Brazilian open data portal
Ministry of Planning, Development and Management

A. Problem Analysis

 1. What was the problem before the implementation of the initiative?
Today, information is consolidated as one of the most valuable assets of the new collaborative society. Governments are generally large producers of data and therefore have a duty to disseminate such data and promote transparency of public information to society. Since the end of the eighteenth century, several countries have been publishing information access laws. In Brazil, the Federal Constitution of 1988 already contemplated the citizen's right to receive public information, but it was in November 2011, that "Brazilian Law on Access to Information" was promulgated. The art. 8º, § 3 of this legislation innovates when determining that the sites of public agencies should make available the recording of reports in various electronic formats, as well as, make possible the automated access by external systems in open, structured and machine readable formats. Aligning with the international trend and with the Open Government Data movement, Brazil created a specialized team in 2010, which would initiate various actions on the subject. In 2011, the United States created, along with Brazil, the Open Government Partnership (OGP) initiative, an international partnership created to spread and stimulate global governance practices related to transparency, access to public information and social participation. In order to enter into this partnership, Brazil assumed commitments such as the publication of the Brazilian Open Data Portal and the creation of the National Open Data Infrastructure (INDA), completed in the first half of 2012. But there was and still is much room for improvement in this area so that we can take advantage of the potential economic and social benefits provided by open data. The Brazilian Portal of Open Data (data.gov.br) was codified in collaboration with society, as civic hackers and companies that cultivated the open source culture, through the use of free tools and, with agile methods in a horizon of nine months . Before the existence of data.gov.br and the Information Access Law (LAI/2011), the process of data availability was slow, there was a concern with updating and could not take advantage of the benefits generated by the reuse of open data. Each institution made its data and information available only on its websites, which made it difficult for the citizen to locate the information desired, access to data in primary formats, and reuse and development of civic applications and new public services. The launch of data.gov.br, a concrete delivery, allowed the availability of data gathering several agencies, also paved the way for building the basis for Open Data Policy, seeking to consolidate a culture of collaboration and exchange between society and government Which generates value for the ecosystem as a whole. Based on concrete experiences on the use and publication of databases made available in the data.gov.br, which lacked the metadata or a model of support and updating with the organs, it was noticed the need for further normative regulation, which culminated in Decree No. 8.777 / 2016, which established the Open Data Policy of the Federal Public Administration.

B. Strategic Approach

 2. What was the solution?
The solution was the development and maintenance of the Brazilian Open Data Portal and the dissemination of the Open Data Policy, with the main legal framework being the Normative Instruction No. 4 of April 12, 2012, which instituted INDA (the members of this infrastructure and its management committee, the need to draw up a plan of action wich Determined the implementation of the physical and logical structures of INDA and the Brazilian Open Data Portal) and the Presidential Decree No. 8.777, dated May 16, 2016 (instituted the policy of open data within the scope of the Federal Executive Branch defining principles and guidelines, dealt with the free use of databases, governance and how society could request to open databases). The purpose of this portal is to promote the interlocution between society and government to think about the best use of data for a more democratic society, as well as being the central point for the search, access and use of data Open government and the applications developed with them. It values ​​the simplicity and digital accessibility in the presentation of its contents and the organization of the content and so that the citizen can easily find the data and information he needs and have a pleasant browsing experience, in other words, the Brazilian Open Data Portal is a central catalog of metadata that directs the user to the data they need.

