Outreach Services: Empowering Persons With Intellectual Disabilities in Their Community
Ministry of Social Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
The number of persons with intellectual disabilities in Indonesia is estimated to be at 1,146,600. In Central Java Province, there are 25,467 persons with intellectual disabilities. Meanwhile, data from the World Bank reveal that 80% of the persons with disabilities living in developing countries, including Indonesia, are vulnerable, underdeveloped, and economically disadvantaged, causing them to be marginalized in the fields of economy, politic, law, and socio-culture. The great population of persons with intellectual disabilities in Indonesia is not accompanied by the adequate number of social service organization. Consequently, many of the persons with intellectual disabilities have never received any services required for their developmental needs. For a reference, data from the 2012 National Social-Economic Survey indicated that from a total of 6,008,640 persons with intellectual disabilities in Indonesia, only 231,725 people or 3.85% had received the needed services. At the National Centre of Social Rehabilitation for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities (BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung), the average number of people who register for services annually is 80, but only 40 people or 50% of them can be accepted as service beneficiaries due to the limited capacity of the centre that can only serve up to 150 persons with intellectual disabilities with a period of 3 to 4 years of social rehabilitation. The needs for social services for persons with intellectual disabilities are increasing due to the development of community. On the other hand, the large population of intellectually disabled people is not comparable to the number of service organisations, so that many of the persons with intellectual disabilities in their communities do not have access to services and are in vulnerable conditions, do not receive the guidance necessary for their development needs, are not productive and become the family’s burden. The research in 2009 showed that 93.3% of the families actually required the social services for their intellectually disabled members, but the majority (68.29%) did not know about social service organisations, and 12.20% only knew about the organisations but not about how to get access to the services from these organisations. The data indicate that families with intellectually disabled members do need services, but they could not get the required services. In an attempt to meet the needs and protect the rights of persons with intellectual disabilities who in majority have not gained access to the services and to simultaneously meet the goals and targets of the Sustainable Development (SDGs) 10.2: empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status, the initiative of developing a social-service model that can reach those who really need the services becomes absolutely necessary. The family and community-based social-service model for persons with intellectual disabilities is an alternative solution that is relevant not only because the model can serve them, but it can also reach their families and community members unlimited by the carrying capacity of the institution, office-hours and service time.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The initiatives of outreach services are systematic efforts of providing non-institutional-based services for persons with intellectual disabilities in the community who lack access to those services in order to reduce inequality in service provision. The aim of these services is to empower persons with disabilities in order to gain independence and encourage the realization of an inclusive social environment that is friendly and caring towards the people with disabilities. The outreach services are implemented through Family-Based Social Rehabilitation (FBSR) and Community-Based Social Rehabilitation namely “Kampung Peduli” (lit. Caring Village).

