to standard, qualification required: minimum education was high school or equal, participate in artificial insemination training and this competence was proved by SIM-I (Surat Ijin Melakukan Inseminasi Buatan – Permit to Conduct Artificial Insemination) - Reproduction Technique Assistant (RTA) Official Competence: Participate in artificial insemination, CPE and RTA training. Able and skillful in conduct examination toward cow’s reproduction organ and participate in RTA training. - Cow’s Pregnancy Examiner (CPE) Competence: Participate in artificial insemination training, able and skillful in detecting cow’s pregnancy and already participate in training to become detecting cow’s pregnancy officers. - Veterinarian paramedic personnel Civil servant with responsibility, authority and full rights given by related local officials to conduct pests and diseases control activities related with cattle and animal product safety under supervisor of Veterinarian Medical personnel. - Veterinarian medical personnel Veterinarian physician who conduct his/her activities in veterinarian medical service based on competence and authority - Animal husbandry extension officers Technical functional labors that have participate in basic training and functional training to become extension officers and have the authority by local officials to conduct extension activities. INFRASTRUCTURE RESOURCES a. Land mobility facility Consist of motorcycles and cars to support vehicle mobilization from this innovation also as mobilization tools for field officers in delivering services. b. Veterinary Health Center building and Artificial Insemination Posts. c. Tools and materials for artificial insemination (container, insemination gun, plastic sheets, gloves and liquid nitrogen). d. Tools and medicine for animal’s health that could support the success of this innovation. e. Minerals for cattle As additional food for cattle which acts as nutrition supplement for cattle particularly in post-delivery period. f. Computers, printers, laptops, reporting software of artificial insemination to help the making and reporting. g. Field work suits (cattlepack, shoes, vest, hat, and bag for artificial insemination) FINANCIAL RESOURCES: Financial source obtained from Regional Government Budget of Pamekasan District was reaching US$ 189.416 since 2009 until 2016. Other financial source was obtained from central government and regional government of East Java about US$ 184.615 through GBIB (Joint movement of artificial insemination through estrus synchronization) activity for 7.000 productive cow and reproduction disorder treatment for 5.000 cows. Action plan elements: • Continuous socialization • Involving farming organization as partner • Building work culture • Forming partners/cluster village • Conduct persuasive and participative approach to the community along with local indigenous knowledge. • Determine origin area of Madura cow • Appreciating farmers participating in ONE YEAR ONE BIRTH program. Key steps for implementation: • Technical assistance and holistic service for cattle farmers initiated from pre-artificial insemination until post-artificial insemination to optimize reproduction ability of cows. • Building system and network to deliver superior services for farmers. • Giving mineral assistance and free health service for productive cows so that it would help to encourage faster estrus sign after delivery (giving birth). • Estrus synchronization for productive cows and free artificial insemination service. • Recording improvement. • Expanding service coverage by provision of land mobility facility in the form of motorcycles for all inseminator officers. • Supplementing facilities and infrastructure (artificial insemination tools and post building).

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
• Livestock Department (Livestock department), as mastermind and institution in charge of 158 excellence innovation. Head of the Agency as budget user with the assistance of one secretary and 4 division head, also all staff personnel who run the program through several supporting activities written in Activity Implementation Document. • Technical officers which consists of inseminator officers, pregnancy examiners, reproduction technical assistants, medical personnel, paramedics personnel who conduct full service for farmers. • Development Planning Agency at Sub-National Level has helped with planning and design of this program. • Regional Finance Board as budget provider Non-governmental element consist of: • Agricultural group and farmers as service recipient who helped the government in program dissemination, monitoring and evaluation. • Community figures as local motivator. • Scholars as program reviewer in technical framework.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
1. Relatively long calving interval for cow can be optimized into 12 month. Previously, only 5% acceptor of artificial insemination has calving interval 12 month. After innovation was introduced, the number increase significantly to almost 40%. 2. Birth interval for madura cow which was relatively long can be optimized into 12 months. Before this innovation was applied, 12-14 month birth interval percentage for Madura cow was only 3% of all artificial insemination acceptors, and it has been significantly increasing into almost 40% of all artificial insemination acceptors. 3. Almost doubling the pregnancy percentage of cow. This would bring significant change toward cattle productivity of poor and vulnerable farmers. 4. Almost doubling the calf birth rate. This was relevant to increase poor and vulnerable farmer’s income. 5. Increasing beef cattle population about 26% in 6 years, this is highly significant for cattle-based food availability.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
During innovation implementation, critical points found out were: • Farmer’s mind set was still hard to accept the change thus it would need certain special strategy. The solution is Involving village cadre and agricultural group in all Pamekasan District and all cattle association sub-district as partner regarding socialization, program dissemination, and to build system and network in order to expand service coverage. • Limited number of veterinarian and inseminator officers. Service coverage for all Pamekasan District with farmer household reached 75.000 poor farmer househod with productive cow population was 50.000 animals. 40 inseminator officers and most of them was contracted and self-support employees, while veterinarian as medical personnel were only 3 person. Ideal number of veterinarian was 1 person per sub-district. The solution is establishing 4 (four) Agency Technical Implementation Unit to expand service coverage including for ONE YEAR ONE BIRTH service • Limited facilities and infrastructure (insufficient road) has become the hindrance to deliver on-time service. By supplementing facilities provisions through annual budgeting and optimizing the existing resources would be one of the solutions to this. The solution is Supplementing facilities and infrastructure to support this innovation services also Artificial Insemination Post/Center. • Limited capital of farmers. Farmers would need fresh fund and thus would often sell pregnant cow. Cattle commodity which acts as savings has become the hindrance in cattle farming related with this innovation implementation. Emergency needs have encouraged farmers to sell their even pregnant cows. This has caused termination of on going assistance for cows as acceptor artifisial insemination oner year one birth. The solution is give more efforts in the concept of insurance for cattle death in agricultural group as the basic concept for cattle insurance, encouraging partnership, establishing cattle cooperatives and accessing funding from banks to prevent productive cattle exchange.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
