Government Integrated Data Center(GIDC)
National Computing and Informatin Service

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
The Korean Government had laid the foundation for implementing the world class e-Government in 2000s through major 11 e-Government projects such as MINWON24(Online Civil Service), KONEPS(e-Procurement System) and HOMETAX(e-Tax Administration Service) services. However, inefficiency of managing national information resources came to the fore as most of e-Government systems were scattered in 48 administrative institutes when the Government Data Centers were established. ① Redundant investment of Government Funds There were a series of problems occurred as most of resources were individually acquired and managed. For instance, government-wide use of information resources was challenging and overlapping investment and rising operation/maintenance costs led to inefficient management of government IT budgets. There were redundant investment of national informatization budget and gaps in system utilization capability among institutes indeed. According to an investigation made upon network systems usage status of government institutes conducted in December 2004, 18.1% of whole resources were overloaded and about 19% were underactive. At the same time, management costs and incident occurrence frequency had been increasing as ratio of medium and small sized servers were predominantly high. (large : 3%, medium : 20.6%, small : 20.6%) ② Insufficient Information Security Management System There were only few agencies where information security management systems were set in motion. Back then, the implementation rate of intrusion detection and blocking system was only 65% and the rate of dualized network device was nothing but 31%. 49% of central ministries experienced more than one incident per month. And, among them, 43% underwent over 30 minutes of incidents every month, which demonstrated, they were ill-prepared for prompt management. Tremendous inconvenience and economic loss could had been made if a system failure would have occurred due to external attacks such as 9/11 attacks or natural disasters. ③ Lack of Professionals by field Most of IT staff of individual ministry carried on simple system operation and administrative support. There were a shortage of skilled IT talents, H/W quality management team and professional training for the staff. Therefore, it was hard to expect IT staff to perform systematic and professional tasks such as competent procurement plan designing or skillful project management ④ Underdeveloped Basic Computation Facilities Most basic computational facilities of ministries were underdeveloped in vulnerable environment. Quite a number of institutions were operating computer rooms of less than 100m². Chances of incident occurrence were high as most of information resources were implemented and operated in the general buildings that fall with below the standard. In addition, operational efficiency such as the number of servers managed per person was ten times lower than advanced companies in the private sector. ⑤ Sluggish SME IT industry Placing large informatization projects by each ministry to expedite e-Government development could be a catalyst to boost the SME IT industry. However, it was not successfully linked with SME’s H/W or S/W industry as most resources such as server, storage and networks were acquired from big player’s brands. * SME : Small and Medium Enterprises

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
① The government established an Integrated Data Center, NCIS which comprehensively manages information resources of central government agencies to resolve redundant investment of government and inefficient security management problems. NCIS is the pan governmental integrated data center which extensively controls all the individually managed government IT resources. ② NCIS provides 24/7 safe and seamless e-Government services to the people by implementing comprehensive IT resource management program and security management system over various cyber threats such as hacking and DDoS . ③ NCIS, as a green data center, realizes less carbon green growth through integrating and efficiently managing government information resources and introducing cloud computing technology.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
① Government Budget Saving NCIS has contributed to saving national informatization budget and improving for operational efficiency by comprehensively managing all the information resources used to be operated respectively by individual ministry. A total of USD376million of national informatization budget had been economized between 2008 and 2016 and a number of achievements such as increased efficiency of energy and operation have been made. The government has made more efforts to save the government budget and improve service for citizen by introducing cloud computing technologies. ② Implementing watertight information security management system NCIS has implemented a comprehensive security management system. The Comprehensive e-Government Command and Control Center was launched to monitor and response to those threats and attacks 24/7 and over 100,000 cases of cyber attack attempts are blocked in real time. NCIS has put its best efforts to prevent important national information resources from illegally being exploited such as expanding thr number of information protection rule-sets from 7,000(2006) to over 19,000 (2015) and security experts from 10 to 77 (2015). ③ Secure the stability of Information Resources To systematically manage individually operated government information resources, NCIS got to set up a standardized