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The strategies conducted by BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung in developing a model of outreach services include: a. Family Empowerment. Family empowerment is implemented by developing a model of Family-Based Social Rehabilitation (FBSR). FBSR is social rehabilitation implemented in the family environment by involving volunteers or participants as community cadres. The cadres are trained to guide, train, and accompany family members of the persons with intellectual disabilities. Subsequently, the mentors’ function of training and accompanying parents/family members will take the roles of educator, supervisor, and instructor for their family members or children with intellectual disabilities. A community cadre routinely visits the families to provide guidance and training to parents/families on how to train their intellectually disabled family members to take care of themselves and perform certain work skills. The mentoring process for daily activity skills and economically productive skills for persons with disabilities is further carried out by the parents. BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung provides facility in the forms of training materials, skill materials, and “economic stimulants”. At least, once a month, the social workers from BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung monitored and supervised the cadres as well as provided family guidance or counselling for parents and family members. b. Community Empowerment. Community empowerment is implemented in villages with a large number of persons with intellectual disabilities (more than 10 people) and when is perceived as a social problem. The strategy implemented is by developing a model of community-based service called “Kampung Peduli” (lit. Caring Village). This model aims to realize a self-supporting community that can help develop the ability of the persons with intellectual disabilities in doing activity of daily life and practicing some work skills by taking the most advantage of the local potentials and local wisdoms. Youths, potential cadres, village administrative apparaturs, and prominent figures from the community are involved in the social rehabilitation activities. They are trained, facilitated, and guided in order to be able to be a supervisor, instructor, mentor, and facilitator for the disabled people and to implement social rehabilitation in their own community independently. To provide a medium for community participation and to organize the activities, a Self-Help Group (SHG) is formed and named according to the community’s aspirations. The SHG is established as a centre for social rehabilitation activities for persons with intellectual disabilities, with the main activities including mentoring of daily activity skills and productive skills (such as making doormats, sweepers, souvenirs, batik, and placemats). The beneficiaries come based on the schedule to join the mentoring and get trained to make marketable products. After the SHG can function independently, the next to be developed is a centre for economically productive activities that functions as a sheltered workshop. At the centre, the intellectually disabled people produce economically valuable goods facilitated and mentored by the executive committee of the respective SHG. The majority of the income generated from the selling of the goods is given to the intellectually disabled people and a part of it is used for the operating funds of the SHG. As a result, the intellectually disabled people will gain the opportunities to work and earn income. BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung also provides the forms of material and equipment provision. Once a particular SHG is able to carry out its activities independently, it is terminated. The period of SHG mentoring is one to two years. c. Building Cooperation with the Stakeholders. In order to support the sustainability of both the family-based and community based services, it is necessary to build cooperation involving various stakeholders, such as the government, private institutions and the community.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The creative, unique, and innovative aspects of the Outreach Services include: a.Participatory Service Approach. This innovation employs the participatory approach. The activities are carried out in, by, and involving the active participation of the community through the community’s Self-Help Group (SHG) as the medium. The active participation is manifested in roles that are not limited to being the service beneficiaries, but also the active roles of endeavouring, assessing, and maintaining the achievements. b.Empowerment-oriented services. In the service, the community and family members learn about problem-solving and how to empower their members with intellectual disabilities. The family and volunteers are given specific information regarding the problems encountered by persons with intellectually disabilities. They are also mentored and trained on how to empower the persons with intellectually disability in order to be independent. c.Efficiency. FBSR and “Kampung Peduli” programs are able to provide inclusive services for more persons with intellectual disabilities, with a lower cost of service per individual and more actual results. d.More Benefits. FBSR and “Kampung Peduli” programs are not only targeted at persons with intellectual disabilities, but also can be integrated with the services for people with other disabilities or social problems.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