1. Increasing farmer’s income particularly for 75.000 poor and vulnerable farmer’s household. Before innovation was introduced, calf produced was about 2-3 calf, through innovation 158 excellence ONE YEAR FOR ONE BIRTH, it would reach 8 calf in 5 year cow farming. This would increase farmer’s income to three or four times than usual. 2. Chages the mind set of farmer. This innovation has able to change farmer’s mindset that business-oriented cattle farming was not only acts as savings. Profit was obtained from increasing birth rate and increasing cattle manure. 158 excellence innovation has able to become the change engine of farmer’s mindset to become more business-oriented. 3. Increasing the participation value of poor farmer 4. Increasing the ability and autonomy of poor farmers regarding technology utilization to processed cattle waste into more economy value in order to increase their income. 5. Improving service coverage through partnership villages (target was 189 villages, currently there was 48 partner villages and this number will be increasing every year) This innovation was made to optimize the potential on farmer’s hand. Previously, farmers has lack of understanding that cow farming can actually become a profitable business and not just as savings which cannot significantly increase their income. Limited productive age of cow should become one of the considerations in farming. This innovation could answer this through increasing birth rate during cow productive period. Cow should be able to give birth every year. Impact of this innovation implementation were higher income for farmers, more added value for poor and vulnerable farmers, higher participation from poor and vulnerable farmers also increasing autonomy of farmers in adopting animal husbandry technology. If calf selling price was about US$ 385 per calf, thus farmer’s income would be amount of calf after birth x selling price. Their income could increase from selling calves and also from manure processed into organic fertilizer. Testimony from poor farmers showed that there was increase in revenue and welfare. They were able to buy able to buy their own motorcycle, renovate their houses, financing education and buying more valuable goods from selling calves. Several farmers has developed their business by adding more cows in farming and expanding their cow shed. Farmers were able to adopt agriculture waste processing technology to cattle feed, processing cattle manure to organic fertilizer. This was in accordance with environmental friendly agricultural business This innovation has also capable to become the entry point for partnership programs, capital support from bank, improvement in farmers institution. Assumption that farmer’s participation could be measured quantitatively was related with amount of service paid by farmers for artificial insemination service, which is 2 US $ for one time service. The increasing number of acceptor has also increase community participation for the program.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Beef cattle farming (Madura breed) in Pamekasan District was still unprofitable for farmers. This condition has affecting community behavior which positioned cattle farming as side job and savings and did not yet brought significant economic impact. However, this innovation which implemented using persuasive approach has been able to change farmer’s mindset which already accustomed to traditional farming into more business oriented farming with economical value. High integrity from implementers to serve farmers has been showed in the spirit and working culture builds by initiators. With limited number and quality of resources also limited facilities and infrastructure, but with high spirit to serve farmers sincerely, this innovation has able to increase the number of artificial insemination acceptors so that their cow could give birth to calf every year. Officials from Livestock Department should work hard to convince farmers given paternalistic Maduranese culture and difficult to accept novel things. Inseminator officers have the work to assist farmers in their own partner villages and should be on-call for 24 hours. Assistance provided by officers was given since the very beginning until post-delivery and cow would show estrus sign again. 158 excellence innovation was initiated from the willingness to do animal husbandry revolution through activity which involve active role from the community or farmers. Experience showed that activity which did not involving community participation would be difficult to be developed. Officers from Livestock Department conduct service for productive cow belongs to the community particularly those in poor and vulnerable household. The target would be ready mate cow, pregnant cow, partus cow, and cow with reproduction disorder. Service was done in active manner and in line with farmer’s request and partnered with village cadre as information extension with farmers. Consumers, in this matter farmers, and all part of the community has the equal opportunity to monitor and evaluate service quality delivered by officers. Consumer’s satisfaction was always monitored through internal and external monitoring, either through survey or field inspection and direct interview with farmers.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Target of this innovation composed of 75.000 farmer households. About 40 inseminator officers was demanded to be able to deliver service for farmers, whether it was men or women. Artificial insemination technology used was able to reduce farmer’s burden particularly for women farmers since they do not have to bring their cows to be naturally mated with bull. This program implementation has involving many farmers in the village, including agricultural women who take part in agricultural group. These agricultural women have become more capable to take part in improving their household income. They help their household’s economy by maintaining cow farming. This innovation was arranged with regulation which guarantee that all people has equal opportunity and rights to obtain services including poor and vulnerable women farmers. Persuasive and participative approaches toward farmers as program’s target were aimed so that they would take part as acceptor of artifisial insemination through several strategies, such as agricultural women group and farmer’s association as partners to deliver the program.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Food Security and Livestock Department of Pamekasan Regency Government (Dinas Ketahanan Pangan dan P
Institution Type:   Local Government  
Contact Person:   Indah Kurnia Sulistiorini
Title:   Head of breeding, feed and livestock production di  
Telephone/ Fax:   +628179339648
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   Jalan Slamet Riadi 5A Pamekasan
Postal Code:   69313
City:   Pamekasan Regency
State/Province:   East Java Province

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