 3. How did the initiative solve the problem and improve people’s lives?
The Brazilian Open Data Portal promoted proactive transparency in federal public administration, facilitating the access and search of the data of its organs and entities through centralization in the same place (central portal). In addition, the new version of the portal, which was made available to society on the last International Day against Corruption, implemented new functionalities, with emphasis on integration with other open data portals, that is, data from other organs and entities that have Your own portal or host the data on your institutional site. This integration is automatic and performed daily. This fact solved the problem of the decentralization of open data and doubled the amount of data made available by the government. In March 2017 these data sets totaled 1,738, among data sets and resources. It is also worth mentioning that the standardization of metadata has meant that agencies and entities promote the opening of data in a more organized and easily understood way for society in general. Metadata is data about the data, that is, it is information about the data. That way, before accessing the data, the user will be able to see information describing that data. The open data culture in Brazil has developed civic applications of great social value that allow, for example, to follow the polls of the parliament, the execution of the public budget, the management of federal agreements between states and municipalities, the location of public transportation, among others Which has gradually improved the life of society and strengthened our democracy. These applications are developed in hacking marathons, application contests, and proactive initiatives stimulated at various levels of government. Some of these are already cataloged in the Portal data.gov.br. The Decree mentioned previously, also defined, that all the agencies publish Open Data Plans (PDA), which has been structuring the public data planning process. Another important point is the promotion of transparency throughout the process of planning and executing the open data policy. The PDA details the main actions that should be implemented to meet goals related to the opening of datasets and the promotion of the ecosystem. It is worth mentioning that in PDAs are exposed the action plans of each body. They define the respective schedules, in which the agencies set the deadlines for the databases in their domains to be opened, as well as those responsible for the databases. To date, some 40 organs have published their plans and the Ministry of Planning (MP) has disseminated these in various media so that society can monitor and use government data. The list of plans is available on the INDA Wiki at the address PDAs published until March / 2017 are available to the society on the INDA wiki at the following site: http://wiki.dados.gov.br/ The data already made available by the organs and entities of the public administration in the singular portals of open data and in the central portal are totally public, and can be accessed and accompanied by any citizen. If there is a problem in the link of the availability of the databases, anyone can inform and charge the responsible of the respective databases, in addition to the possibility of requesting data sets not yet available. In this way, the citizen can monitor actions of government agencies, such as spending on contracts and public works.

C. Execution and Implementation

 4. In which ways is the initiative creative and innovative?
The Open Data Portal and the Open Data Policy has been creative and innovative for a number of reasons, including to: ● Have instituted in the Federal Executive Branch the Data Policy opened by means of a legal regulation: Decree 8.777 of May 11, 2016; ● Have disseminated knowledge in all the states of the country's federation about the importance of providing open data from public institutions. This dissemination was mainly done through the realization of face-to-face workshops on the subject, reaching 341 people from 67 organizations, and distance learning, reaching 659 people; ● Have made available a central data platform with possibility of integration and automatic updating with other data portals; ● Encouraged the holding of application competitions and hackathons; ● Eliminate existing communication barriers between government and society at large, making governance more transparent and transparent;

