| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
This creative innovation aimed to optimize cow’s calving interval by applying “1 5 8 excellence” principle, in which it means that 1 (one) cow in 5 (five) year could be developed into 8 (eight) cows. With assumption that after 2 years, its first and second born can give birth to a calf every year thus its total would reach 8 cows.
This innovation relied on artificial insemination technology. Its uniqueness lies in targeting one birth per year by applying 158 principle excellence.
This program was trying to shortened calf birth interval(calving interval) into 12 months and was applied using persuasive approach. Trying to change farmer’s mindset that was accustomed with traditional farming pattern and changing farmer’s culture which difficult to accept novel things was an effort in itself.
Official from Livestock Department should work hard to convince farmers that cows should be able to give birth every year. It should be able to do it if cow was under good and appropriate management and technical procedures.
Inseminator officers should be assisting farmers holistically in their own partner village. Assistance by officers should be done from the very beginning until post-delivery period and cows showing estrus sign again.
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Initiator and implementer of this innovation was Livestock Department through artificial insemination service of one year one birth.
This innovation was done by involving government and non-government elements. Government element provide regulation and resources while non-government elemen acts as partner who actively help the government.
Implementer team consist of head of Livestock Department with staff such as planning, monitoring, evaluation team and field implementer team which covers inseminator officers, pregnancy examiner, reproduction technical assistant, paramedic and medical personnel.
In its implementation, Livestock Department has collaborate with other stakeholders such as agricultural group, cow farming association, scholars, cow intermediary, banking institution and cattle insurance institution.
Collaboration with agricultural groups and cow farming association was done in an effort to disseminate program and to conduct program implementation evaluation. Collaboration in marketing information was done with cow intermediary. Banking and cattle insurance institution were also helping in accessing capital and cattle insurance. Scholars was helping by delivering technical review.
In its implementation, this innovation was beneficial for many parties particularly for farmers. Government was benefited since this innovation would able to increase beef cattle population and support national food sovereignty.
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Innovation INTAN SATU SAKA demanded roles from many program implementers with each competence which covers:
a. Person in charge : Head of Livestock Department
b. Field implementers:
- Inseminator officials.
Competence: Able to detect estrus sign, able to determine the correct time for insemination and conduct artificial insemination according to standard, qualification required: minimum education was high school or equal, participate in artificial insemination training and this competence was proved by SIM-I (Surat Ijin Melakukan Inseminasi Buatan – Permit to Conduct Artificial Insemination)
- Reproduction Technique Assistant (RTA) Official
Competence: Participate in artificial insemination, CPE and RTA training. Able and skillful in conduct examination toward cow’s reproduction organ and participate in RTA training.
- Cow’s Pregnancy Examiner (CPE)
Competence: Participate in artificial insemination training, able and skillful in detecting cow’s pregnancy and already participate in training to become detecting cow’s pregnancy officers.
- Veterinarian paramedic personnel
Civil servant with responsibility, authority and full rights given by related local officials to conduct pests and diseases control activities related with cattle and animal product safety under supervisor of Veterinarian Medical personnel.
- Veterinarian medical personnel
Veterinarian physician who conduct his/her activities in veterinarian medical service based on competence and authority
- Animal husbandry extension officers
Technical functional labors that have participate in basic training and functional training to become extension officers and have the authority by local officials to conduct extension activities.
a. Land mobility facility
Consist of motorcycles and cars to support vehicle mobilization from this innovation also as mobilization tools for field officers in delivering services.
b. Veterinary Health Center building and Artificial Insemination Posts.
c. Tools and materials for artificial insemination (container, insemination gun, plastic sheets, gloves and liquid nitrogen).
d. Tools and medicine for animal’s health that could support the success of this innovation.
e. Minerals for cattle
As additional food for cattle which acts as nutrition supplement for cattle particularly in post-delivery period.
f. Computers, printers, laptops, reporting software of artificial insemination to help the making and reporting.
g. Field work suits (cattlepack, shoes, vest, hat, and bag for artificial insemination)
Financial source obtained from Regional Government Budget of Pamekasan District was reaching US$ 189.416 since 2009 until 2016.
