Countryside Economic Empowerment By Plasma Core System For Pangasius Fry Village Development
Aquaculture Development of Pangasius and Clarias Catfish

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Employment option if staying in the countryside was extremely limited. Especially for low level education, making available employment option was more limited. To get a good education was also required expensive cost, so that, for poor family, this issue becomes an endless cycle. Ciasem, one of Sub-districts in Subang Regency, West Java Province, in 2010, based on Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics the poor residents with outcome below poverty line USD 0.83 per capita per day were 21,322 people or 20.92% by the total of its resident. Education level in Ciasem 32% that got no school or finished elementary school, 36.38% only attained elementary school, 16.91% only attained junior high school, 12.66% continued to senior high school, and only 2.05% that continued to college. By the limitation of education, most of Ciasem local residents worked as farmworker (44.58%), and industrial worker (29.57%), and the rest (25.85%) worked on another occupation. Income as industrial/farm worker was an average on the border of poverty line and vulnerable, because lack of another business opportunity with more decent income. This issue became concern of Aquaculture Development of Pangasius and Clarias Catfish (BPBIPL) Technical Implementation Unit (TIU) of Marine and fisheries Department of West Java Province. BPBIPL TIU as government institution that located in Ciasem Sub-district also felt need to contribute increasing prosperity of local residents around BPBIPL TIU. BPBIPL TIU had main duty and function to develop pangasius aquaculture. Pangasius was the fourth largest aquaculture species which cultured in the world after salmon, shrimp, and tilapia. In Indonesia, pangasius became one of commodities which selected by Ministry of Marine and Fisheries to increase the interest of fish consumption which was still low. In 2010, fish consumption per capita Indonesia was only 27.3 kg, below neighboring country in Asia such as Vietnam 33.9 kg, Cambodia 36.1 kg, Myanmar 50.1 kg, or Malaysia 59.1 kg. Whereas according to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Indonesia was the fourth largest aquaculture producer (3.85%) in the world after China (61.35%), India (7.76%), and Vietnam (4.46%). Eating fish movement campaigned that consuming fish was good for health and increasing body endurance from every disease, and instated acid fat, including omega 3, which contained in fish helping brain cell very much which was able to increase human intelligence (IQ). Pangasius was selected because inexpensive, and its culturing wasn’t difficult to be implemented. West Java, Province that had the most populous in Indonesia, the average production performance of pangasius fry was only 45% by the target of 224,554,000 fish/year. BPBIPL TIU had initiative to take part for increasing national pangasius fry production by becoming BPBIPL TIU as National Pangasius Fry Center. But because of limited facilities and manpower, BPBIPL TIU couldn’t produce pangasius fry in great number, those only 1,500,000 fish/year and 600,000 fish/year of 1 inch and 2 inches fingerling of pangasius fry which were produced, respectively. BPBIPL TIU looked at the opportunity to increase the pangasius fry production in a way to involve local resident around BPBIPL TIU.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
To solve the problem above, approach model of Plasma Core System of Pangasius Fry Village in Subang Regency West Java was implemented. Role of BPBIPL TIU as a core, produced pangasius larvae and provided technical assistant on facility construction, nursing methods and marketing, then, the larvae was nurtured to reach 1 or 2 inches fingerling on their backyard by villagers as a plasma. Producing pangasius fry by involving villagers at once could open a new business opportunity to increase the income as well as decreasing poverty and unemployment.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
As an effort solving problem about low availability of pangasius fry and increasing poor local resident income, BPBIPL TIU Subang empowered them to be nurseryman by forming Plasma Core System, before Plasma Core System formed, there was no local resident in Ciasem Sub-district worked as pangasius fry nurseryman. so that, fostering local resident to work as pangasius fry nurseryman really started from zero. Plasma core system was started by educating local resident about nursery with good aquaculture practice, it was aquaculture that ensured production success and quality product, by not using danger material for fish as product or for human as consumer and by implementing eco-friendly environment production. Pangasius nursery is a business activity that nurtures pangasius larvae to be fry that ready to be reared in grow-out pond. Pangasius nursery is divided in 2 phases: nursery 1, nurtures pangasius larvae to reach 1 inch sized fry; and nursery 2, nurtures 1 inch to reach 2 inches sized fry. There are role divisions between