PTT Regorestration
PTT Public Company Limited

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
According to Thailand’s forest statistic of Royal Forest Department (RFD) in 1996, the national forest cover area in 1993 was 83.47 million rai, (33 million acres) or 26.03% of total land area. Furthermore, the previous 10-year study indicated the forest area partly decrease due to forest encroachment for illegal logging, land clearance for living and monoculture as a result of increasing population. Then the government was declared logging ban in 1989. The decreasing of forest area affect to people livelihood particularly basic need as four requisites namely clothing, food, lodging and medicine. Moreover, it bring more natural disasters such as drought, storm and flood through affects economy, society and security of the nation. Nowadays, the national forest cover continuously decrease and expand into every region. Consequently, Thai people has encountered global warming which gives rise to climate change of the world.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The PTT Public Company Limited (PTT) is the state enterprise responsible for national energy security. The PTT consider about natural and environmental resources restoration with an emphasis on forest. Therefore, had established a division fully dedicated to this particular intention. Phase I : from 1994-2012, PTT adopted the concept of “Plant a forest in the people’s heart, men survive and forest thrives” then implemented PTT’s Reforestation Project and participated Reforestation Campaign in Commemoration of the Royal Golden Jubilee project of RAMA 9. This project, we plate tree for one year and spent two more years for maintenance before handing over the reforested area to the RFD. In order to ensure the survival of plated trees to become abundant forest, we investigated the root cause of problem and further carried out 10 supplementary projects to support success goal of sustainable forest resources management. Phase II : 2013-2024, PTT founded “PTT Reforestation Institute” (PTT-RFI) with a mission to extent knowledge of reforestation from phase I and create green area through restore ecosystem and combat global warming. We have specified solutions to the three main areas: 1. Reforest and improve ecosystem. Increase green area and ecosystem restoration from degraded forest in every region of nation which expected to provide direct and indirect benefits for society. 2. Create a mechanism to look after the forest in the long term. Reforestation is a difficult task, but maintenance for survival of the forest is even more challenging. It is thus necessary to build public awareness among the communities around planting area to make them love and strengthen their bond with forest. Considered vital and parallel activities, supplementary projects under the concept of “Plant a forest in the people’s heart, men survive and forest thrives” are undertaken to ensure the forest survival in the long run. PTT’s reforestation is not just planting trees, but more important we focus on “creating people”. 3. Generate core knowledge and expertise then establish network and transfer it into action. The core knowledge that we have gained from the implementing experience and research then disseminate to public via various channels. We have built learning centers in both cities and other provinces as we hope to spread the knowledge and ignite awareness of the vitality of forest resource among wider public in order to allow other organizations and general public to get involved in the task of restoring the country’s forest.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The PTT where we strive to prosper along with nurturing communities, society and environment as mission of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and always think about how to Create Social Value (CSV) for communities. In aspect of forest resources development, the PTT-RFI is an organization in charge and specifies three key missions on the resource as follows: (1) Reforestation on degraded forest by both of planting new trees and revival degraded forest to abundant forest or normal forest. The selecting planting area process is prime importance, the priority is placed on potential areas that can improve ecosystem, benefit for local communities, and monitoring ability. Aside from following an academical forestry practice, PTT emphasizes participation from the government and community. The government takes on a role of facilitating an access to the area, setting up the forum to inform the communities around the planting area before undertake and report the progress. The local people provide labor and indigenous forest knowledge so that we can design the plan that suits each particular area. (2) Ensuring survival of sustainable forest. The emphasis is still on the participation specified above. In addition, we introduce the concept of realization of the importance of natural resources, desire to protect and wise utilization to create sustainability between people and forest resources arising. This can be materialized by a long-term project of forest maintenance and a process of evaluation for continuous improvement. These two missions initiate a participation process right from the outset. Villagers in the area can gain extra income from being hired as planting tree as direct benefit but in the future whenever planting area become to abundant forest, they will gain more benefit from this forest area such as food, water, air, medicine, fiber, etc., then their income gap is narrower not to mention, moreover, it able to reduce activities that damage the natural resources. (3) Ensuring tangible benefit for the people and society. Apart from returning fertilizer to the forest, the life quality of community around the forest area has also been improved. One can witness biodiversity in the ecosystem, additional income from wild products, eco-tourism attractions, enhanced well-being and a process of coexistence between people and forest under the concept of “Plant a forest in the people’s heart, men survive and forest thrives”. The above three missions have been further translated into project strategies which can be modified to suit the context and culture of each planting area and gain adoption from every party.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