operation process based on ITIL, one of the international standards in IT service quality management. Also, NCIS’ operational expertise has been constantly enhanced in close collaboration with competent private professionals to provide seamless, quality government services which could directly affect the people’s lives and national security. The monthly average system outage time per device had dropped by 87% from 18.9 seconds (2007) to 2.4 seconds (2014) and incident monitoring rates had increased to 100% from 59.6%. ④ Advancing basic facilities and introducing Green IT NCIS dualized all the power supplies and applied special grade earthquake-proof construction in its building structure. It has applied 1st grade intelligent construction and superior standard certificates particularly to the information communications facilities. The buildings and basic facilities were designed based on Tier-4 grade by TIA-942 Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers, an international data center standard recommended by US Communications Committee. In order to realize Green IT, NCIS has introduced cold external air to cool down computational machine at winter seasons. It also has turned the center into a more economic and eco-friendly by introducing 1) terrestrial system using geothermal temperature, 2) hot water system using solar heat, 3) indirect lighting system using sunlight and 4) rainwater and heavy water recycling system and so forth. With constant efforts put to make a Green IT environment, NCIS reduced 28.5% of its greenhouse gas emission per objective in 2016. ⑤ Vitalizing SME IT industry When the centers were established, the effect of population influx into the area reached up to 3,000 by creating 400 jobs and the size of local IT service market had expanded from USD 5million to USD 20million. One of the NCIS’ supporting strategies for SMEs was to give bonus points to those consortium that include local companies in their application when they enter into a bidding. At the same time, it had generated more employment by launching an internship program for local IT majors by signing MOUs with universities, research institute and other academia near the center. NCIS has expanded participating opportunities for SMEs to NCIS projects by placing a separate order for S/W projects every year to boost the IT industry. The ratio of SMEs’ participation had grown from 26.7% in 2010, 44.5% in 2011 and up to 100% by 2014.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
NCIS is the world's first public sector IDC. Government Data Center is an innovative solution of Korean government to resolve problems such as inefficient practice of information resources and underdeveloped computing environment. Most governments, in general cases, have had private professionals to take care of the system or transferred their system to a private data center. However, NCIS chose to efficiently manage the resources on their own. Launching NCIS has significant implication as it is an IT industry boost up activity which was not initiated from private part but from public. The project execution process was innovative as well. Building a Government Data Center was an original idea which grew out from sectionalism widespread across government institutes. In early 2000, Korean government was mainly focused on developing e-Government services however, there were not many discussion or idea sharing among ministries. In this circumstances, an idea of constructing a government data center which extensively integrating and operating all the government systems came out, most ministries strongly resisted. However, T/F for the data center construction project had been launched and issues were mediated through regular discussion sessions. Therefore, GIDC project was the outcome of innovative conception which broke down partitions across ministries.

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
①(Project Executor) GIDC project was mainly executed by Ministry of Interior. Ministry of ICT and Ministry of Interior along with T/F of presidential committee were working together as executors in planning stage. Affiliated institutes in the field of IT and private companies added their hands as well. About 180 domestic IT companies and ‘GIDC Project Promotion Team’ composed with public officials from each ministry and groups of professionals were gathered together in implementation practice. ②(Service Demand) Safe and stable government service provision to people has been made possible as the stability of e-Government service has been secured through consolidation and operation of integrated government information resources. At the same time, equal exercise of services regardless of the class of people has become available through mobile e-Government service which can be practiced anywhere and anytime. NCIS is constantly adopting and leading cutting edge IT technologies such as cloud computing, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence in its data center operation. It has contributed to vitalizing the domestic IT market through these activities. On top of that, it has improved unfair practices between main contractors and subcontractors and made best efforts to encourage more SMEs to participate in a number of government projects such as placing separate orders for S/W projects to nurture their capability. NCIS has lessened down work loads of public officials of each ministry by stably managing government information resources and provided ‘Remote Business Support Service’ for them as well. With the system, they can safely and conveniently carry out the work by accessing internet anywhere and any time. This function provides flexible working environment for government officers, at the same time, secures business continuity.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