core and plasma, BPBIPL TIU as core produces pangasius larvae and provides technical assistant on facility construction, nursing method, and marketing, while then, the villagers nurture the larvae to reach 1 or 2 inches fingerling. BPBIPL has developed nursery 1 and 2 technique on backyard. By this technique, plasma can do nursery business on their backyard house. The local residents that become plasma are poor residents with productive age that have income below poverty line. The more quantities pangasius fry produced, the more quantities cultured plasma, so, the more pangasius fry produced, and the more prosperity increased, and the more decreased amount poor resident especially Ciasem Sub-district. The plasma core model located and involved local residents around BPBIPL TIU was to facilitate the review implementation, development, monitoring and evaluation. The plasma core system of pangasius fry village was initiated in 2010 and now has been running for seven years. Proven by the plasma core system innovation can involve the local residents to participate actively in the national program, especially in efforts to increase the national pangasius fry production. This program has been started in Ciasem Sub-district, from one village, that is Sukamandijaya Village, then followed by Ciasem Girang Village, and then Ciasem Hilir Village. After that followed by neighboring Sub-district, that is Rancabango from Patokbeusi Sub-district. Now around BPBIPL, there are 90 nurseries 1 plasma and 84 nurseries 2 plasma. Plasma core system of pangasius fry village has able to solve some problems: 1) production of pangasius fry 1 inch sized increased 2,633%; and pangasius fry 2 inches sized increased 4,480%. Pangasius fry production could fulfill 7.4% by target of pangasius fry production of West Java in 2015 as many as 480 million fish. 2) Availability new business opportunity that at once has able to solve poverty problem for local resident around BPBIPL, where for nursery 1 business has able to pervade employee as many as 180 people and for nursery 2 has able to pervade employee as many as 200 people, so the total 380 people, 4.2% by total poor family in Ciasem Sub-district. The employees are as manager business, fish feed provider, chemical provider, equipment provider, marketing service, harvest service, construction service, and others. 3) Increasing average plasma income from nursery 1 business 155.73%, and from nursery 2 business 179.9%. Increasing average expenditures from nursery 1 business 155% above poverty line, and from nursery 2 business 192.66% above poverty line of Subang in 2016 based on Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics as much as USD 0.83 per capita per day.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Pangasius fry production on the backyard is a creative study result of BPBIPL TIU. By this technique, villagers as plasma can produce pangasius fry on their own backyard with limited requirement water and terrain. This creativity appertains unique because there are role divisions between core and plasma depend on their own capability. Before the establishment of plasma core system in Ciasem Sub-district, the poor or vulnerable has no proper employment alternative except as farmworker or factory worker with decant income. BPBIPL TIU Subang as core provides technical assistant on facility construction, nursing method and marketing while villagers as plasma has responsibility nursing larvae to be 1 inch or 2 inches sized fry. By this collaboration, pangasius fry can be produced in great number rapidly. Plasma Core System in Pangasius Fry Village Subang Regency is relatively new and such kind of innovation does not exist in other places. This innovation model surely will be sustained and can be adopted in another area because marketable and profitable.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
Plasma core system development through the community development program of local resident to be nurseryman plasma of pangasius was inserted into work program and financed by Revenue and Expenditure of West Java Province Budget, which was fully supported by the Marine and Fisheries Department, and approved by the Governor of West Java Province as the highest authorities on West Java special autonomy. Local residents around BPBIPL TIU, especially most of Ciasem Sub-district residents got benefit from this initiative, resident that was previously poor and vulnerable increased the prosperity and becoming nursery business as main activity for getting income after being plasma. From every seven to ten fostered plasma formed one farmer group. The farmer group formed, so that, each plasma could support each other, discuss, and find solutions if there were problems in each plasma member. Another Ciasem resident opening businesses supporting pangasius nursery business as fish feed agent, chemicals provider, fishery equipment provider, marketing service, harvest service, construction service, etc. New business opportunity while also able to solve poverty problem for local residents around BPBIPL TIU, where for nursery 1 business can provide employment for 180 people, and for nursery 2 business can provide employment for 200 people, 4.2% by the total poverty family in Ciasem Sub-district. Indirect communities that influenced and benefitted, are the consumers of pangasius fry to grow out farmer and process phase of pangasius consumption sized attain 3,700 people. Pangasius fry production of BPBIPL TIU by plasma core system is distributed to Sumatera, Central Java, East Java, and Kalimantan Province. Pangasius fry distributor also gets the benefit, to distribute pangasius fry to distant location. The last benefitted is the community that consuming pangasius in Indonesia, by increased production of pangasius consumption in Indonesia, then increased the availability of healthy food that affordable by the community.