Other financial source was obtained from central government and regional government of East Java about US$ 184.615 through GBIB (Joint movement of artificial insemination through estrus synchronization) activity for 7.000 productive cow and reproduction disorder treatment for 5.000 cows.
Action plan elements:
• Continuous socialization
• Involving farming organization as partner
• Building work culture
• Forming partners/cluster village
• Conduct persuasive and participative approach to the community along with local indigenous knowledge.
• Determine origin area of Madura cow
• Appreciating farmers participating in ONE YEAR ONE BIRTH program.
Key steps for implementation:
• Technical assistance and holistic service for cattle farmers initiated from pre-artificial insemination until post-artificial insemination to optimize reproduction ability of cows.
• Building system and network to deliver superior services for farmers.
• Giving mineral assistance and free health service for productive cows so that it would help to encourage faster estrus sign after delivery (giving birth).
• Estrus synchronization for productive cows and free artificial insemination service.
• Recording improvement.
• Expanding service coverage by provision of land mobility facility in the form of motorcycles for all inseminator officers.
• Supplementing facilities and infrastructure (artificial insemination tools and post building).
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
• Livestock Department (Livestock department), as mastermind and institution in charge of 158 excellence innovation.
Head of the Agency as budget user with the assistance of one secretary and 4 division head, also all staff personnel who run the program through several supporting activities written in Activity Implementation Document.
• Technical officers which consists of inseminator officers, pregnancy examiners, reproduction technical assistants, medical personnel, paramedics personnel who conduct full service for farmers.
• Development Planning Agency at Sub-National Level has helped with planning and design of this program.
• Regional Finance Board as budget provider
Non-governmental element consist of:
• Agricultural group and farmers as service recipient who helped the government in program dissemination, monitoring and evaluation.
• Community figures as local motivator.
• Scholars as program reviewer in technical framework.
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
1. Relatively long calving interval for cow can be optimized into 12 month. Previously, only 5% acceptor of artificial insemination has calving interval 12 month. After innovation was introduced, the number increase significantly to almost 40%.
2. Birth interval for madura cow which was relatively long can be optimized into 12 months. Before this innovation was applied, 12-14 month birth interval percentage for Madura cow was only 3% of all artificial insemination acceptors, and it has been significantly increasing into almost 40% of all artificial insemination acceptors.
3. Almost doubling the pregnancy percentage of cow. This would bring significant change toward cattle productivity of poor and vulnerable farmers.
4. Almost doubling the calf birth rate. This was relevant to increase poor and vulnerable farmer’s income.
5. Increasing beef cattle population about 26% in 6 years, this is highly significant for cattle-based food availability.
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
During innovation implementation, critical points found out were:
• Farmer’s mind set was still hard to accept the change thus it would need certain special strategy. The solution is Involving village cadre and agricultural group in all Pamekasan District and all cattle association sub-district as partner regarding socialization, program dissemination, and to build system and network in order to expand service coverage.
• Limited number of veterinarian and inseminator officers.
Service coverage for all Pamekasan District with farmer household reached 75.000 poor farmer househod with productive cow population was 50.000 animals. 40 inseminator officers and most of them was contracted and self-support employees, while veterinarian as medical personnel were only 3 person. Ideal number of veterinarian was 1 person per sub-district. The solution is establishing 4 (four) Agency Technical Implementation Unit to expand service coverage including for ONE YEAR ONE BIRTH service
• Limited facilities and infrastructure (insufficient road) has become the hindrance to deliver on-time service. By supplementing facilities provisions through annual budgeting and optimizing the existing resources would be one of the solutions to this. The solution is Supplementing facilities and infrastructure to support this innovation services also Artificial Insemination Post/Center.
• Limited capital of farmers. Farmers would need fresh fund and thus would often sell pregnant cow. Cattle commodity which acts as savings has become the hindrance in cattle farming related with this innovation implementation. Emergency needs have encouraged farmers to sell their even pregnant cows. This has caused termination of on going assistance for cows as acceptor artifisial insemination oner year one birth. The solution is give more efforts in the concept of insurance for cattle death in agricultural group as the basic concept for cattle insurance, encouraging partnership, establishing cattle cooperatives and accessing funding from banks to prevent productive cattle exchange.