①(Planning Stage) The Ministry of Planning and Budget, the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of ICT took the initiative to proceed a BPR which aimed to investigate as-is status of IT-based work processing and its major issues of 508 administrative agencies for 4 months between June and October 2002. Based on the result, ‘31 e-Government Roadmap Projects’ including ‘GIDC construction’ was confirmed in August 2003. ISP for GIDC building project was executed in July 2004. The document was reported to the President in August 2004 and finally settled in September 2004 after ratified in the National Assembly Meeting. Securing the budget process went relatively smooth as the Ministry of Planning and Budget was jointly participated in the project from the planning stage and proactive communications among ministries were ensured through the Presidential Committee T/F directly. According to the TCO (Total Cost Ownership) / ROI (Return On Investment) analysis conducted by a private professional institute, about USD 432million management profits had been made as the total costs (costs for construction, system implementation, migration, operation and maintenance) invested until 2014 was about USD 2.5 billion while accumulated profits (security, disaster prevention, cost savings and stable operation) made until the end of 2014 was USD 2.9 billion. ②(Implementation Stage) Government officials of about 40 ministries proactively participated in the GIDC planning and implementation stage. Experts from academia, research institutes and corporates supported the decision-making process and project execution both officially and unofficially throughout the entire stages from planning, designing, implementation to operation. ③(Migration Stage) In March 2005, actual inspection upon information resources had been conducted and the master plan for migration was set up based on the investigation result which suggested three-staged transfers. Resource migration was aimed at minimizing inconvenience of users with the strategic movement such as impeccable prior set-up of migrating environment, reducing down the service interruption duration as much as possible, decreasing possible accident occurrence, minimizing migration costs and vitalizing communications among affiliated organizations. All the environment for migration was prepared in advance such as power and N/W installation, communication network configuration and command and control center set-up to avoid delay in the schedule. The transfer execution was mainly conducted on weekends to minimize suspension of the e-Government services. Mock disaster drills and thorough pre inspection definitely benefited e-Government services to be continuously provided with minimal suspension. ④(Operation Stage) In order to systematically manage individually-operated government information resources, NCIS set up a standardized operation process based on ITIL, one of the international standards in IT service quality management. NCIS acquired ISO 20000 certificate in December 2006 over all IT services provided in NCIS Daejeon for the first time in the world. The foundation of comprehensive security management system was laid in 2011. In 2015, the number of information security rule-sets increased to 19,000 from mere 7,000 in 2006 when initially established. The crucial national information assets could be safely kept from serious infringement by retaining security experts to 77 in 2015 while there were only 10 in its initial period. Furthermore, NCIS has endeavored to save more national informatization budget and improve service quality by introducing cloud computing technologies to cut carbon emissions and IT budget from 2010.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
GIDC was initially proposed by ‘e-Government Special Committee’ composed of private professionals to innovate overall e-Government in 2002. The Committee raised the issue that individually implemented e-Government policies barred inter-ministerial liaison which could lead to inefficient administration and inconvenience of public use. They suggested ‘Government Integrated Computation Environment Implementation’ as a solution to that concern. GIDC, designated as one of the ‘31 projects in e-Government Roadmap’ designed a GIDC master plan mainly with the Ministry of the Interior after thoroughly investigating IT based actual work processing practice across the government agencies. First of all, GIDC preparation group consisting of staff from the Ministry of ICT was operated (Nov. 2004~Feb. 2005). After that, ‘GIDC Promotion Group’ headed by private experts and composed of public officials of 9 ministries such as the Ministy of ICT and National Statistics Office and professionals from National Information Society Agency, actually executed the project. Along with this group, ‘GIDC Construction Promotion Committee’ with top-level professionals from research institutes, academia and private companies were established. They held a regular meeting every month, discussed and supported the activities of the group. About 180 domestic IT companies engaged in actual implementation practice such as GIDC design, construction, system implementation and migration and more.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