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
In 2010, BPBIPL TIU proposed to the Head of Marine and Fisheries Department of West Java for empowerment Ciasem Sub-district residents to be fostered into pangasius fry nursery plasma, and BPBIPL TIU as proposer and executor would be the core that ensured the operation of this program. After receiving positive response, on the internal level, through management meeting, the work program and financial budget were made. Then followed up by the commencement of meeting in the BPBIPL TIU meeting room as the center of program activities. The meeting was conducted by stakeholders from government and non-government to discuss the measures to be conducted for the development of pangasius fry plasma core program in Ciasem Sub-district. The nursery plasma candidates were selected and chosen from the poor and vulnerable in Ciasem Sub-district. Selected plasma candidates were trained for pangasius fry nursery techniques in BPBIPL TIU. The training was periodically organized for 30 participants per year, fund was used: IDR 25,000,000 (USD 2,659) in 2010; IDR 25,000,000 (USD 2,941) in 2011, and IDR 30,000,000 (USD 3,225). In 2012. Then after trained, production demonstration of 1 inch and 2 inches sized pangasius fry was organized sequentially on the construction site belonged to the participants, fund was used: IDR 35,000,000 (USD 2,692 – 4,111) per year. BPBIPL TIU held a partnership meeting between core and plasma once a year for 50 participants, were also met with the bank investor. The meeting was used fund IDR 15,000,000 (USD 1,153 – 1,764) per year. BPBIPL TIU also giving 1-2 weeks’ internship service on pangasius nursery techniques for plasma candidates, were financed by participants self-supporting, and giving pond construction guidance for producing 1 inch and 2 inches sized pangasius fry on the plasma candidate’s backyard. Constructing hatchery/pond facility unit and operational cost production were financed by participants self-supporting, either personal capital or bank service. BPBIPL TIU also provided 10 million pangasius larvae aid per year to plasma, to help the new plasma learned the nursery business, fund was used: IDR 50,000,000 (USD 5,319) in 2010; IDR 75,000,000 (USD 8,823) in 2011; IDR 78,000,000 (USD 8,387) in 2012; IDR 80,000,000 (USD 8,163) in 2013; IDR 80,000,000 (USD 6,956) in 2014; IDR 95,000,000 (USD 7,307) in 2015; and IDR 100,000,000 (USD 7,692) in 2016. Furthermore, BPBIPL TIU helping marketing of production 1 inch and 2 inches sized pangasius fry. Resource which also mobilized were technical resources including production technology of pangasius fry 1 inch and 2 inches sized pangasius fry, transport technology were provided by BPBIPL TIU Subang and Subang Regency Fisheries Counselor Officer (FCO). The principle of backyard nursery technology was rearing pangasius fry in plastic sheeting pond which was fenced by bamboo or in concrete pond with stagnant water for 3-4 weeks per period. The difference of techniques was the nursery 1 was done indoor and in more closed room, while nursery 2 was done in more opened room, no walls but still sheltered by the roof. BPBIPL TIU also mobilized competent and experienced human resources, human resources that handled coaching, education, and technical assistant from Bachelor and Magister of Fisheries, and human resources that handled market information and marketing from Bachelor and Magister of Economics. Besides from the BPBIPL TIU, competent and experienced human resources that handled coaching and education were also provided by Education and Training Fisheries Department from Subang Regency and Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, and Subang Regency FCO. Another mobilized resource was also available on Standard Operational Procedures of Good Aquaculture Practices that ensured plasma to execute nurturing method by manner that won’t harm pangasius fry, consumers, and the environment.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