Due to our dedication to ensure planting forest to survive and maintain it to be permanent forest, various initiatives creative and innovation has been generated. Phase I : During 1994-2012, we have created the model which support and addresses factors of sustainable forest of PTT reforested area. These include 10 projects: 1. Wildfire Prevention Volunteer Project: to train villagers around reforested area about forest resources conservation and methods of surveillance and control of wildfire, an important threat to the forest. 2. PTT Youth to Conserve the Forest Project: to install forest awareness in the youth who are future generation. 3. Training for Forest Protection Volunteers Project: the training course of awareness and tending forest for villagers around the reforested area to be network for look after the forests as the landowner. 4. PTT Developing Village Project: to develop quality of life e.g. supplemental jobs, provide technology and infrastructure, etc., to mitigate poverty and forest encroachment so that they can be self-reliant. 5. Long-term Forest Conservation Fund: to support revolving fund for loan of supplemental jobs and use of its interests for forest maintenance. 6. Research of Sustainable Forest Management Project: to study and analysis of patterns, methods, and techniques of sustainable forest management. 7. Green Heart Project: PTT encourage official staff to reforest activities in order “Plant a forest in their heart, men survive and forest thrives”. 8. Green Globe Institute: giving awards for encourage community and general people who have distinguished environmental work. 9. Produce Luang Phor Koon (Coin of Venerable Father Khoon) “Koo Rak Pa” (I, conserve the forest): we hope that the coin will remind the majority of Thais who are Buddhist to lend a hand in protecting the forest. 10. Public relations campaign: to increase awareness, disseminate core knowledge and campaign on significance of forest. Phase II : During 2013-2024, PTT has built four learning centers from the gained core knowledge, experience and expertise: - Sarinart Rajini Ecosystem Learning Center, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province; - Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Herbal Garden, Rayong Province; - The Metro-Forest Project, Prawet, Bangkok; - Wangchan Forest Project, Wangchan District, Rayong Province

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
After PTT begin reforestation project by promoting the Reforestation Campaign in Commemoration of the Royal Golden Jubilee project of RAMA 9 to PTT-RFI. The PTT-RFI having clear work structure and personnel responsible in charge, then they coordinated with the government agencies in central and local site surrounding replanting area in order to design an operation plan that is well suited to each area. PTT has implementing followed the designed plan in order to achieve specified objectives. Nowadays, PTT : - Has reforested area of 1,157,831 rai (185,252.96 hectares) countrywide, covered 56 provinces. - Has trained 51,985 people or 12,996 families (approximately). - Reforested area has sequestrated carbon dioxide 30.28 million tCO2e or mean annual increment of 1.89 million tCO2e per year. - And has released total oxygen back into atmosphere 24.22 million tO2 or 1.50 million tO2 per year. - People around the reforested area obtained benefit of wild products from entire reforested area e.g. mushroom, vegetables, herbs, fuel wood, etc., which value of 266 million Baht per year or 8.06 million US$ per year (over a 20 year-period).
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
PTT has laid out “PTT Green Roadmap” specifying the green organization strategies which cover three areas, one of which is environmental awareness building. This has been underscored throughout the past 20 years ago since the beginning point of Reforestation Campaign in Commemoration of the Royal Golden Jubilee project of RAMA 9 in 1994 up until the establishment of PTT-RFI. The journey from past to nowadays has reflects a major milestone of PTT on the way of natural resources conservation. At present, PTT-RFI has 35 employees working in four divisions: 1. Planning and Evaluation division, responsible function of define strategies, directions as well as evaluate the implementing process; 2. Academic division, responsible function of collection and analysis of core knowledge, conduct research, execution and disseminate information to public; 3. Plantation and network development division of region I, responsible function for plantation, maintenance and network development in Central, Southern, Eastern and Western regions; 4. Plantation and network development division of Region II, is responsible for plantation, maintenance and network development in Northern and Northeastern regions. The implementing reforestation stage of PTT-RFI as: 1. Survey and selecting reforest area - This is a critical process of determining target area. The step employs valid criteria in order to choose suitable areas that are approved by surrounding communities. 2. Community forum and mapping survey The public community forum is held to explain project rational and objectives through obtain opinions from the community. Upon approval, a mapping survey could conduct in detail. The area which is unable to be planted will be excluded. 3. Planting crew recruitment - PTT aims to engage participation of communities in every step and considers hiring inside local people as first priority. 4. Planting and maintenance - Plant native tree species that suite original ecosystem or site quality. - Planting trees for one year and maintaining it for at least another two years before handing over to responsible organization. 