 5. Who implemented the initiative and what is the size of the population affected by this initiative?
According to Decree No. 8.777 / 2016, the Open Data Policy management of the Federal Executive Branch is coordinated by the MP, through INDA. This body has offered great support to the organs and entities in the dissemination of this policy through workshops and technical meetings in person, in addition to a distance learning course. In relation to the population affected by the portal, the number of users has grown significantly in recent years. In 2016 the volume of accesses was higher by 67% (from 734,241 to 1,161,478 sessions compared to the previous year. As regards the year of making the portal available to society, that is to say in 2012, this figure was already higher in More than eight times, in addition the quantity of datasets also advanced with the integration and with the determination of Decree No. 8.777 / 2016. As this policy has been implemented by more than 200 agencies and entities of the Federal Government spread throughout the country, the impacted population tends to be the size of the continental dimension of the country. As an example, the pilot course of the distance-learning course for the preparation of open data promoted by the National School of Public Administration (Enap) in partnership with the MPG had graduating students from all the Brazilian federation units. According to Decree 8.777 / 2016, the Open Data Policy of the Federal Executive Branch is coordinated by the Ministry of Planning, Development and Management, through INDA. The Secretariat of the Ministry of Planning, which has a specific team for this topic, has offered great support to the bodies and entities in the dissemination of this policy through workshops and technical meetings in person, as well as online courses. This policy has been implemented by agencies and entities of the Federal Government spread throughout the country, the impact on the population tends to match the population size of Brazil. As an example, the pilot group of the online course for the creation of open data plan promoted by the National School of Public Administration (Enap) in partnership with the MPDG had graduated in all the federation units in Brazil.
 6. How was the strategy implemented and what resources were mobilized?
In 2012, the data development project portal data.gov.br took the concept of social participation to the extreme. From the outset, the planning and development meetings were open to any interested citizen, previously announced on open discussion lists on the Internet and some of them (where possible) had live video streaming. All the meetings had participative methodologies and the use of collaboration tools. The activities planning meetings coordinated by the MP were as follows: development tasks were selected by an agile, Scrum-based development process and time management based on the Pomodoro technique. Those present recorded in small notes the ideas of what they thought necessary to do. At the end of the round, the tickets were grouped, categorized and prioritized. At the end of each meeting, the events logged on a publicly accessible wiki. The development and improvement of the portal was attended by representatives of civil society and civil servants engaged - key resources mobilized.The moment of greatest mobilization around this work was during the realization of the public call for proposal and choice of the portal logo. In a few days, a total of 26 logo proposals were submitted involving approximately 200 voters who scored via online environment the logos and proofs of concept proposed. The launch of a national portal with open data from the federal government in 2012 inspired several other similar initiatives in other spheres, such as: Alagoas, Curitiba-PR, Fortaleza-CE, Novo Hamburgo-RS, Pernambuco, Porto Alegre-RS, Recife -PE, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo; And other powers of public administration in Brazil, such as: House of Representatives, Minas Gerais (Legislative Assembly), São Paulo-SP (City Hall), Federal Senate, and the State of Paraíba Court of Accounts, among others. It was one of the first central data catalogs implemented in the country. In 2014, there was the first integration of the Open Data Infrastructure (INDA) with the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (INDE), making the central portal gain more available datasets, including geospatial data. In addition, the MP made available the Open Data Planning Manual, which helped the agencies to build their PDAs. As early as January 2016, the MP signed several work plans with various federal public administration bodies, which had as goals the formalization of the planning of data access through the PDAs and the provision of about 75% of the data sets included in the Respective PDAs. In February 2016, the Ministry of Justice and Citizenship (MJC), in partnership with the MP, issued an invitation to tender for applications to encourage the reuse of databases, specifically the System of Agreements (SICONV) . In March of that year, a series of workshops and technical meetings were held in person by the MP in order to train the organs and entities on the policy of open data, especially in the elaboration and execution of PDAs. To date, more than 500 people and 120 Organs were trained. In May, Presidential Decree No. 8.777 was published, which instituted the Open Data Policy in the Federal Executive Branch, covering the organs and entities of the federal public administration, autarchic and foundational. In December 2016, the official launch of the new dados.gov.br and the publication of the 3rd Plan of Action of the OGP took place. Lastly, it is worth mentioning that in the first semester of 2017 two more classes of the distance course are being programmed to elaborate open data plans on the Enap website (enapvirtual.enap.gov.br). The expectation is that more than 1000 people will be able to disseminate the culture of planning and execution of open data policy in the organ and cities where they work.

 7. Who were the stakeholders involved in the design of the initiative and in its implementation?
All citizens have the possibility to suggest and request data from the organs of public administration through the ombudsmen and the Electronic System of the Citizen Information Service (E-SIC). In addition, some of the agencies / entities that published PDAs have made public consultations about their content. The open data theme is also recurrent in the OGP action plans. Another form of society's participation in this policy is through application competitions or hackathons: ● 1st Hackathon MJC and W3C (2012): carried out on the databases of complaints made to PROCONS (Consumers Defense Agencies) in Brazil. One of the winning teams produced the "Procon Complaints" application, in which the user can search a company and check information; ● 2nd Hackathon MJC and W3C (2013): based on Management Information provided by the Federal Highway Police Department, which could be cross-checked with other. Records of traffic occurrences, with detailed information on each accident occurred since 2007. ● Hackathon of the Education Agency INEP in partnership with the Lemann Foundation (2013): The "School we want" application (escolaquequeremos.org) allows the comparison between schools. ● Hackathon Embrapa, in the city of Campinas-SP (2016): The objective was to develop proposals for mobile applications, aiming at the diagnosis of diseases in agricultural crops from images Digital products; ● Application competition promoted by the MJC (2016/2017), which generated the application "As Diferentonas/The Differents", by which the citizen can track funds that are destined to his locality, allowing to compare the voluntary transfers of the government destined to cities with similar characteristics.