①(Stability) Despite the increase of over 500% in number of equipments managed in comparison to pre-GIDC period, the average system failure time fell from 67 minutes in the pre-GIDC period to 4.5 minutes in 2013. Since the implementation of GIDC, there has not even been one single instance of power interruption with the complete uninterruptible system built in, seamless service delivery all year around. ②(Savings) The cost saving, achieved by simplifying the procurement process by granting NCIS the purchasing power for all the government IT resources, reached around 30% for equipment purchase and for maintenance respectively. Cost and resource savings from such activities were then invested in other projects such as resolving the digital and security divides. NCIS has introduced cold external air to cool down computational machine at winter seasons to practice a Green Data Center. In 2016, it cut 28.5% of the greenhouse gas emissions from its target. ③(Safety) Real-time monitoring and surveillance system of the building and facilities of GIDC as well as robust access control have reinforced physical security. As for cyber security, non-stop 24/7 integrated monitoring of all networks and equipments, multi-layered defense system and big data-based CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) allow immediate response to various external threats. According to a report by a private institute, the accumulated benefits occurred from such security measures were estimated around USD 810 million by 2014. ④(Synergy) The Korean government supported to boost the domestic IT industry by outsourcing the implementation and operation of GIDC to about 200 private Korean businesses. It has improved unfair practices between main contractors and subcontractors and made best efforts to encourage more SMEs to participate in a number of government projects such as placing separate order for S/W projects to nurture their capability. It also revitalized the regional economy particularly where the two GIDCs are located with more employment and economic benefits. According to an analysis by a private professional institute employing Multi-regional input-output (MRIO), the accumulated benefits contributed to local economies turned out to be over USD890 million until 2014. ⑤(Capability) Operational capability has been specialized as all the government information systems were consolidated in NCIS and professionals per sector-server, network, security - were invited. Any possible information devide between institutes was resolved by managing the system per agency and outcomes per strategic investment over new technologies such as AI and Big Data have had effect on across all the institutes.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
① In the planning stage, resistance toward an idea of integration had become one of the major concerns to be dealt with. Government agencies were afraid that the integration of IT departments into a new organization would lead them to downsizing of the organization and the loss of authority in IT. This issue was overcome by setting up a pan-governmental implementation project committee directly under the President that could coordinate various issues raised by government agencies. Operational & managerial incentives were given to those migrating institutes to encourage their active participation. Thoroughly-designed plans and revised legal regulations could convince various stakeholders. Not only the Ministry of the the Interior and the Ministry of ICT but also the Ministry of Planning and Budget was participating in BPR and ISPs per each project were carefully executed. ② During the implementation phase, the competition to host the site of GIDC by local governments and migrating the resources without service interruption were the main concerns. To resolve the hosting competition, a ‘Site Selection Team’ composed of experts from different fields was setup and this Team made the final selection upon evaluation and onsite visits to candidate sites. Consensus on the GIDC project was built through several public hearings and seminars on the issues for the stakeholders. A total of 42 times of system migration in total. The services to be transferred were classified as “seamless” and “normal” according to the degree of influence. Normal-migration-to-be services were temporarily stopped over evening time of weekends, promptly transferred and resumed. Seamless-migration-to-be services were those crucial government administrative works supposed to be operated 24/7. Therefore, identical work process environment needed to be set up in GIDC prior to the action, and immediate relocation was carried out afterwards. All services were resumed from the newly transferred surroundings right after.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
①(Improved medium of public service delivery) NCIS made it possible for stable e-Government service operation by integrating all the government information resources. Through this achievement, the people could get to enjoy seamless e-Government services. Also, government knowledge and business can be delivered nationwide prompt and safely by implementing a single national information communications network which connect all the government institutes including central administrative agencies, local government and public institutes. In addition, equal provision of e-Government services has become actualized by supporting mobile government service development activities of government agencies with mobile government common platform system. Now people can experience more stable, convenient and flexible e-Government services. ②(Services for the vulnerables) Comprehensive practice of government administrative information has been possible through integration of information resources. Government can prepare Big Data based policies with that as well. They have developed useful and relevant services for the people through Big Data