Community Participation In Infrastructure Development Large Roads Without Cost
Banjarbaru Government (Pemerintah Kota Banjarbaru)

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Banjarbaru is one of the cities in Indonesia that is located in South Kalimantan. Banjarbaru is located in a strategic position because it is on direct passage between Banjarmasin as the provincial capital and 11 other districts in South Kalimantan. Banjarbaru is considered the gateway of South Kalimantan due to the presence of Syamsudin Noor Airport in Landasan Ulin District. The relocation of the South Kalimantan provincial government centre from Banjarmasin to Banjarbaru has helped trigger the migration flow. These conditions encourage the high rate of population growth in Banjarbaru, which on average over the period of 2011 - 2015 has reached 3.26%. The high rate of growth, is rapidly followed by a growing economic zone and new settlements. The local government will need to provide sufficient infrastructure in order to support the growth of the region. One most important is road infrastructure. In an effort to meet the needs of basic services such as road infrastructure, the city government is faced with financial budget limitations. One area that is growing very rapidly is the western part of Banjarbaru, namely Landasan Ulin district. Who is currently facing some problems due to the expansion and improvement of Syamsudin Noor Airport into an international airport by PT. Angkasa Pura II (one of the State Owned Enterprises specializing in the business of airport and airport-related services) that began in 2011. The new neighborhood surrounding the airport must be prepared so that the newly improved international class airport can give positive impact to the society, both economically and socially. Do not let the residents become evicted and only be spectators of the airport land expansion, which will eventually become marginalized due to the lack of road infrastructure and inadequate accessibility. As for the main issues faced, namely: 1 Residents relucting to be relocated and are only willing to move to the area immediately surrounding the airport; 2 New areas surrounding the airport is not yet used due to : a. Insufficient road infrastructure; b. Inadequate accessibility due to a relatively narrow road width which range from 2-5 m; c. Limited funding in which the construction of road infrastructure requires substantial funds, meanwhile the revenue and expenditure budget of Banjarbaru is relatively small whereas in 2012 was only Rp. 750.1 billion (± $ 77,329,896.9) of which should cover the primary needs for education, health, infrastructure dan social; Banjarbaru government through the Landasan Ulin district head is committed to meet the basic services of road infrastructure such as road and regional expansion in order to become a rapidly-growing economic region. Accelerating the fulfillment of these basic services should be implemented immediately because if not addressed, it will have impact on economy, social and community environment as the three main pillars of living system in the city and society sustainable development.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
1. This initiative is an effort to improve public services in order to meet the needs of basic infrastructure, namely road expansion and new roads; 2. This activity is a result of community empowerment by mobilizing the community and is done by the cooperation of all parties involved in activities starting from planning, implementation and evaluation (bottom up planning) 3. Community donate their land for Infrastructure development and road expansion

