| 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The Open Data Portal and the Open Data Policy has been creative and innovative for a number of reasons, including to:
● Have instituted in the Federal Executive Branch the Data Policy opened by means of a legal regulation: Decree 8.777 of May 11, 2016;
● Have disseminated knowledge in all the states of the country's federation about the importance of providing open data from public institutions. This dissemination was mainly done through the realization of face-to-face workshops on the subject, reaching 341 people from 67 organizations, and distance learning, reaching 659 people;
● Have made available a central data platform with possibility of integration and automatic updating with other data portals;
● Encouraged the holding of application competitions and hackathons;
● Eliminate existing communication barriers between government and society at large, making governance more transparent and transparent;
| 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
According to Decree No. 8.777 / 2016, the Open Data Policy management of the Federal Executive Branch is coordinated by the MP, through INDA. This body has offered great support to the organs and entities in the dissemination of this policy through workshops and technical meetings in person, in addition to a distance learning course.
In relation to the population affected by the portal, the number of users has grown significantly in recent years. In 2016 the volume of accesses was higher by 67% (from 734,241 to 1,161,478 sessions compared to the previous year. As regards the year of making the portal available to society, that is to say in 2012, this figure was already higher in More than eight times, in addition the quantity of datasets also advanced with the integration and with the determination of Decree No. 8.777 / 2016.
As this policy has been implemented by more than 200 agencies and entities of the Federal Government spread throughout the country, the impacted population tends to be the size of the continental dimension of the country. As an example, the pilot course of the distance-learning course for the preparation of open data promoted by the National School of Public Administration (Enap) in partnership with the MPG had graduating students from all the Brazilian federation units.
According to Decree 8.777 / 2016, the Open Data Policy of the Federal Executive Branch is coordinated by the Ministry of Planning, Development and Management, through INDA. The Secretariat of the Ministry of Planning, which has a specific team for this topic, has offered great support to the bodies and entities in the dissemination of this policy through workshops and technical meetings in person, as well as online courses.
This policy has been implemented by agencies and entities of the Federal Government spread throughout the country, the impact on the population tends to match the population size of Brazil. As an example, the pilot group of the online course for the creation of open data plan promoted by the National School of Public Administration (Enap) in partnership with the MPDG had graduated in all the federation units in Brazil.
| 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
In 2012, the data development project portal data.gov.br took the concept of social participation to the extreme. From the outset, the planning and development meetings were open to any interested citizen, previously announced on open discussion lists on the Internet and some of them (where possible) had live video streaming. All the meetings had participative methodologies and the use of collaboration tools.
The activities planning meetings coordinated by the MP were as follows: development tasks were selected by an agile, Scrum-based development process and time management based on the Pomodoro technique. Those present recorded in small notes the ideas of what they thought necessary to do. At the end of the round, the tickets were grouped, categorized and prioritized. At the end of each meeting, the events logged on a publicly accessible wiki.
The development and improvement of the portal was attended by representatives of civil society and civil servants engaged - key resources mobilized.The moment of greatest mobilization around this work was during the realization of the public call for proposal and choice of the portal logo. In a few days, a total of 26 logo proposals were submitted involving approximately 200 voters who scored via online environment the logos and proofs of concept proposed.
The launch of a national portal with open data from the federal government in 2012 inspired several other similar initiatives in other spheres, such as: Alagoas, Curitiba-PR, Fortaleza-CE, Novo Hamburgo-RS, Pernambuco, Porto Alegre-RS, Recife -PE, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo; And other powers of public administration in Brazil, such as: House of Representatives, Minas Gerais (Legislative Assembly), São Paulo-SP (City Hall), Federal Senate, and the State of Paraíba Court of Accounts, among others. It was one of the first central data catalogs implemented in the country.
In 2014, there was the first integration of the Open Data Infrastructure (INDA) with the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (INDE), making the central portal gain more available datasets, including geospatial data. In addition, the MP made available the Open Data Planning Manual, which helped the agencies to build their PDAs.
As early as January 2016, the MP signed several work plans with various federal public administration bodies, which had as goals the formalization of the planning of data access through the PDAs and the provision of about 75% of the data sets included in the Respective PDAs.
In February 2016, the Ministry of Justice and Citizenship (MJC), in partnership with the MP, issued an invitation to tender for applications to encourage the reuse of databases, specifically the System of Agreements (SICONV) .
In March of that year, a series of workshops and technical meetings were held in person by the MP in order to train the organs and entities on the policy of open data, especially in the elaboration and execution of PDAs. To date, more than 500 people and 120 Organs were trained.
In May, Presidential Decree No. 8.777 was published, which instituted the Open Data Policy in the Federal Executive Branch, covering the organs and entities of the federal public administration, autarchic and foundational.
In December 2016, the official launch of the new dados.gov.br and the publication of the 3rd Plan of Action of the OGP took place.