Plasma core system of pangasius fry village development proved itself to be an entirely new concept in empowering the poorest and the most vulnerable to take part in delivering a public service. BPBIPL TIU, the initiator of countryside resident empowerment structurally was under control of the Marine and Fisheries Department of West Java Province. To support BPBIPL TIU program, Marine and Fisheries Department as policymaker, established on The Strategic Plan of Marine and Fishery Department since 2013, was going to make West Java Province as a center of national pangasius fry. To encourage villager participation, four village chiefs in Ciasem and Patokbeusi Sub-district as key drivers of this initiative. Farmer group were the smallest community of plasma core program implementers, that could support each other, discuss, and find solutions if there were problems in each plasma member. Subang Regency FCO supported the program as field adviser and supervisor at plasma. Pangasius fry production bpbipl core plasma is distributed almost 60% of total island in Indonesia country for raised to be fish consumption by grow out farmers in West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, Lampung, South Sumatera, South Kalimantan, Riau, Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, and North Sumatera Provinces, that known as consumers of pangasius fry produced by Pangasius Fry Village Subang Regency. The last also stakeholders of this project are Community that consuming pangasius in Indonesia.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The most successful outputs that attained from Plasma Core System for Pangasius Fry Village Development as follows: a. Formation of interlaced cooperation between BPBIPL TIU as core and local resident as plasma in producing pangasius fry. b. Increasing 1 inch sized pangasius fry production from 1,500,000 fish/year to 41,000,000 fish/year (increased 2,663%) and 2 inches sized pangasius fry from 600,000 fish/year to 27,480,000 fish/year (increased 4,480%). c. Open better new jobs opportunity for local residents around BPBIPL TIU, where nursery 1 segment could pervade employee up to 180 participants, while nursery 2 segment could pervade employee up to 200 participants, so, the total covered were 380 participants. Moreover, pangasius growing out farmer and fillet processing would pervade totally 3,700 participants. d. Increasing income of nursery 1 business people that produced 1 inch sized pangasius fry which was previously an average of IDR 856,666 (USD 91.13) per month increased to be an average of IDR 3,099,900 (USD 233.07) per month or increased 155.73% and from nursery 2 business that produced pangasius fry 2 inches sized which was originally an average of IDR 728,666 (USD 77.52) /month increased to IDR 2,885,867 (USD 216.98) per month or increased 179,9%. e. Increasing income of nursery 1 business people that produced 1 inch sized pangasius fry which was previously an average of IDR 856,666 (USD 91,13) per month increased to be an average of IDR 3,099,900 (USD 233,07) per month or increased 155.75% and from nursery 2 business that produced pangasius fry 2 inches sized which was originally an average of IDR 728,666 (USD 77.52) per month increased to IDR 2,885,867 (USD 216.98) per month or increased 179,9%. f. Increasing expenditures of pangasius fry nursery 1 business which was originally about IDR 8,699 (USD 0.92) per capita per day (13.25 % above poverty line) to IDR 31,691 (USD 2.38) per capita per day (155% above poverty line) and pangasius fry nursery 2 business people which was originally about IDR 9,357 (USD 0.99) per capita per day (19.27% above poverty line) to IDR 32,396 (USD 2.43) per capita per day (192.77% above poverty line) The initiative appertained effective because it can be implemented easily and generates very significant output, it is finally increasing production of pangasius fry, offers new jobs opportunity for local residents, and increase monthly income and expenditures per capita of the plasma.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The main obstacles that ever faced by Plasma Core System as follows: a. Lack of either investment or operational capital. The investment capital costed IDR 20,000,000 (USD 1,503) per business unit, while the operational capital costed IDR 3,500,000 (USD 263.15) per period. To overcome this obstacle, BPBIPL TIU linked the plasma to the banking support such as Sharia Bank and Jabar Banten Bank to get soft loan. Moreover, to minimize operational cost, BPBIPL TIU had supported 10 million pangasius larvae grant per year to the plasma. b. Lack of knowledge and skills, where they previously didn’t have experiences on running pangasius business yet. To overcome this obstacle, BPBIPL TIU intensively bridging them to pangasius business by giving proper training about pangasius fry nursery 1 and 2 techniques, the training was periodically organized for 30 participants per year, and offers apprenticeship on BPBIPL TIU periodically, ussualy 1 until 2 weeks, for 15-25 participant per year.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