analysis. For instance, they supported policy provision process for the vulnerables through the analysis such as ‘Emergency turn out’ or ‘Job creation and self-sufficiency support for the potentially vulnerable class’ and more. ③(Expanded participation of SMEs) NCIS has expanded participating opportunities for SMEs in NCIS projects by placing separate order for S/W projects every year to boost the domestic IT industry. The ratio of SMEs’ participation had grown from 26.7% in 2010, 44.5% in 2011 and up to 100% by 2014. One of the NCIS’ supporting strategies for them was to give bonus points to those consortium which include local companies in their application when entering into a bidding. ④(Vitalized local economy) When the second center was established, influx effect of population for corresponding area reached up to 3,000 by creating 400 jobs and the size of local IT service market had expanded from USD 5million to USD 20million. At the same time, it had generated more employment by launching an internship program for local IT majors by signing MOUs with universities, research institute and other academia located near the center. According to an analysis result drawn by a private professional institute using Multi-regional input-output (MRIO), a total of USD 891million worth effect was contributed to local economy : USD 488million for NCIS Daejeon, USD 402million for NCIS Gwangju ⑤(Increased customer satisfaction) NCIS has conducted customer satisfaction survey through a professional agency every year since 2007 to diagnose the level of satisfaction of clients and to extract some points to be improved upon the provided services. The survey consisted of 20 questions in 5 fields : customer reception, operation capability, system operation, service desk and communications and sharing. In the first year, the score marked only 66.8. However, all the efforts that NCIS had put to analyze and improve the unsatisfied areas had been rewarded with the score 87.6 in the year of 2015. Consequently, NCIS has got to be able to provide stable, safe and quality service to people through the crucial total platform of Korean e-Government, NCIS.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
①(Integrity) Transparency of contracts of all projects related to information resource operation and maintenance of NCIS is guaranteed as they are processed through an electronic procurement system with open competitive bidding. There are major 9 projects from security infrastructure management to cyber threat analysis. Companies are participating in GIDC projects through open competition bidding and entering into contracts in 1 or 2 years of terms. NCIS has endeavored to cultivate a sound IT eco system by improving unfair practices between major contractors and subcontractors and placing separate orders on S/W projects. ②(Accountability) With an aim to provide quality service to clients, NCIS has implemented a service level management system. Service Level Agreement (SLA) indicates end-result management activities in service level by measuring the level of services provided with information resources to clients quantitatively, evaluating the outcome of services and improving insufficient parts. NCIS has reinforced the accountability upon all services provided by them through contracting separate SLA not only between NCIS and clients but also between NCIS and private partners who are actually conducting the projects. Between 2008 and 2014, NCIS has saved USD 236million of national informatization budget through information resource consolidation and cloud computing adoption which could be construed as the product of faithful efforts constantly made by NCIS with accountability. Besides, NCIS has realized a Green Data Center by introducing Free Cooling system which utilizes cold external air to cool down computational machine at winter seasons, exercising indirect lighting system with sunlight generation and operating rainwater and heavy water recycling system. As a result, the protection accountability as a global citizen has been reinforced by reducing 28.5% of greenhouse gas emissions its target.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
NCIS has developed mobile government service platforms for the people to exercise the services whenever and wherever they want. All the administrative agencies can use Mobile Government Common Platform Systems when they develop their own mobile services. In order to improve the quality of mobile government services in pan-governmental level, service management guidebooks and service development guidelines were published. In 2012, Mobile Government Support Center was launched to better support the organizations’ development practice. Currently, NCIS provides a number of technical supports in the areas of service registration·verification·distribution, operating administrative purpose App store and developing mobile government service through Mobile Government Common Platform System. Through the platform, the government encourages agencies to develop more mobile government services so that any citizens can equally access to government services regardless of the accessibility the time and space constraints.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   National Computing and Informatin Service
Institution Type:   Ministry  
Contact Person:   Hyeji Kim
Title:   Assistant Director  
Telephone/ Fax:   +82-42-250-5272
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   jikim0626@korea.kr  
Address:   755, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu
Postal Code:   34102
City:   Daejeon
State/Province:   Daejeon
Country:  

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