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The Banjarbaru Government in this case the Landasan Ulin district head consider it important to take affirmative steps to open access for the active participation of the community and non-governmental parties. Together with the Institute for Community Empowerment (LPM), the Forum of RT / RW and Community Leaders in the District Ulin has made new breakthroughs through innovations, namely " Community Participation In Infrastructure Development Large Roads Without Cost " in the form of opening access of new roads and expanding existing roads around the Landasan Ulin district thorugh community grant without compensation. The purpose of this innovation is to build road infrastructure through participatory approaches so that people want to donate they land. The method is done through an informal approach by performing direct visits (blusukan) to the community. The public are reassured that this program will be very useful for the progress of society itself. Clear division of roles are set between the society, stakeholders and the Government in implementing the innovation, namely the society through the Institute for Community Empowerment (LPM), the RT / RW forum and community leaders contribute to regional development planning up until the process of convincing residents to donate their land for road expansion and construction program. The government will then accept the plan and then implement the role of physically constructing and expanding the roads (Bottom Up Planing). These initiatives have demonstrated the success of which is indicated as follows: 1 Banjarbaru Government through the Landasan Ulin district head can open access to community involvement in regional development; 2 Landasan Ulin District Government together with the Landasan Ulin Institute for Community Empowerment (LPM) received stimulant grant funding from the government of Banjarbaru Rp. 500.000.000, - (US $ 51.546, 4). Most of these funds are used to hire heavy equipments and the purchase of materials for road construction. While residents of the lands affected by the expansion and construction of new roads were not compensated and instead has voluntarily donated their land; 3 Due to the opening of new areas with adequate infrastructure and accessibility (road width between 6-22 meters), government can allow the community to be able to remain living near the airport area. Community affected by airport expansion may return and continue to their social, economic and environmental livelihood. 4 Residents who depend their lives on farming activities can return to work and receive the ease of distribution with the opening of access to new roads and areas; 5 Active involvement of the community resulting in pride to be a participant in urban development; 6 The development of new neighborhoods in Banjarbaru so that economic growth and development will be evenly distributed; 7 Community learning that infrastructure development is not merely the responsibility of government alone but also require participation from the community; 8 The community's desire to remain living near the airport area can be met and put an end to the polemic occurred; 9 Increased public confidence in the government officials marked by the election of Landasan Ulin District head (innovator of Community Participation In Infrastructure Development Large Roads Without Cost as the Mayor of Banjarbaru period 2016-2012 through independent party beating the incumbent and other candidates from political parties.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The uniqueness of the initiative can be described as follows: 1. Participatory approach method is done through an informal approach by direct visits (blusukan) to individuals, as well as to community groups. In addition, the approach also involves religious leaders who helped reassured the public to donate their land, because it will benefit the world and the Hereafter; 2. An approach in the improvement of services which previously only used Top down Planning and now has used Bottom Up Planning based on public complaints about basic infrastructure needs, namely access to new roads and expansion of existing roads; 3. Implemented using community participation in all activities of the initiative, ranging from planning, implementation and evaluation; 4. This activity is the result of a partnership with the community to embrace and fulfill the principles of community empowerment.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
This program is a positive initiative to meet the basic services of road infrastructure by involving community participation. Initiators: This activity begins with the Landasan Ulin district head’s wish to help provide residential areas for the community specifically the communities affected by the liberation of airport expansion land. Executor: Landasan Ulin district Institute for Community Empowerment (LPM), RT / RW Forum and Community Leaders as the main actors of this activity. Supporters: Landasan Ulin district officials, Syamsudin noor sub district officials, RT / RW and local community leaders Banjarbaru Government through BAPPEDA (Regional Development Planning Agency) Banjarbaru and the Banjarbaru Department of Public Works and the Provincial Government of South Kalimantan also provide advice on grants for these activities. Communities that benefit from this iniative are citizens living around the airport area that are affected by the airport land expansion, which can still live near the airport area with better road infrastructure and improved accessibility. The development of new neighborhood brings a broad impact for the Banjarbaru community in general due to the opening of new road segments, that may be able to improve accessibility and develop new economic zones.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
Planning phase: a. Landasan Ulin district head conducted presentation of action plans for road opening and expansion to Bappeda Banjarbaru (Regional Development Planning Agency), Banjarbaru Department of Public Works, Banjarbaru Mayor, South Kalimantan provincial government and Head Office of PT Angkasa Pura I in Jakarta for approval of technical and operational funding support. b. Forming an implementation team which in this case is coordinated by the Institute for Community Empowerment (LPM), starting from sub-district, district and city level. Involving various stakeholders ranging from community leaders, religious leaders, RT / RW and landowners to plan the opening of new road access and existing road expansion. c. Involving the community in the planning process by means of collecting public aspirations from citizens living in the location of the initiative. Implementation Phase: a. District head together with the Chair of LPM and Religious/ community Leaders undertake intensive socialization and approaches which are done from house to house, places of worships, as well as in other non-formal meetings. Socialization is conducted in order to build the community’s awareness on donating land, from the religious, social, economic and nationalism perspective. b. Building consensus and also approval of land owners which will serve as the basis for the start of construction activities of new roads and existing road expansion. If there are property (buildings / houses / fences) or trees or plants affected by the road expansion will be given compensation in which the amount/value will be adjusted according to the deal. . c. Actively involving the community in the process of development implementation. Residents participate in conducting land measurements and installation of boundary markers for the road. Clearing out land is also carried out by the residents along with LPM and district head (gotong royong). Evaluation Phase: a. Along with the community evaluating developments based on the plan and time frame previously set, regularly presenting progress reports; b. Conduct direct visits to the field/ location. Regularly conducting field observation in order to obtain actual information and direct solution so that intensive communication will occur in order to solve obstacles encountered; c. Making activity reports. In order to achieve transparency and accountability, all activities are reported in an open, accountable and organized manner. Funding: Banjarbaru Government strongly appreciate this initiative and has allocated a stimulant grant of Rp. 500.000.000, - (five hundred million rupiah) (± US $ 40,973.53) for the community. The grant provided come from the Banjarbaru revenue and expenditure budget from 2012-2013 Fiscal Year. The fund is managed to finance activities such as leasing heavy equipments, purchase of landfill, culverts, productive land compensations and field operating costs. Implementors expertise Since this program is an attempt mobilize and empower the community to open new road access using their own resources, the skills required to succeed this program is the ability to direct and motivate, responsiveness to understand the situation faced by community, responsiveness to community aspirations, the ability to negotiate and communicate with various parties. Additionally, the ability to read prospects of area development is also required in order to create strategic planning ahead. In addition, the ability to combine spatial planning and area development is considered necessary. This can be seen during the determination of location and strategic position of the new access road, in order to provide maximum benefit to the community