The initiative of family- and community-based outreach services was developed by BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung as an alternative for effective services to help persons with intellectual disablilities in their community. The basis for this initiative is the gap between the population of persons with intellectual disabilities and the capacity of social service organisations, resulting in a large number of persons with intellectually disabilities having no access to the necessary services. The outreach services initiative is implemented through the FBSR and “Kampung Peduli”, a community-based social rehabilitation program. In the implementation of FBSR, community cadres/volunteers from the community individually mentor families in providing guidance to their intellectually disabled members. Meanwhile, in “Kampung Peduli” program, the services are provided through Self-Help Groups (SHGs) formed and managed by the community as a medium for participation and organisation of service activities. Compared to the conventional or institution-based services, the beneficiaries of FBSR and “Kampung Peduli” are much greater in number. In the institution-based can only serve up to 150 people in three to four years, but through the outreach services, more than 500 persons with intellectual disabilities can be served each year. The initiative of outreach services implemented together with the family, volunteers, community cadres/mentors, and Self-Help Groups (SHGs) is an effective alternative service to solve the gap in service provision, in which as shown by the recent data, only 3.85% of the whole persons with disabilities in Indonesia can be served through institution-based services.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
The action plans developed to implement the outreach services programs are as follows: a.Milestones: 1)2010: Designing and testing the model of FBSR services with a total of 40 beneficiaries in Temanggung Regency. 2)2011: Implementing the FBSR with a total of 60 beneficiaries in two other regencies. 3)2012: Implementing FBSR with a number of 160 beneficiaries in 5 regency, and designing and testing the model of “Kampung Peduli” and serving 104 persons with intellectual disabilities. 4)2013 - 2016: Implementing and expanding FBSR and “Kampung Peduli” to include 13 regencies with total of 1.330 beneficiaries. b.Stages of Implementation: 1)Social mapping for identification of persons with disabilities as well as the potentials in the community. When there are fewer than 10 persons with disabilities in a village, the FBSR model will be applied, and if the population of the persons with intellectual disabilities more than 10 people, or is perceived to be a social problem by the community, the “Kampung Peduli” model will be applied. 2)If a village only requires the FBSR services, BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung prepares the community cadres by recruiting and training them to be supervisor, instructor, and mentor of the parents. A mentors’ duty is to train and accompany parents so that they can take the roles of supervisors and instructors for the beneficiaries. 3)BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung provides facilities in the forms of guidance materials for daily activities, equipment for skill development, and several “economic stimulants” or capital to develop business in the family. 4)If a village requires a model of “Kampung Peduli” service, Self-Help Groups (SHGs) will be formed in the village as the medium for community’s participation and organisation of social rehabilitation activities for the beneficiaries. The processes of identification, assessment, and formation of SHGs are carried out by involving the community through focus group discussion. 5)After the SHGs is established, its executive committee, mentors, volunteers, and community activists are trained in order to acquire the abilities as supervisors, instructors, and mentors for the persons with intellectual disabilities. 6)In the initial stage of the activity, BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung provides facilities and routine mentoring. Once the SHG activities have run properly, productive economic centres are formed as a medium for skill training and to provide working opportunities for the beneficiaries. c.The resources: Human Resources 1)Volunteers, youths, and community activists who have been trained with technical skills will train and guide the persons with disabilities under the medium of SHGs 2)Social workers and supervisors of BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung. 3)Instructors who are assigned to give training to the mentors in an attempt of implementing economically productive activities in the community. 4)Village apparatus and community’s prominent figures. Financial resources 1)The initial capital as a “stimulant” for the community is provided by BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung with a fund of IDR 4,000,000 (±US$ 300) per beneficiary annually and was allocated for training and facilitating mentor cadres, guidance for parents, provision of materials, provision of training equipment, and business capital. 2)In the location of “Kampung Peduli”, each village allocates its village fund for around IDR 6,000,000 to 12,000,000 (±US$ 450 – 900) annually. 3)Local government. 4)Business units through their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 5)Community’s voluntary participation to support the activities. 6)Revenues from the selling of the products in the centre for productively economic activities as the source to support the continuity of the daily activities and operations. Infrastructure: 1)Offices building of local villages. 2)Vocational shelter/Workshop independently built through the initiatives of the community and the village administrative government. 3)Community’s residences.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