5. Control and approval reforested area - Undertake by the committee which consisting representative from PTT-RFI, community, and government who has authorities work in controlling and inspecting the work in each step. A key performance indicator for survival rate is at least 80%. 6. Planting evaluation - The team of both PTT-RFI and external evaluator has assess in each area based on academic forestry. 7. Planted sites handover - After the completion of reforestation and maintenance as scheduled, the area will be returned to responsible organization to look after so as to ensure permanent sustainable forest. Note: Other supplementary projects are carried out all along with major activities depending on rationale and needs of each area. Budget for implementation For the past 22 years, the PTT has allocated budget over 4,931 million Baht or about 149.42 million US$ for planting, maintenance and other supplementary projects. It has become the largest state enterprise and private sector in Thailand that invests on a largest scale of reforestation project in term of budget, implementation period, reforested area, and supplementary projects.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
By holding the community forums where the concerns are voiced and heard, the PTT-RFI can thus be sure that we have always shared the common needs with the landowner and local communities around the reforested area in tackling the problem. Several stakeholders include: - State agency: is the agency which spells out a policy, facilitates in providing target area, sharing knowledge of reforestation. Those are Royal Forest Department (RFD), Department of National park Wildlife and Plants (DNP) and Department of Marine and Coastal Resources (DMCR). - Local administrative organizations: are a cooperative network for the implementation on each area and an agency which supports target reforested area in the community and public area. These include Sub-district Administrative Organizations (SAO), Sub-district Head, and Head of the Village, etc. - People surrounding the reforested area: are key man of reforestation, protection of reforested area in adjacent to living compound of communities. - Schools around reforested area: is a network which organizes training courses of PTT Youth to Conserve the Forest. - Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs): are the agency rendering support in promoting quality of life and strength of the community. These include Population and Community Development Association (PDA), Thailand Environment Institute (TEI) and Wildlife and Plant Protection Foundation of Thailand (WWF), etc. - Educational institutes: are partnership who support academic information, conduct research and monitoring and evaluation e.g. Kasetsart University, Chulalongkorn University, Mahidol University, and Mae Jo University, etc. - Royal Thai Army: supports the trainings courses of for Forest and Fire Protection Volunteers. - Mass media: disseminating knowledge and public relation of information and create true understanding.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The outputs of PTT-RFI’s performance is in line of several issues in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of United Nation as follows: - SDGs No.1: No poverty, the reforested area provides four basic needs of human namely clothing, food, lodging and medicine; - SDGs No.3: Good health and well-being, due to abundant forest can provide and improve good environment and air; - SDGs No.13: Addressing global warming and climate action; - SDGs No.15: Sustainable forest management, end and revive soil degradation and loss of biodiversity. 1. An increasing forest area of 1,157,831 rai (185,252.96 hectares) (from 1994-2014), it was sequestrated carbon dioxide 30.28 million tCO2 or 1.89 million tCO2 per year and release total oxygen 24.22 million tO2 or 1.50 million tO2 per year back into the atmosphere, that enough for offset GHG emission and oxygen need for 0.47 and 4.89 million persons per year respectively (Source: Forestry Research Center, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University, 2014) 2. The recovering biodiversity and ecosystem e.g. area of watershed, forest cover area and biodiversity of plants and wildlife. 3. Better livelihood of the community around the reforested area as; - The communities can utilize wild products such as mushroom, vegetables, herbs, fuel wood, etc., which value of 266 million Baht per year or 8.06 million US$ per year (over a 20 year-period), (Source: Forestry Research Center, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University, 2014). - The villagers around reforested area have additional income from farming due to abundant water supply from watershed forest area all year round and a decrease of unemployment after harvesting season.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
1. The area for reforestation is limited as most of the reforested area in the first phase was degraded area in the reserved forest area. When the government expropriated the land for the purpose of reforestation and offered to the PTT-RFI for forest restoration, conflict arose. The community withheld their cooperation or later claimed the land back. This hindered the success and survival of the reforested area. The solutions are: - Select non-controversial sites with the community and exclude those overlapping with living and agricultural areas of the communities. - Organize a community forum as a stage to clarify and acknowledge their opinion in order to create mutual understanding and enable the PTT-RFI to further assess the success of implementation. - Explore new target areas that are not in the governmental area e.g. the land of the private sector, privately-owned land or land for public community use. 2. Climate change problem arising from global warming affects reforestation program as it needs to be done according to the season e.g. planting must begin in early rainy season. If the season delays or there is a long absence of rain, the survival of seedling may be in jeopardy or all of them will die. The solutions are: - Monitor the weather forecast and inquire the people in the area about current changes of season; - Set up replanting schedule for maintenance every year. 3. Human-caused wildfires e.g. burning grass, setting fire for the purpose of hunting animals and accelerating the growth of certain valuable vegetables (Pak Wan Pa or Melientha suavis Pierre) as well as bullying. The solutions are: - Building firebreak and removing weeds that can cause fuel wood of wildfire; - Hiring villages to be patrol for put out fires; - Training Wildfire Prevention Volunteers. - Training for Forest Protection Volunteers to provide awareness for communities around reforested areas to have love and care for the forest resources.