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
This program can run well through the support and coordination of various SKPD described in the table below: No. Party name Role Steps to be Taken 1. City Mayor Policy making • Provide commitment and support • Policy making in order to provide grant 2. Landasan Ulin district head Initiator • Providing initial idea, planning and development • Scheduling and conducting socialization • Collecting sspirations • Presenting action plans to Mayor and stakeholders 3. Syamsudin Noor sub-district head Mover Coordinating RT / RW and LPM 4. Bappeda (Regional Development Planning Agency) Advisor Providing advice and next steps 5. Department of Public Works Advisor and Supervisor Providing advice and technical steps The success of the Banjarbaru government in an effort to developing infrastructure large roads will not work properly without the involvement and participation of the public / society. The following parties involved in this program are as follows: No. Party Role Steps Taken 1. Institute for Community Empowerment (LPM) implementation team coordinator Mobilize mutual aid from society 2. RT / RW Actively engage in the planning the opening of new access roads Collecting data of land owners and scheduling dissemination to public/society. 3. Religious and Community Leaders Actively involved in making socialization and persuasive approach to land owners. Mediator of socialization. 4. PT. Angkasa Pura II Planning partner As planning partner in providing new access roads 5. Land owner Donating land affected without compensation After being given the socialization and understanding land owners will voluntarily donate some of the land affected by the opening or expansion of new access roads.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
a. Increased accessibility with the opening of a new road sections with a road width on average 6 -22 m that facilitates community access and improving the local economy; b. Successfully opening new roads coming from community participation in the form of land donation with a total width of 119.250 m 2 (new roads length is 7.205 m and width 6-22 m; public facility 30.000 m2) c. Government budget efficiency for land donation assuming the price per meter Rp. 300.000, - (US $ 30.93), then the value of community donation amounts to Rp. 33.775.000.000 (thirty tree billion seven hundred dan seventy five million Rupiahs) (US $ 2.751.093).

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Before this initiative, development planning uses a Top Down Planning approach, where planning is done by the central government. This initiative opens access to community involvement in city development planning. Organizing a program in which involves the community as a main actor is never easy, there will always be obstacles and issues, but using a persuasive approach and intensive socialization in the end the public become aware of the importance of this program, and the community voluntarily donate the land affected by the road construction plan. As for the main obstacles were: a. A few Community’s reluctance to donate their land b. The low level of confidence/trust from the community toward government officials c. A few community and religious leaders which still does not agree and support the initiative. Few examples of community figures that become agents of the initiative: a. Haji ZUHDI Haji Zuhdi at the time faced financial problems and needed money for college fees for his children. He owned 3,5 Ha of land which he plans to save for his children’s college fund. After government officials approached him and explained about the road and school development plans, he sincerely donated most of his land even though he had to postpone sending his children to college. Now their lives are very prosporous and haji zuhdi is even able to fund his children’s college fees. b. Ustadz MUHAMMAD Ustadz Muhammad is one of the religious figures in Landasan Ulin, initially he was not convinced by this program and strongly opposed it for fear it would harm the community. With intensive approach in the end he agreed. Ustadz Muhammad directly involved and tried to ensure that the program is very important. He helped and volunteered to be a spokesman of the program