According to the survey and site monitoring, the main direct benefits from The Plasma Core System as follows: a. Sustain availability of 1 inch and 2 inches sized pangasius fry that needed by growing out pangasius farmers which spread over West Java, Central Java, East Java, Lampung, South Sumatera, South Kalimantan Provinces, and even in overseas is Philippine. b. Availability of new jobs for local residents around BPBIPL TIU which could pervade more employees c. Increasing local resident income up to 155.73%, and 179.9% for nursery 1 and nursery 2 segment, respectively. Increased expenditures 141.75% and 173.5% above the poverty line for nursery 1 and nursary 2 segment, respectively. d. Converting unproductive backyard as location of pangasius nursery to be more productive. The wider effects of innovation of Plasma Core System for Pangasius Fry Village Development as follows: a. Pangasius fry production from Pangasius Fry Village would be distributed to growing out phase, that pervaded by region of West Java, Central Java, Jogjakarta, East Java, Lampung, South Sumatera, South Kalimantan, Riau, Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, and North Sumatera, Province. b. On grow out phase, it had generated production of consumption sized pangasius as many as 19.910 metric tons that contributed 4.84% of total national pangasius production. c. On grow out phase and fillet processing activities had created new jobs that covered 3.700 people. d. Grow out farmer got income at an average of IDR 3,600,000 (USD 270.67) /month/person. e. Availability 19,910 ton of consumption sized phantasies serves as alternative protein source that useful for the health of body and intelligence society.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
A collaboration between plasma and core becoming synergistic, thus improving integrity between BPBIPL as a public service institution with local resident around. Villagers who previously rare accessed to BPBIPL TIU, now after the formation of plasma core system, becoming more frequent interaction with BPBIPL TIU, especially villagers who have become plasma, interacted, served during order, and picked the larvae of BPBIPL TIU. The impact of society becomes more familiar with and benefit from BPBIPL TIU and knows more about what is done by BPBIPL TIU, it makes BPBIPL TIU more accountable to society. Cooperation between society and BPBIPL TIU makes mutual trust, mutual help, and encourage to be honest to each other, because without it all of cooperations between core and plasma will not work. It can be measured by amount of villagers who visited BPBIPL TIU, whether it is to consult or apprenticeship for pangasius fry nursery technique, or to order the larvae. Villagers visit for consultation average of 1,000 people per year, while for apprentice average of 15-20 people per year, there are always villagers who order larvae every week with number of larvae ordered between 200,000 and 800,000 larvae per week. Moreover, villagers also begin to leave their children for an internship on aquaculture in BPBIPL TIU, with expectation that their children begin getting to know fisheries business from early, the age of villagers' children who intern in BPBIPL TIU between 16 to 24 years, based on data that BPBIPL TIU recorded averaging 1,500 students per year. increasing the integrity of BPBIPL and local residents around is also seen by the formation of farmer groups. These farmer groups are simplified the relationship between plasma and BPBIPL TIU, because it can be coordinated through the group leader. Suppose if there are pangasius larvae relief, administration coordinates with the head of his group first, then after that the head of group coordinates with members of his group. It can be seen that the local residents are very supportive and believe in this program, so there are a lot of local residents who support and participate in Plasma Core System for Pangasius Fry Village Development Program.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The special measures that put to ensure the system benefit the women, the poorest, and most vulnerable, as follows: a. The system offers the local residents to run their business only on the backyard. Since the system utilized the backyards, women and girl’s participation tend to elevate and reached 17.9%. Women roles in the system include as owner, worker, or as partner to her husband where they run the business together. b. Action plan had taken and routinely monitored to persuade the vulnerable people to join the system voluntarily. Most of them previously were farmworker with inadequate salary. Proper training and workshop had scheduled to avoid technical or management failures and booster their motivation. Since launched in 2010, the initiative had established the system, and covered about 380 new entrepreneurs. c. Monthly income and expenditures of plasma, especially the poorest ones were assessed periodically whether the initiative had positive impact on family wealth. As stated before, the positive impacts noticed by increasing rate of both monthly income and expenditures by minimum 155,75%, and 141.75% respectively.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Aquaculture Development of Pangasius and Clarias Catfish
Institution Type:   Local Government  
Contact Person:   Dodi Sudenda
Title:   Head of BPBIPL  
Telephone/ Fax:   +62-260-520084
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   bpbpat_cijengkol@yahoo.co.id  
Address:   Purwadadi-Sukamandi Street KM 2
Postal Code:   41256
City:   Subang
State/Province:   West Java
Country:  

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