The stakeholders involved in the implementation of the outreach services of FBSR (Family-Based Social Rehabilitation) and “Kampung Peduli” (lit. Caring Village, a community-based social rehabilitation) programs are: a.The Ministry of Social Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia as the main / parent institution that formulates the policies, regulations, and standardizations related to the implementation and development of social service programs. b.BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung as the initiator, motivator, and facilitator that organizes the activities, including planning, implementation, and controlling of the service programs and administration. c.Self-Help Groups (SHGs) that simultaneously play the role as a medium of community participation, the centre for the persons with disabilities, as well as the actor that provide the program or services. d.Community cadres or mentor or community’s social workers who play the role of service providers in the field. e.Local government institutions / social departments at regency level that take the role of facilitators and responsibility of follow-up program services. f.The apparatus of the village government and the prominent figures of the community as the supporters and motivators. g.Business units or private institution that distribute their CSR to support the selling and marketing of goods.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The concrete output of the outreach services: a.The number of persons with intellectual disabilities successfully served increased significantly each year compared to before the outreach service programs were implemented: 1)Before the outreach service program: 150 people in 3 to 4 years. 2)After the outreach services: 2010: 280 people/year 2011: 305 people/year 2012: 445 people/year 2013: 445 people/year 2014: 477 people/year 2015: 599 people/year 2016: 674 people/year b.The number of families given guidance, training, and mentoring increased significantly each year after the outreach services: 1)Before the outreach services: 150 families in 3 to 4 years. After the outreach services: 2010: 280 families; 2011: 305 families; 2012: 445 families; 2013: 445 families; 2014: 477 families; 2015: 599 families; 2016: 674 families c.The number of community members (mentor cadres, community’s prominent figures, youths) given guidance and training of social rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities increased significantly after the outreach services: 1)Before the outreach services: 0 (none). 2)After the outreach services: 2010: 8 people; 2011: 12 people; 2012: 61 people; 2013: 32 people; 2014: 40 people; 2015: 100 people; 2016: 111 people. d.The number of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) formed and developed to implement and organize community-based social rehabilitation activities and as sheltered workshops for persons with disabilities in business/employment after the outreach services: 7 (seven) institutions.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
Obstacles: a.Data on the population of persons with disabilities (by name, by address) in a region are often inaccurate because of the lack of understanding of the community about the criteria and characteristics of people with disabilities. This inaccuracy becomes an obstacle in determining the priority location for program implementation. b.To implement the activities in the villages with a population of people with disabilities, it will be effective if there is a building functioning as the centre of activities. However, provision of building requires a large amount of fund. c.The executive committee of SHGs and mentors are volunteers and the majority of them have to work; thus, they have limited time to be involved in the activities intensively. d.The marketing of products made by the persons with disabilities is relatively difficult due to tight competition. Solutions: a.Conducting social mapping by directly going to the location or visiting each of the houses. b.Making approaches to the village government and figures/leaders in the community to be able to use/take advantage of the village office, centre for the RW/RT (neighbourhood ward/a subdivision of a neighbourhood ward), or other buildings and to encourage community’s participation to construct a building independently. c.Flexible hours or time of the service activities, adjusted to the time availability of the executive committee, community cadres/mentors, and community members. d.Building cooperation with business or private units in selling and marketing the goods.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
FBSR and “Kampung Peduli” programs have positive impacts for the independence of the beneficiaries as the vulnerable groups, families, and community members. The concrete descriptions of the positive impacts of the programs as follows: a.Significant increase in the number of intellectually disabled people who get served from year to year, from 150 people/3-4 years before the outreach services to 280 people/year in 2010; 305 people/year in 2011; 445 people/year in 2012; 445 people/year in 2013; 477 people/year in 2014; and 599 people/year in 2015, and to 674 in 2016. b.Before the programs, many beneficiaries were unproductive; the majority of them did not spend their time for useful activities; and they were not sent to special schools. After the programs implementation, the majority of them could do daily living activities to take care of themselves and do productive activities such as sheep farming and earn income from their business. c.77.11% of the business conducted by the beneficiaries could develop and raise incomes and 41% of the beneficiaries who participated in the workshop had their own savings. d.After the programs, parents/families become able to guide the beneficiaries independently, and empowerment activities for them have grown and developed the area of program implementation. The community members driven by the committee of the SHGs have now been able to independently implement guidance for daily living activities and skills/vocational training. e.Community stigma for the persons with intellectual disabilities as people who have no potentials (idiotic) is increasingly eliminated after seeing the proof that with intensive training the beneficiaries can do productive activities/work. f.Forming and developing sheltered workshop for the beneficiaries that managed by the community by producing marketable goods and crafts: 1)Krebet Village, Ponorogo Regency, has established a centre for doormat production managed by “Rumah Kasih Sayang” SHG with 100 beneficiaries. 