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
a. Through the road development initiative which involves active community participation, current road conditions has improved in size and condition that is about 6-22 meters. Settlement areas are growing quite rapidly, causing even development. b. In addition to the construction and expansion of roads, wide and permanent sewages are also built. Large sewages make the area no longer flooded. Besides that, the water sewage is used to drain water runoff due to increased surface area of the airport. Water is supplied to the reservoir's purpose-built area of 10 hectares located within one kilometer of the region. c. The opening of the new access road connecting the region with other regions led to the smooth flow of people and goods, ease of accessibility and economic growth of society. d. The more people who are interested to live around this area, because it will become a strategic area and close to the entrance gate to the International Airport e. The price of land in this area increased significanty. Before the initiative, the price of land is only about Rp. 20,000, after the initiative, the price of land in this area has reached Rp. 300.000, -. The price increase has benefited both personally and economically secera advantage for the region. f. Therefore it is proven that this innovation is not detrimental to the public but beneficial in terms of sales value of land that is owned by the public increased sharply. g. The involvement of community in the development will lead to a sense of satisfaction, pride and sense of ownership by the community so that people will actively and consciously maintain roads. h. Active community participation not only in the form of donated land but also in the form of energy and ideas. i. The success of this initiative resulted in increased public confidence towards government which is marked by the election of Ulin district head as the Mayor of Banjarbaru period 2016-2012 through an independent party beating the incumbent and other candidates from political parties.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Amid the low level of public trust in government officials due to the many cases of corruption and extortion, it is not an easy task to invite the community to participate in development. Trust between society and the government is necessary in order for this initiative to succeed. The success of this initiative depend on the extent to which the level of public confidence toward government apparatus. The higher the integrity of the apparatus, then the level of public confidence toward government apparatus will increase. The more easily the public will be invited to participate in developments activities. Meanwhile, integrity can not be built from corrupt officials. Therefore, integrity of the apparatus, anti-corruption attitude and public participation are closely related and can not be separated. If the society is willing to voluntarily donate their land without compensation, it means that the society have trust and confidence in the initiator and government officials are open, transparant and is away from the habbit of corruption. Because how could the society give trust to authorities who do not have integrity and practices corruption ? When these initiatives have been implemented and the society felt a positive and direct impact, then the integrity of government officials will increase, and public participation will be easier to be gained. Therefore replicating this initiative by inviting the public to donate land in order to open and expand new roads can also be done in various areas of Banjarbaru. Using the same pattern, developing large roads without cost.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
Efforts of road expansion leaves a very positive impact on the opening of new regions, the ease of access towards public services / public facilities and an improvement on the economic sector because the opening of new region will attract the business sector, industry and investors. It is clear that this initiative provide enormous benefits for the society in general, including women and the vulnerable groups of society. One of the parties who strongly benefit from this initiative are the marginalized groups, especially farmers who had been living in regions with narrow streets and do not have access to economic resources. Due to the opening of new region, it becomes easier for them to sell their crops. Evenmore, with the opening of new region, the price of their land has increased significantly. As occurs in some low economic group where their land prices has increased, some of them sold their land and receives a big profit. The profit received is then used as capital to open new business, thus improving their welfare. The profit is so high, some are able to go umroh (pilgrimage).

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Banjarbaru Government (Pemerintah Kota Banjarbaru)
Institution Type:   Academia  
Contact Person:   Mahalli Mahalli
Title:   Staff  
Telephone/ Fax:   +6281348494532, +6281253539921
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   7464hati@gmail.com  
Address:   Jl. Kelapa Komplek Mekatani Guntung Manggis
Postal Code:   70724
City:   Banjarbaru
State/Province:   Kalimantan Selatan
Country:  

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