 8. What were the most successful outputs and why was the initiative effective?
The availability of the portal, the creation of a Open Data Plan (PDA) and manual for PDA preparation and the cataloging manual, is a robust Open Data Kit to support the organs, as well as the training of All over Brazil by means of meetings, workshops and the offer of the distance course to elaborate open data plans, made in partnership with Enap, resulting in more than 1000 people trained in the subject of open data; Open Data Policy implemented in the Central Bank, which already offers more than 400 data sets, mostly with automated means (Application Programming Interface (APIs) for extracting and making this data available). They are data on financial inclusion, public finances, as well as indicators of credit.; In december 2016, more than 14.000 users from all across the world, specially from the American and the European continents have accessed the portal, generating more than 60.000 visualisations. Dataprev's open data portal has more than 100 data sets available, such as "Repossessions granted for years of service", "Statistics of contributions of individuals by UF" and "Accidents of work per economic activity". The National Treasury Secretariat's (STN) open data portal has about 80 data sets available, such as "Treasury bill rates," "State and Federal District credit operations," and "Dividends collected By the Union ". About 38 published PDAS, from agencies such as Tourism, Transparency, Education, Science & Technology, Defense, Federal Universities, The Central Bank (Federal Reserve), Regulation Agencies, Health, Planning and Budget, among others. With this, the organs committed themselves to the expansion of transparency in education, health, financial system, social security, regulation, structuring systems, among others;Here are some of the databases and themes included in the Open Data Plans already published: - “University for All” Program – ProUni; - “National Access to Technic Study and Employment” Program – PRONATEC; - Federal Student Funding - Microdata from basic and superior education census Data about domestic violence, sexual violence, among others; Health Care Unities; -Mortality - Dengue and AIDS; - Microcephaly and Zika; - Quality indicators for fixed broadband; - Database related to quality indicators for mobile phoning, fixed phoning, and cable TV); - Brazilian Mineral Annual System; - Data from Official Statistics; - Data from Civil Society Organizations; - Social Security Profiles; - Working Accidents Report (CAT); - Medical Evaluations (for benefit conceding purposes); - National Indicators for Science, Technology and Innovation; - Data from the Communication Sector.

 9. What were the main obstacles encountered and how were they overcome?
The main barriers encountered during the implementation process were the following: Cultural barrier: organs are not accustomed to making their data available, and they still offer a lot of resistance to closing down to the public, not promoting the transparency demanded by contemporary society. Lack of knowledge and commitment of the organs to the Open Data Policy and difficulty in establishing a focal point; Limited budget: Many symptoms and legacy systems are not prepared for data extraction and sharing; Database inventory in initial state or pending classification. Barriers have been expired and amortized due to strong planning and execution of initiatives promoted mainly by the Open Data team of the Ministry of Planning. To help strengthen the open data supply and the Brazilian Open Data Portal, some incentive, governance, enforcement and standardization actions needed to be implemented. In summary, these initiatives were divided into technical meetings, face-to-face workshops and the offer of the distance learning PDA course, as well as partnerships with the CGU (monitoring compliance with the goals of Decree 8777/2016), with the TCU Recommendations and rulings) and with the MJC (incentive to the initiative based on the promotion of applications competition). The meetings and workshops had basically two moments. The first was the alignment of open data concepts, presenting the importance of data openness in Brazil and in the world. In the second moment, dynamics were conducted that aimed at the training of the organs in the elaboration of their respective Open Data Plan. Another action of the Open Data team, which was extremely important, was the production and launching, in partnership with Enap, of the distance course of preparation of Open Data Plan. The course was responsible for mass training of servers in all Brazilian states, without the need for additional travel, meeting and workshop costs.