Lastly, it is worth mentioning that in the first semester of 2017 two more classes of the distance course are being programmed to elaborate open data plans on the Enap website (enapvirtual.enap.gov.br). The expectation is that more than 1000 people will be able to disseminate the culture of planning and execution of open data policy in the organ and cities where they work.
| 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
All citizens have the possibility to suggest and request data from the organs of public administration through the ombudsmen and the Electronic System of the Citizen Information Service (E-SIC). In addition, some of the agencies / entities that published PDAs have made public consultations about their content. The open data theme is also recurrent in the OGP action plans.
Another form of society's participation in this policy is through application competitions or hackathons:
● 1st Hackathon MJC and W3C (2012): carried out on the databases of complaints made to PROCONS (Consumers Defense Agencies) in Brazil. One of the winning teams produced the "Procon Complaints" application, in which the user can search a company and check information;
● 2nd Hackathon MJC and W3C (2013): based on Management Information provided by the Federal Highway Police Department, which could be cross-checked with other. Records of traffic occurrences, with detailed information on each accident occurred since 2007.
● Hackathon of the Education Agency INEP in partnership with the Lemann Foundation (2013): The "School we want" application (escolaquequeremos.org) allows the comparison between schools.
● Hackathon Embrapa, in the city of Campinas-SP (2016): The objective was to develop proposals for mobile applications, aiming at the diagnosis of diseases in agricultural crops from images Digital products;
● Application competition promoted by the MJC (2016/2017), which generated the application "As Diferentonas/The Differents", by which the citizen can track funds that are destined to his locality, allowing to compare the voluntary transfers of the government destined to cities with similar characteristics.
| 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The availability of the portal, the creation of a Open Data Plan (PDA) and manual for PDA preparation and the cataloging manual, is a robust Open Data Kit to support the organs, as well as the training of All over Brazil by means of meetings, workshops and the offer of the distance course to elaborate open data plans, made in partnership with Enap, resulting in more than 1000 people trained in the subject of open data;
Open Data Policy implemented in the Central Bank, which already offers more than 400 data sets, mostly with automated means (Application Programming Interface (APIs) for extracting and making this data available). They are data on financial inclusion, public finances, as well as indicators of credit.; In december 2016, more than 14.000 users from all across the world, specially from the American and the European continents have accessed the portal, generating more than 60.000 visualisations.
Dataprev's open data portal has more than 100 data sets available, such as "Repossessions granted for years of service", "Statistics of contributions of individuals by UF" and "Accidents of work per economic activity".
The National Treasury Secretariat's (STN) open data portal has about 80 data sets available, such as "Treasury bill rates," "State and Federal District credit operations," and "Dividends collected By the Union ".
About 38 published PDAS, from agencies such as Tourism, Transparency, Education, Science & Technology, Defense, Federal Universities, The Central Bank (Federal Reserve), Regulation Agencies, Health, Planning and Budget, among others. With this, the organs committed themselves to the expansion of transparency in education, health, financial system, social security, regulation, structuring systems, among others;Here are some of the databases and themes included in the Open Data Plans already published:
- “University for All” Program – ProUni;
- “National Access to Technic Study and Employment” Program – PRONATEC;
- Federal Student Funding
- Microdata from basic and superior education census
Data about domestic violence, sexual violence, among others;
Health Care Unities;
-Mortality - Dengue and AIDS;
- Microcephaly and Zika;
- Quality indicators for fixed broadband;
- Database related to quality indicators for mobile phoning, fixed phoning, and cable TV);
- Brazilian Mineral Annual System;
- Data from Official Statistics;
- Data from Civil Society Organizations;
- Social Security Profiles;
- Working Accidents Report (CAT);
- Medical Evaluations (for benefit conceding purposes);
- National Indicators for Science, Technology and Innovation;
- Data from the Communication Sector.
| 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The main barriers encountered during the implementation process were the following:
Cultural barrier: organs are not accustomed to making their data available, and they still offer a lot of resistance to closing down to the public, not promoting the transparency demanded by contemporary society.
Lack of knowledge and commitment of the organs to the Open Data Policy and difficulty in establishing a focal point;
Limited budget: Many symptoms and legacy systems are not prepared for data extraction and sharing;
Database inventory in initial state or pending classification.
Barriers have been expired and amortized due to strong planning and execution of initiatives promoted mainly by the Open Data team of the Ministry of Planning. To help strengthen the open data supply and the Brazilian Open Data Portal, some incentive, governance, enforcement and standardization actions needed to be implemented.
In summary, these initiatives were divided into technical meetings, face-to-face workshops and the offer of the distance learning PDA course, as well as partnerships with the CGU (monitoring compliance with the goals of Decree 8777/2016), with the TCU Recommendations and rulings) and with the MJC (incentive to the initiative based on the promotion of applications competition).
The meetings and workshops had basically two moments. The first was the alignment of open data concepts, presenting the importance of data openness in Brazil and in the world. In the second moment, dynamics were conducted that aimed at the training of the organs in the elaboration of their respective Open Data Plan.
Another action of the Open Data team, which was extremely important, was the production and launching, in partnership with Enap, of the distance course of preparation of Open Data Plan. The course was responsible for mass training of servers in all Brazilian states, without the need for additional travel, meeting and workshop costs.