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The project results to support better life quality of the people: 1. Reduce household expense due to a return of food source, medicinal herb, and more extra income from wild products e.g. mushroom, bamboo shoot, vegetables, herbs, etc., worth 266 million Baht per year or 8.06 million US$ per year (1994-2014); 2. Clean air from the release of 24.22 million tO2, that enough to support normal population 4.89 million persons to breathe each year; 3. New water supply for household use and consumption and agricultural activities; 4. Mitigate impact of natural disaster e.g. flood, soil erosion on the coast and top soil loss; 5. Nature learning centers and tourist attractions. The enormous benefits from the project have become “nature capital” and “social capital”, which both directly and indirectly contribute to the country, people and biodiversity.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
While our role as a state enterprise responsible for national energy security is widely recognized, we realize the significance of being socially responsible. This is because in undertaking the business, the natural resources have been utilized and green house gas (GHG), which unavoidably affects the nature and environment, is released during some parts of the process. As we endeavor to benefit not only Thailand but the world community, “creating and restore the forest resource” is, in our vision, the best option as it can help offset the use of natural resource and GHG emission and also create balance, improve quality of life, water, food, and medicine supply sources. In particular, it can help mitigate “global warming”, an ongoing severe dilemma and a cause of climate change which has adversely affected lives and property of every nation. To declare transparency of PTT-RFI and ensure that the budget is well spent for the best interest of the community, the following measures and mechanism have been put in place: 1. Clarify criteria of planting site selection. To develop academically proven criteria, we partner with various organizations such as RFD, DNP, DMCR, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University, and others. As for the selection process, a selection panel is set up for transparency and integrity. 2. “Reference cost rate” designated by the government agency is used for reforestation and maintenance to ensure that the budget is appropriately spent – not over the real market price. 3. Assessment for correct and complete implementation and maintenance of the forest in each step has been collaboratively performed by PTT, local authorities in the area, and representatives around the forest areas, etc., for check and balance. In addition, as PTT is a state agency, the budget and operations need to be strictly compliant to the state audit system encompassing both internal and external audit. 4. Emphasis is placed on the community regarded as contract partner of PTT or planting crew. As a result, the income is distributed to the community. Presently, we have developed a working method together with the community in the form of community committee to manage the budget of reforestation and maintenance from PTT which allows participation of the community and self-audit among the community members. 5. Once the planting and maintenance is completed, the committee of local authority in the area is set up to inspect and accept the planted sites. 6. A respectable third party from Forest Research Center, Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University is appointed to evaluate the success of the project every three year.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The reforestation of PTT-RFI is the project about forest and environment resources thus has not employed specific measures. We strive to provide direct and indirect benefit for everyone around the reforested areas including women, children, low-income and less fortunate people as; - Promote job for local workforce to plant and take care of the forest by offering opportunities to men, women, less fortunate and low-income people to take part in the reforestation project. This scheme can both build the love and awareness for forest area next to their home and also render income for them. - PTT Youth to Conserve the Forest, one of the Reforestation programs aims to promote love of trees, wild animals and forest among children. Children from various schools around the reforested areas join the tree planting and maintenance activities. - To allow city residents to experience natural forest and study at Forest Learning Centers, PTT has set up The Metro-Forest Project, the learning center of ecosystem and Bangkok forest revival.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   PTT Public Company Limited
Institution Type:   Other  
Contact Person:   Romchat Rattanaoudom
Title:   PTT Reforestation Institute learned from the first  
Telephone/ Fax:  
Institution's / Project's Website:  
Address:   555 Vibhavadee Rangsit
Postal Code:   10900
City:   Chatuchak
State/Province:   Bangkok

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