D. Impact and Sustainability

 10. What were the key benefits resulting from this initiative?
The availability of open data from the federal government through the integration of the dados.gov.br with other open data portals of the agencies covered by Decree 8.777 / 2016 directly benefits a more specific public, such as application developers, academics, scientists and data analysts, for having more available data to develop application solutions and work more robustly with the data, generating aggregate and value information; the integration also prevent the agencies from the need to input data in more than one platform and concentrates the data in one place, making it easier for the users to find out what they need. Further development will link the datasets webpages to the offical eletronic centered channels where citzens can either aks for information and databases (e-SIC) and send requests for the federal “ombudsman” (E-OUV). Managers and decision makers of entities that are part of the Direct, Autarchic and Foundation Administration, for having more information to more effectively target their public policies; In addition to national or international private entities, for having more data to create new services or to direct their initiatives based on the information taken from the available data sets The web or mobile applications, (some can be consulted in data.gov.br), and more transparency and accoutability are concrete examples of how the initiative has left the population with more opportunities to be well informed. One example is the 'Procon Complaints', which shows information about complaints made by customers of each company, providing indexes by age, gender and the main types of complaints so that the user can follow the reputation of companies. Another one, called equipamentospublicos.com.br, gather information of public services delivery units. Also, the Federal Court of Accounts made public challenges (hackathons and data analyzes contests) based on public data, encouraging developers and researches to know and use Federal Government Data (http://www.brasildigital.gov.br/brasil-digital/eventos-anteriores/). Those efforts and results where pointed by a recent Internacional Transparency Report (https://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/publication/open_data_and_the_fight_against_corruption_in_brazil), regarding the “National Strategy to Combat Corruption and Money Laundering (Enccla)”. The report highlights as a case study one of the results of Action 2 of Enccla 2016, the "Hackathon fight against corruption" contest, which resulted in the development of the application "As Diferentonas/The Differents." The tool allows the fiscalization, by the citizens, of the transfer of funds and the progress of agreements signed between federal government, states, municipalities and civil society organizations and was based on open government data available at dados.gov.br. One of the most interesting examples of how the use of open data in Brazil is being useful to the population is the serenatadeamor.org (serenatadeamor.org), which consists of an artificial intelligence that monitors the expenses of national congressmen. Thus, it has already been observed, for example, that parliamentarians promote a cost of about 128 million reais to the public coffers only with the quota for the exercise of parliamentary activity (which includes food, air tickets and fuel). Also, Brazil’s position on both International Rankings Open Data Index and Open Data Barometer has been improved over the last two years.

 11. Did the initiative improve integrity and/or accountability in public service? (If applicable)
Transparency actions have been implemented by Brazil for some years. In order to demonstrate this, it is sufficient to mention the opening of data sets related to the direct expenditures of the federal executive branch since 2004, which were provided by the Federal Ministry of Transparency, Inspection and Comptroller General's Office. To social security expenses are also in an open format in data.gov.br, which were provided by the Ministry of Finance. Another important database that was opened and made available in the Portal was the system of agreements (SICONV), which provide data on voluntary transfers, which are financial resources passed on by the Union to the States, Federal District and Municipalities as a result of the signing of agreements, Agreements, adjustments or other similar instruments whose purpose is to carry out works and / or services of common interest and coincide with the three spheres of government. This is a much-used basis in hackathons and social control. It is also worth mentioning that data on the Brazilian federal budget can also be found in the Portal, including budget execution since 2000. In this way, ordinary citizens can monitor how much of the expected revenue was actually collected and how much of the authorized expenditure was actually spent . Other data on health and education are provided, respectively, by the Ministry of Health (MS) and Education (MEC). That data is important so that the population can follow where and how the federal government is working in these areas. A good example is the quality control of basic education data throughout the national territory, where one can verify which States and schools are doing better or worse. A civil society organization (www.qedu.org.br) has developed analyzes of education microdata and their work targets schools to improve students performance. The Qedu initiative has now become a case study for Amazon Web Services (AWS), (https://aws.amazon.com/solutions/case-studies/qedu/). All of the above data have as main objective the effective accountability of the federal public administration, thus making it more transparent and integral, where society can obtain more reliable feedback from the government.

 12. Were special measures put in place to ensure that the initiative benefits women and girls and improves the situation of the poorest and most vulnerable? (If applicable)
The iniciative does not have a specific strategy towards gender equality. Although, the "Hackathon fight against corruption" contest, which resulted in the development of the application "As Diferentonas/The Differents." and organized by the Ministry of Justice, addressed the matter. According to the contest rules, it was mandatory that all teams should have at least one woman.

Contact Information

Institution Name:   Ministry of Planning, Development and Management
Institution Type:   Ministry  
Contact Person:   Elise Sueli Pereira Gonçalves
Title:   Sra  
Telephone/ Fax:   +556120202008
Institution's / Project's Website:  
E-mail:   elise.goncalves@planejamento.gov.br  
Address:   W3 516 Norte ed. Ministério do Planejamento
Postal Code:   70770-524
City:   BRASILIA
State/Province:   DF
Country:  

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