2)Karangpatihan Village, Ponorogo Regency has formed a centre for doormat and splash batik production managed by “Rumah Harapan Karangpatihan Bangkit” SHG with 98 beneficiaries. 3)Simbatan Village, Magetan Regency, has established a centre for doormat, splash batik, managed by “Sambung Roso” SHG with 33 beneficiaries. 4)Gowong Village, Purworejo Regency, has founded a centre for doormat, splash batik, and split stone making managed by “Harapan Sejahtera” SHG with 28 beneficiaries 5)Ponjong Village, Gunungkidul Regency, has formed a centre for doormat and splash batik managed by “Peduli Kasih” SHG with 52 beneficiaries. 6)Reksosari Village, Semarang Regency, has established a centre for doormat, crafts, salt egg, worm cultivation, and splash batik production managed by “Reksadarmabakti” SHG with 40 beneficiaries. 7)Rembes Village, Semarang Regency, has formed a centre for doormat, bamboo crafts, and splash batik productions managed by “Sinar Kasih” SHG with 28 beneficiaries. e.In terms of public services, the service administration has been more effective and efficient. The community members who previously had difficulties in accessing the services, can now get served for their needs. f.The involvement of the stakeholders to jointly protect and fulfil the rights of the people with disabilities.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
The outreach services involving families and community members can increase integrity and accountability in public service. This claim is based on the following facts: a.The services are implemented by actively involving the families, mentors, and community members not only as beneficiaries, but also as those who endeavour, evaluate, and maintain the achievements. The decision making for determining the needs and formulating activity plans and action plans is done transparently, in line with community’s aspiration through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) or consensus. b.Community members are given the opportunities to access various information needed, including to give complaints or critiques through complaint service, social media, email, and website. c.The impacts of the increased integrity and accountability are measured based on: 1)The opportunities given to the community members to participate in the decision making. The communities (families, mentors, and community members) participate in Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and are given the freedom to ask and provide information as feedback for services through the media of communication, such as centre for complaints, social media, email, discussion forum, and website. 2)The transparency of budget management. Community members know about the services provided by BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung, including the fund/budget allocation and the related service activities. 3)Community satisfaction survey. The survey showed that community members were satisfied with the services provided by BBRSBG Kartini Temanggung, as proven by the Community Satisfaction Index that is under the category of “very satisfactory” (with a score of 86.22 out of the interval of 25 -100). 4)The survey results show the highest level of community’s satisfaction was for the management of complaints, meaning that community aspiration is accepted and appreciated.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The family and community-based outreach services are oriented towards the empowerment of vulnerable groups, including women with disabilities in an attempt to solve poverty. The advantages are the proof that the outreach services are oriented towards the empowerment of vulnerable groups, including women with disabilities: a.There is no discrimination between men and women in receiving services: 1)The beneficiaries are not discriminated against their gender, but it is their potentials that become the basis for determining the types of services to be provided. Both women and men with intellectual disabilities get the same guidance and rights. 2)The beneficiaries receive aids or “economic stimulants” for their economically productive business with the same amount and according to their respective needs. b.The services are oriented towards socially and economically vulnerable groups. Both women and men with disabilities are facilitated in the economically productive centre that functions as a sheltered workshop to produce and market the goods. The majority of persons with intellectual disabilities who participate in the sheltered workshop have earned their own income to meet their needs, and 41% of them have already had their own savings.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Ministry of Social Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia
Institution Type:   Ministry  
Contact Person:   Romal Sinaga
Title:   Chief of Organization Subdivision, General Directo  
Telephone/ Fax:   +62213103591 ext.2632 / +622131900132
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   romalsinaga@gmail.com  
Address:   Jalan Salemba Raya No. 28 Jakarta Pusat
Postal Code:   10430
City:   Central Jakarta
State/Province:   Jakarta Special Region

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